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APPROACHES

AND TECHNIQUES IN THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS

INTRODUCTION
Many

people think that teaching is simple and claim that they can and know how to teach. Teaching mathematics is not just about knowing how to teach alone, rather, it is about knowing how to teach effectively and efficiently to ensure meaningful learning and the desired results!

To what extent do you think you would be responsible for the unsatisfactory grade?

As a competent teacher, you have to be sensitive to such feelings that may be harboured in your students minds.

TEACHING STRATEGIES
Teacher-centred also known as explicit learning. involves the teacher to present learning materials in small and systematic steps consists of teaching in incremental steps The teachers role is to : - present materials, - guide students through initial practice sessions, and - provide students with frequent and high levels of practice.

Student-centred encourages greater student participation in the classroom. The teacher delegates responsibility to the students. superior in developing student abilities in applying concepts developing positive attitudes, fostering motivation, developing personal growth encouraging group social skills.

COMPARISONS BETWEEN STUDENT-CENTRED AND TEACHERCENTRED STRATEGIES Student centred Teacher centred Much student participation Student-to-student interaction Teacher acceptance and use of student ideas Student decides how to proceed with learning task Discussion of personal experiences is encouraged

Much teacher participation Interaction is teacher-tostudent Teacher may criticise, correct, or reject student ideas Teacher makes decisions and decides learning activities Discussion is focused on course content

Tests and grades are not the major product of learning Students share a role and responsibility in evaluation Teacher emphasises attitude changes Students are involved in setting class goals Attempts are made to establish class cohesiveness Teaching techniques: discussion, induction, inquiry

Tests and grades are traditionally used as the major products of learning Teacher is solely responsible for evaluation Emphasis is on intellectual changes Goals are determined by the teacher. No attempts to establish class cohesiveness Teaching techniques: lecture, deductive, student recitation

Resource/Media-based encompasses the use of a wide range of resources such as books, study guides, textbook guide, workbooks, video. computer-based learning packages, CD-ROM, multimedia computer, interactive video discs, materials from the internet, teleconferencing and videoconferencing. Resource based learning is useful : - to cope with the diversity of student needs. - provides students to discover their own interests, - learn at their own pace,

TEACHING AND LEARNING


STRATEGIES CLASSIFICATION

Teacher-centred

Student-centred
METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Project

Media-centred

Methods and Techniques


Explanation

METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Audio -Visual

Demonstration Lecture Group teaching Whole class teaching

Inquiry- discovery Discussion Questioning Problem Solving Simulation Role-play Brainstorming Group work Experiential Learning

Computer Written materials Modules Textbooks, guidebooks

Inductive teacher provides examples which have the same concept rule in common.
teacher

attempts to elicit critical attributes and non-critical attributes, students should begin to understand the common concept found in all of the examples.
The

teacher shows examples and non-examples of the same concept to students. students categorise the examples or nonexamples and come with a generalisation

Deductive

teacher starts with the concept rule, or a general statement provides examples , proof of the concept rule and attempts to elicit essential and non-essential characteristics of the concept More examples and non-examples of the same concept are discussed with the students. Students categorise the examples or non-examples