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Hall Effect

The effect of generating a measurable voltage by using a magnetic field is called the Hall Effect after Edwin Hall (1879)

In its most common application, a Hall effect transducer serves to measure a magnetic field and convert that measurement into voltage

Hall Voltage
Working Principle: If a strip of conducting material carries a current in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, a potential difference is produced between the opposite edges of the conductor. The output Hall voltage is given as:

Hall Effect Transducers

Hall Effect Sensors consist of a thin piece of rectangular p-type semiconductor material such as Ga-As, In As passing a continuous current through itself. When the device is placed within a magnetic field, the magnetic flux lines exert a force on the semiconductor material which deflects the charge carriers, electrons and holes, to either side of the semiconductor slab

Hall Effect Transducers

To ensure maximum sensitivity the magnetic lines of flux must always be perpendicular to the sensing area of the device and must be of the correct polarity To ensure linearity, high field strength magnets are required that produce a large change in field strength for the required movement.

Applications of Hall Effect Transducers

Magnetic to Electrical Transducer Measurement of displacement Measurement of current Measurement of power

Typical Applications
Switched Mode Power Supplies Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) Over voltage protection Feedback of control systems Electric power network monitoring AC frequency conversion servomotors Various power supplies Power supply for welding applications

Ways of Detecting a magnetic field

Head-on Detection: It requires that the magnetic field is perpendicular to the sensing device and that it approaches it straight on towards the active face. This head-on approach generates an output signal, VH which in the linear devices represents the strength of the magnetic field, the magnetic flux density, as a function of distance away from the sensor.

Ways of Detecting a magnetic field

Sideways Detection: This requires moving the magnet across the face of the Hall element in a sideways motion. Sideways or slide-by detection is useful for detecting the presence of a magnetic field as it moves across the face of the Hall element within a fixed air gap distance for example, counting rotational magnets or the speed of rotation.

Digital Transducers

Shaft Encoders Incremental Optical Encoder Absolute Optical Encoder Encoder Error Digital Resolvers Digital Tachometers


What is a Digital Transducer ?

Any transducer that presents information as discrete samples and that does not introduce a quantization error when the reading is represented in the digital form may be classified as a digital transducer


is an encoder ?

Any transducer that generates a coded of a measurement can be termed an encoder

SHAFT ENCODERS They are Digital Transducers


Applications Of Shaft Encoders

1.) Control of robotics manipulators 2.) Machine tools 3.) Digital tape-transport mechanisms 4.) Servo plotters 5.) Printers 6.) Satellite mirror positioning system

Encoder Types
Shaft encoders can be classified into three categories 1. Incremental Encoders 2. Incremental Optical Encoders 3. Absolute Optical Encoders Incremental Encoders 1.Optical (photo sensor) method 2.Sliding contact (Electrical conducting) method 3.Magnetic saturation (Reluctance) method

Optical Encoder

Optical Encoder
The optical encoder uses an opaque disk that has one or more circular tracks, with some arrangement of identical transparent windows. A parallel beam of light is projected to all tracks from one side of the disk The light sensor could be a silicon photodiode, a phototransistor, or a photovoltaic cell. The light from the source is interrupted by the opaque areas of the track, the output signal from the probe is a series of voltage pulses

Incremental Optical Encoders

Incremental Optical Encoder

The disk has a single circular track with identical and equally spaced transparent windows. The area of the opaque region between adjacent windows is equal to the window area. Two photodiode sensors (pick offs 1 and 2) are positioned facing the track a quarter-pitch

Absolute Optical Encoders

Absolute Optical Encoders

The disk has a circular track with identical and equally spaced transparent windows. In absolute optical encoders photo sensors are not used. The output can be binary, gray code, natural binary code.

Encoder Error

Any transducer that generates a coded reading of a measurement is known as Encoder. The primary sources of errors in shaft encoder are: 1) Quantization error 2) Assembly error 3) Coupling error 4) Structural limitations 5) Manufacturing tolerances 6) Ambient effects

Digital Resolvers

Digital resolvers or mutual induction encoders operate using the principle of mutual induction. They are commercially known as Inductosyns A digital resolver has two disks namely stator and rotor which is coupled to the rotating object. The rotor has fine electric conductor foil imprinted which is connected to a high frequency AC supply. The stator has two separate printed patterns identical to the rotor pattern but are shifted by a quarter-pitch from one another

Digital Tachometers
As Shaft encoders are also used for measuring angular velocities, they can be considered as Tachometers. A Magnetic induction tachometer of variable-reluctance type is shown in figure. Teeth on the wheel are made of ferromagnetic material. Two magnetic induction proximity probes are placed facing the teeth radially, a quarter pitch apart. Speed is computed either by counting pulses over a sampling period or by timing the pulse width.