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Information Systems Ethics, Computer Crime, and Security

Chapter 9 Objectives
Understand how computer ethics affects IS Understand information privacy, accuracy, property, and accessibility Understand types of computer crime Understand the terms virus, worm, Trojan horse, and logic or time bomb Understand computer security

Information Systems Ethics


Tofflers three waves of change
Agriculture Industrial Revolution Information Age

Information Systems Ethics


Computer Literacy
Knowing how to use a computer

Digital Divide
That gap between those with computer access and those who dont have it

Computer Ethics
Standards of conduct as they pertain to the use of information systems

Information Systems Ethics


Privacy
Protecting ones personal information

Identity theft
Stealing of anothers social security number, credit card number, or other personal information

Information Systems Ethics


Information accuracy
Deals with authentication and fidelity of information

Information property
Deals with who owns information about individuals and how information can be sold and exchanged

Information Systems Ethics


Information accessibility
Deals with what information a person has the right to obtain about others and how the information can be used

Issues in information accessibility


Carnivore: software application designed to be connected to Internet Service Providers computers and eavesdrops on all communications. Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA): it offered stronger support for voice mail than it did for e-mail. No other laws at federal or state levels protect e-mail privacy Monitoring e-mail

Information Systems Ethics


The need for a code of ethical conduct
Business ethics Plagiarism Cybersquatting: registering a domain name and then trying to sell the name for big bucks to a person, company. Domain names are a scarce resource one of the few scarce resources in cyberspace

Computer Crime
Definition: the act of using a computer to commit an illegal act
Authorized and unauthorized computer access Examples
Stealing time on company computers Breaking into government Web sites Stealing credit card information

Computer Crime
Federal and State Laws
Stealing or compromising data Gaining unauthorized computer access Violating data belonging to banks Intercepting communications Threatening to damage computer systems Disseminating viruses

Computer Crime
Hacking and Cracking
Hacker one who gains unauthorized computer access, but without doing damage Cracker one who breaks into computer systems for the purpose of doing damage

Computer Crime
Who commits computer crime?

Computer Crime
Types of computer crime
Data diddling: modifying data Salami slicing: skimming small amounts of money Phreaking: making free long distance calls Cloning: cellular phone fraud using scanners Carding: stealing credit card numbers online Piggybacking: stealing credit card numbers by spying Social engineering: tricking employees to gain access Dumpster diving: finding private info in garbage cans Spoofing: stealing passwords through a false login page

Computer Crime
Software piracy
North America 25% Western Europe 34% Asia / Pacific 51% Mid East / Africa 55% Latin America 58% Eastern Europe 63%

Computer Crime
Computer viruses and destructive code
Virus a destructive program that disrupts the normal functioning of computer systems Types: Worm: usually does not destroy files; copies itself Trojan horses: Activates without being detected; does not copy itself Logic or time bombs: A type of Trojan horse that stays dormant for a period of time before activating

Computer Security
Computer Security precautions taken to keep computers and the information they contain safe from unauthorized access

Computer Security
Recommended Safeguards
Implement a security plan to prevent break-ins Have a plan if break-ins do occur Make backups! Only allow access to key employees Change passwords frequently Keep stored information secure Use antivirus software Use biometrics for access to computing resources Hire trustworthy employees

Computer Security
Encryption the process of encoding messages before they enter the network or airwaves, then decoding them at the receiving end of the transfer

Computer Security
How encryption works
Symmetric secret key system
Both sender and recipient use the same key Key management can be a problem

Public key technology


A private key and a public key

Certificate authority
To implement public-key encryption on a busy Web site, requires a more sophisticated solution. A third party, called certificate authority, is used. A trusted middleman verifies that a Web site is a trusted site (provides public keys to trusted partners) Secure socket layers (SSL), developed by Netscape, is a popular public-key encryption method

Computer Security
Other encryption approaches
Pretty good privacy (PGP)
Phil Zimmerman Clipper Chip: a chip that could generate uncrackable codes. There was a flaw.

Computer Security
Internet Security
Firewall hardware and software designed to keep unauthorized users out of network systems

Computer Security

Computer Security
Virus prevention
Install antivirus software Make backups Avoid unknown sources of shareware Delete e-mails from unknown sources If your computer gets a virus

Computer Security
How to maintain your privacy online
Choose Web sites monitored by privacy advocates Avoid cookies Visit sites anonymously Use caution when requesting confirming e-mail

Computer Security
Avoid getting conned in cyberspace
Internet auctions Internet access International modem dialing Web cramming Multilevel marketing (pyramid schemes) Travel/vacations Business opportunities Investments Health-care products