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These were previously called Lightning arresters, which is not the correct name or definition.

Surge arrester is a device which protects the electrical

expensive items from damage; like Transformers or Reactors or other insulators.

Expulsion Type. Gap Type.

Metal oxide Type

These are also called Non linear resistance type arresters. Normally Aluminum oxide is used for Metal oxide because it is cheap and have good characteristics. Due to non linear voltage / current characteristics it offers low resistance path to the flow of high discharge current thus limiting the voltage across the arrester terminals.

It is the maximum permissible voltage which the arrester can withstand, without discharge and without changing its operating characteristics .

The voltage which appears across the terminal of arrester during discharge. The minimum, the better. The following types of residual voltages are of importance.

Switching impulse residual voltage


It is equipment insulation withstand test voltage with a front time larger than 30 s. Lightning impulse residual voltage It is 1.2/50 s wave shape. BS use current wave of form 8/20 s for residual voltage. The above are referred to Arrester Currents.

The Arrester must be selected with a rated voltage high enough to withstand temporary over voltages which may be produced by various occurances. Line to fault current is the most common occurance

There should be sufficient margin between various required impulse and Power frequency withstand voltages and arrester voltage. It is margin in % and expressed as:
(Insulation withstand voltage Residual voltage)

x 100

Residual voltage

It is the capability of arrester to dissipate a given amount of energy without damage.

The ability of arrester to conduct short circuit current without violent disintegration in the event of its failure.

1.

2.

Highest system voltage is the base for Design parameters. It is defined by IEC and other Standards Temporary over voltages in the system are normally determined by single line to ground fault. As such Rated voltage will be different depending on the grounding condition and protection scheme. In case of directly grounded system the voltage of healthy phase may rise 1.4 times phase to earth voltage.

where 1.4 is the Earth factor. 3. In case of ungrounded system Earth factor will be 1.73. Thus the voltage may rise upto 1.73 times the phase to Earth voltage.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Check for the abnormal operating conditions, Um. Determine continuous operating voltage (COV) COV =Um/3 Determine Preliminary rated voltage VR0 based on COV VR0 = COV/K0 where K0 is Design factor

6. 7.

Determine Temporary over voltage at Earth fault TOVE = KE x COV Select Preliminary Rated Voltage RE based on TOVE

Determine Rated voltage, RE = TOVE / KT , where KT is arrester TOV capability expressed as multiple of rated voltage.

The following Tests are made on Arresters Routine Tests 1. Power Frequency voltage spark over test on complete arrester 2. Lightning voltage impulse spark over test on complete arrester
3.

Visual examination Residual voltage Test (if agreed between Client and manufacturer)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Power Frequency Voltage spark over voltage Lightning voltage impulse spark over voltage Switching voltage impulse spark over voltage Spark over voltage/Time curve test Residual voltage test

6. 7.

Operating duty Pressure relief test

System Voltage Nom./Highest KV 11/12 66 /72.5 132/145

Virtual Max.Contin-uous Arrester Rated Steepness of Max. Front of Operating Voltage Front for Front of wave S.O.V voltage. wave KV 12 60 120 KV 10 46 92 KV (Peak) 100 500 930 KV (Peak) 50 250 463

Max. Residual Voltage KV (Peak) 43 216 400

220/245

198

156

1200

746

649

System Voltage Nom./Highest

Steep current (at Lightrning current Switching current Max.Contin-uous Arrester Rated 10 KA) 1/20 s (at 10 KA) 8/20 (at 0.5/1KA) Operating Voltage impulse residual impulse residual 30/60 residual voltage. voltage voltage voltage KV KV KV (Peak) KV (Peak) KV (Peak)

KV

11/12

12

10

40

38

27

66 /72.5

60

46

175

160

130

132/145

120

92

330

295

250

220/245

198

156

545

485

410

Normal System Voltage Max. system Voltage, Vmax =

132

KV

=1.1* Vnom

KV KV KV

145 = Continuous operating voltage, 145/1.732 = 84 C.O.V Earth Factor, KE = T.O.V = 1.4 = KE * COV

Assume a working on 132 KV protected by a Surge arrester 25 Meters from Transformer.

Assume velocity, V = Steepness of Incoming wave = Residual voltage, U1 = Voltage Stress, V2 = = BIL of 132 KV System = Margin=

300 1000 276 =276+2*1000*25/300 443 650 =(650-443)/443*100 =47

m / s KV/s KV KV KV KV