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Chapter 9

Atom
The smallest particle of an element that can enter into a chemical combination

Electrons
Negatively charged subatomic particles

Quantum
A discrete amount

Quantum Mechanics
The branch of physics that replaced the classical-mechanical view (that everything moved according to exact laws of nature) with the concept of probability

Photoelectric effect
The emission of electrons that occurs when certain metals are exposed to light

Photon
A particle of electromagnetic energy

Dual nature of light


Light sometimes behaves as waves and sometimes as particles

Line emission spectrum


A set of bright spectral lines of certain frequencies or wavelengths formed by dispersion of light from a gas discharge tube.

Line absorption spectrum


A set of dark spectral lines of certain frequencies or wavelengths, formed by dispersion of light that has come from an incandescent source and has then passed through a sample of cool gas

Principal quantum number


The numbers n = 1, 2 ,3,used to designate the various principal energy levels that an electron may occupy in an atom

Ground state
The lowest energy level of an atom

Excited states
The energy levels above the ground state in an atom

Fluorescence
The property of a substance, such as the mineral fluorite, of producing visible light while it is being acted upon by ultraviolet light

Phosphorescence
A glow of light that persists after the removal of the source of photons needed for excitation of the materials electrons

X-rays
High-frequency, high-energy, electromagnetic radiation formed when high-speed electrons strike a metallic target

Laser
An acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation It is coherent, monochromatic light

Stimulated emission
Process in which an excited atom is caused to emit a photon

Heisenbergs Uncertainty principle


It is impossible to know simultaneously the exact velocity and position of a particle

Matter (de Broglie) waves


The waves produced by moving particles

Chapter 10

Nucleus
The central core of an atom Composed of protons and neutrons

Protons
Positively charged particles in the nuclei of atoms

Neutrons
Neutral particles found in the nuclei of atoms

Nucleons
A collective term for neutrons and protons (particles in the nucleus)

Atomic number
Symbolized Z, it is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element

Element
A substance in which all the atoms have the same number of protons - the same atomic number

Neutron number
The number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

Mass number
The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in a nucleus The total number of necleons

Isotopes
Forms of atoms of an element that have the same numbers of protons but differ in their numbers of neutrons

Atomic mass
The average mass of an atom of the element in naturally occurring samples

Strong nuclear force


The short-range force of attraction that acts between two nucleons and holds the nucleus together

Radioactive isotope
An isotope that undergoes spontaneous decay

Radioactivity
The spontaneous process of a sample of a radionuclide undergoing a change by the emission of particles or rays

Alpha decay
The disintegration of a nucleus into a nucleus of another element, with the emission of an alpha particle

Beta decay
The disintegration of a nucleus into a nucleus of another element, with the emission of a beta particle

Gamma decay
An event in which a nucleus emits a gamma ray and becomes a less energetic form of the same nucleus

Half-life
The time it takes for half the nuclei in a sample of a given radionuclide to decay

Carbon-14 dating
A procedure used to establish the age of ancient organic remains by measuring the concentration of 14C and comparing it to that of present-day organic remains

Fission
A process in which a large nucleus is split into two intermediate-size nuclei, with the emission of neutrons and the conversion of mass into energy

Chain reaction
Occurs when each fission event causes at least one more fission event

Critical mass
The minimum amount of fissionable material necessary to sustain a chain reaction

Fusion
A process in which a smaller nuclei are fused to form larger ones, with the release of energy

Plasma
A high-temperature gas of electrons and protons or other nuclei

Mass defect
Any decrease in mass during a nuclear reaction

Chapter 11

Chemistry
The division of physical science that studies the composition and structure of matter and the reactions by which substances are changed into other substances

Compound
A substance composed of two or more elements chemically combined in a definite, fixed proportion by mass

Mixture
A type of matter composed of varying proportions of two or more substances that are just physically mixed, not chemically combined

Solution
A mixture that is uniform throughout A homogeneous mixture

Unsaturated solution
A solution in which more solute can be dissolved at the same temperature

Saturated solution
A solution that has the maximum amount of solute dissolved in the solvent at a given temperature

Solubility
The amount of solute that will dissolve in a specified volume or mass of solvent (at a given temperature) to produce a saturated solution

Supersaturated solution
A solution that contains more than the normal maximum amount of dissolved solute at a given temperature and hence is unstable

Molecule
An electrically neutral particle composed of two or more atoms chemically combined

Allotropes
Two or more forms of the same element that have different bonding structures in the same physical phase

Period
In physics, the time for a complete cycle of motion. In chemistry, one of the seven horizontal rows of the periodic table

Periodic law
The properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers

Groups
The vertical columns in the periodic table

Representative elements
The A group elements in the periodic table

Transition elements
The B group of elements in the periodic table

Inner transition elements


The lanthanides and actinides, the two rows at the bottom of the periodic table, make up the inner transition elements

Metal
An element whose atoms tend to lose valence electrons during chemical reactions

