Sie sind auf Seite 1von 21


By -Mr. Koushik Barman Asst. Professor, SECE

Text Book
Symon Haykin- Communication Systems-4thEdition(John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

Reference Books
Taub and Schilling- Principles of Communication System-2nd Edition (Mc graw Hill) Wayne Tomasi- Electronic Communication System -5th Edition (pearson)

Why Digital Communication?

Immunity to transmission noise and interference. Regeneration of the coded signal along the transmission path is possible. Repeaters can be used. Communication can be kept private and secured through the use of encryption. The possibility of uniform format for different kinds of baseband signals. It is possible to store the signal and process it further Techniques such as data compression and image enhancement can be used.

Analog to digital conversion

Sampling Quantizing Encoding


Block diagram of digital communication System

Source of Information
Source Encoder Source Decoder User of Information

Channel Encoder

Channel Decoder






Analog vs. Digital Modulation

Transmitted modulated signal is analog in nature Amplitude, frequency or phase variations in the transmitted signal represent the information or message Noise immunity is poor for AM but improved for FM and PM Transmitted signal is digital i.e. train of digital pulses. Amplitude, width or position of the transmitted pulses is constant. The message is transmitted in the form of code words Noise immunity is excellent

It is not possible to separate out noise and It is possible to Separate signal from noise. signal. Therefore repeaters can not be So repeaters can be used used
Coding is not possible Coding techniques can be used to detect and correct the errors

Bandwidth requirement is lower than that for the digital modulation

FDM is used for multiplexing

Due to higher bit rates, higher channel bandwidths is needed

TDM is used for multiplexing

Analog modulation systems are AM,FM,PM,PAM,PWM

Digital modulation Systems are PCM,DM,ADM,DPCM, ASK,FSK,PSK etc Lecture1

Pulse modulation
It may be defined as a modulation system in which some parameter of a train of pulse is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. The parameters of the pulses which may be varied are : amplitude, width (or duration) and position. Accordingly we have- PAM,PDM or PWD and PPM


Pulse Amplitude modulation(PAM)






Types of Pulse modulation



Amplitude quantization is defined as the process of transforming the sample amplitude m(nTs ) of a message signal m(t) at time t=nTs into a discrete amplitude v(nTs ) taken from a finite set of possible amplitudes. We assume that the quantization process is memory less and instantaneous, which means that the transformation at tine t= nTs is not affected by earlier or later samples of the message signal

Midtread and Midrise Quantization

Non uniform quantization

law A law

Non uniform quantization

Figure (a) law and (b) A law

Block diagram of PCM

Block diagram of Repeaters


Line coding techniques

Fig. a)Unipolar NRZ b)Polar NRZ c) Unipolar RZ d) Bipolar RZ e) Split phase or Manchester