Sie sind auf Seite 1von 18

Dr. Md.

Mamun Habib
Assistant Professor

Determination of Sample Size

Sample Size, Parameter, Statistics
Sample size is a proper size of sample that can
represent the population.
Parameter: The symbol of population, all
numbers are calculated from population.
Statistics: The symbol of sample, all numbers
are calculated from sample.
Confidence Interval (C.I)
(Significant level/probability level/p-value)
1. C.I 99%, (Error 1%), 0.01 Level
2. C.I 95%, (Error 5%), 0.05 Level
3. C.I 90%, (Error 10%), 0.1 Level
Confidence Interval
(Significant level/probability level/p-value)
Confidence Interval (%) z-value

90 % 1.65
95% 1.96 (mostly used)

95.4% 2.0

99% 2.57
99.7% 3.0




Sample Size
Variance (standard deviation)
Magnitude of error
Confidence level
Techniques to find the Sample Size
1. Formula (Known/Unknown Population)
2. Table (Known Population Internally)
3. Reference from Previous Study (known/Unknown
Population) In Doctoral Level

1.1 Sample Size Formula (Unknown Population)
Z = Z value associated with confidence level
S
2
= variance, S = Standard deviation
n = Sample size
E = Specify level of precision/ Level of Confidence/
Range of error


2
|
.
|

\
|
=
E
zs
n
Sample Size Formula - Example
Suppose a survey researcher, studying
expenditures on lipstick, wishes to have a 95
percent confident level (Z) and a range of error
(E) of less than $2.00. The estimate of the
standard deviation (S) is $29.00.
2
E
zs
n
|
.
|

\
|
=
( )( )
2
00 . 2
00 . 29 96 . 1
(

=
2
00 . 2
84 . 56
(

= ( )
2
42 . 28 =
808 =
Sample Size Formula - Example
95% Confidence (E = 2)
Suppose, in the same example as the one before,
the range of error (E) is acceptable at $4.00,
sample size is reduced.

(E increases, sample size decreases and C.I
increases, sample size increases)
Sample Size Formula - Example
2
E
zs
n
|
.
|

\
|
=
( )( )
2
00 . 4
00 . 29 96 . 1
(

=
2
00 . 4
84 . 56
(

= ( )
2
21 . 14 =
202 =
Sample Size Formula Example
95% Confidence (E = 4)

99% Confidence
Calculating Sample Size
95% Confidence, n = 808 (if E = 2), n = 202 (if E = 4)
| |
1389
=
265 . 37
2
=
2
53 . 74
2
(

(



=
2
) 29 )( 57 . 2 (
n
2
(

(



=
|
347
=
|
6325 . 18
2
=
4
53 . 74
2
(

(



=
4
) 29 )( 57 . 2 (
n
2
(

(



=
(E = 2)
(E = 4)
2
2
E
pq Z
n =
1.2 Sample Size for a Proportion
Proportion Technique (Known Population)

2
2
E
pq z
n
=
Where:
n = Sample Size
z = z value associated with confidence level

z
2
= The square of the confidence interval in standard error units.

p = Estimated proportion of success (Estimate the population
proportion)

q = (1-p) or estimated the proportion of failures

E = Specify level of precision/ Level of Confidence/Range of error

E
2
= The square of the maximum allowance for error between the true
proportion and sample proportion

Problem (for Proportion Technique)
Credit card in departmental store, set 95% of confidence
level, specify level = 0.035, The researcher found that
60% of customer use credit card. Find sample size.
Solution:
p = 60% = 0.6
q = 1- p = 1- 0.6 = 0.4
E = 0.035
z = 1.96 at 95% confidence level
Calculating Sample Size
at the 95% Confidence Level
753
=
001225 .
922 .
=
001225
) 24 )(. 8416 . 3 (
=
) 035 ( .
) 4 )(. 6 (. ) 96 1. (
n
4 . q
6 . p
2
2
=
=
=
2. Table (for Known Population)
Taro Yamane ( Level of Specify, E = 3%, 5%, 7%,
10%) It is best (You must select at least 400
respondents or more). If population size is high, i.e.,
1000, 2000 or more, then Taro Yamane Table is
very popular.

R.V. Krijcie and R.W. Morgan ( E, 5% = 0.05).
They developed the table from formula.
3. Reference from previous study
(for Known / Unknown Population)
At least 3/5 previous study (for Doctoral level)
Such as (A, 1995) mentioned statistical service quality of
five star hotel by using 350 respondents. Also (B, 1999)
studied service quality of Thai Airlines and collected the
data from 380 respondents. Similarly, (C, 2003) applied 400
respondents to be a service quality of health care service of
old aging. Consequently, the researcher used a sample size
of 400.
Greater sample size is better to represents the population.