Nonmetal
An element whose atoms tend to gain (or share) valence electrons during chemical reactions

Electron configuration
The order of electrons in the energy levels of an atom

Valence shell
An atoms outer shell, which contains the valence electrons

Valence Electrons
The electrons that are involved in bond formation, usually those in an atoms outer shell

Ionization energy
The amount of energy it takes to remove an electron from an atom

Ion
An atom, or chemical combination of atoms, that has a net electric charge

Noble gases
The element of Group 8A of the periodic table He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn

Alkali metals
The elements in Group 1A of the periodic table Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr

Halogens
The elements in Group 7A of the periodic table F, Cl, Br, I, At

Alkaline Earth metals


The elements in Group 2A of the periodic table Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra

Chapter 12

Law of conservation of Mass


No detectable change in the total mass occurs during a chemical reaction

Formula Mass
The sum of the atomic masses of the atoms showing in the chemical formula of the compound or element

Law of definite proportions


Different samples of a pure compound always contains the same elements in the same proportion by mass

Limiting reactant
A starting material that is used up completely in a chemical reaction

Excess reactant
A starting material that is only partially used up in a chemical reaction

Octet rule
In forming compounds, atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons to achieve electron configurations of the noble gases

Ionic compounds
Compounds formed by an electron transfer process in which one or more atoms lose electrons and one or more other atoms gain them to form ions

Lewis symbol
The elements symbol represents the nucleus and inner electrons of an atom, and the valence electrons are shown as dots arranged around the symbol

Lewis Structures
electron dot symbols used to show valence electrons in molecules and ions of combounds

Cations
Positive ions; so called because they move toward the cathode (the negative electrode) of an electrochemical cell

Anions
Negative ions; so called because they move toward the anode (the positive electrode) of an electrochemical cell

Ionic bonds
Electrical forces that hold the ions together in the crystal lattice of an ionic compound

Stock system
A system of nomenclature for compounds of metals that form more than one ion A roman numeral placed in parentheses directly after the name of the metal denotes its ionic charge in the compound being named

Covalent compounds
Those in which the atoms share pairs of electrons to form molecules

Covalent bond
The force of attraction caused by a pair of electrons to form molecules

Polar Covalent Bond


One in which the pair of bonding electrons is unequally shared, leading to the bonds having a slightly positive end and a slightly negative end

Electronegativity
A measure of the ability of an atom to attract shared electrons to itself

Polar molecule
A molecule that has a positive end and a negative end that is, one that has a dipole

Hydrogen bond
The dipole-dipole forces between a hydrogen atom in one molecule and a nearby oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine atom in the same or a neighboring molecule

Chapter 13

Chemical properties
Characteristics that describe the chemical reactivity of a substance that is, its ability to transform into another substance

Chemical reaction
A change that alters the chemical composition of a substance

Reactants
The original substances in a chemical reaction

Products
The substances formed during a chemical reaction

Combination reaction
One in which at least two reactants combine to form just one product A+B > AB

Decomposition reactions
One in which only one reactant is present and breaks into two (or more) products: AB > A + B

Exothermic reactions
A reaction that has a net release of energy to the surroundings

Endothermic reactions
A reaction that absorbs energy from the surroundings

Activation energy
The energy necessary to start a chemical reaction A measure of the minimum kinetic energy that colliding molecules must possess in order to react

Acid-carbonate reaction
An acid and a carbonate (or hydrogen carbonate) react to give carbon dioxide, water, and a salt

Combustion reaction
The reaction of a substance with oxygen to form an oxide, along with heat and light in the form of fire

Catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of reaction but is not itself consumed in the reaction

Acid
A substance that gives hydrogen ions (or hydronium ions) in water

Equilibrium
In chemistry, a dynamic process in which the reactants are combining to form the products at the same rate at which the products are combining to form the reactants

Base
A substance that produces hydroxide ions in water

pH
A measure (on a logarithmic scale) of the hydrogen ion (or hydronium ion) concentration in a solution

Acid-base reaction
The H+ of the acid unites with the OH- of the base to form water, while the cation of the base combines with the anion of the acid to form a salt

Salt
An ionic compound that contains any cation except H+ combined with any anion except OH-

Double-replacement reactions
Reactions that take the form of AB + CD > AD + CB The positive and negative components of the two compounds change partners

Precipitate
An insoluble solid that appears when two clear liquids (usually aqueous solutions) are mixed

Oxidation
Occurs when oxygen combines with another substance (or when an atom or ion loses electrons)

Reduction
Occurs when oxygen is removed from a compound (or when an atom or ion gains electrons)

Activity series
A list of elements in order of relative ability to of their atoms to be oxidized in solution

Single-replacement reaction
Reactions in which one element replaces another that is in a compound A + BC > B + AC

Mole (mol)
The quantity of a substance that contains 6.02 x 1023 formula units (the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12)

Avogadros number
6.02 x 1023, symbolized NA; the number of entities in a mole.

Molarity (M)
A measure of solution concentration in terms of moles of solute per liter of solution