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1.11 TO 1.20

1.11 to 1.20 1136 - 2066 Compressors more than 1.20











Air Moving and Conditioning Association (AMCA), USA

Max. pressure for Fan is 311mm of Water

Max pressure for Blower is

2.8 kg/cm2

Types of Centrifugal Fans

Based on decreasing efficiency

1. Backward inclined 2. Axial
3.Forward curved

4 Radial Tip 5. Radial Blade

Backward inclined fans Two design are possible

1. With single thickness 2. With aerofoil shaped blade

Single thickness can handle fine air borne particle or moisture But they are slightly noisier and less efficient (Max.84%)

Aerofoil shape gives 90% efficiency and quietest.

Backward curved fans has high peripheral speed for a given static pressure And are usually of heavier built than forward curved. Advantage is non overloading characteristic curve.
Used for forced draft application

Forward curved Fans

Used for low to medium volume and low pressure Not suitable for contaminated air.

Power and efficiency increases with static pressure , Has overloading Character.
Due to lower speed it is suitable for high temp. application. And where bearing Span is large.

Generally used for Heating and Air conditioning plants.

Radial Tip Fan

It fills the gap between clean air fan and fan for material handling

Radial blade Fans

Used for medium volume with high pressure for air containing high Level of particulates.

Generally efficiency is sacrificed in favor of material handling.Max-75 % Has overloading power curve.

Multistage Centrifugal Fans

Used for high pressure

Max. stages are 8 to 10

Also called Turbo Blowers.

Axial Fans
They are large capacity high speed machines. Generally used for clean air and low temperature.

Types of axial Fans 1. Propeller type 2. Tube axial Type 3. Vane axial Type

Propeller Type
Normally used for moving large quantity of air against low static pressure Most commonly used for general ventilation or Dilution work. Static pressure range from 0 to 25 mm of water Mechanical efficiency rarely exceeds 50 %

Tubular axial Fans Major application is in industrial ventilation and process Normally static pressure of 6 to 80mm of water can be achieved Mechanical efficiency varies from 65 75 % It is best suited when air contains condensable fumes, other material that Will collect on fan blades. Large fan with slow rpm gives less trouble than otherwise.

Vane axial Fans

Suitable for wide range of volume and pressure Normal pressure range is 12 to 150 mm of water

Mechanical efficiency varies from 70 80 % Very compact design and provides economy in HP and space..

Axial flow v/s Centrifugal Fans

Axial Flow 1. Greater compactness 2. Straight line installation 3. Higher Efficiency

Centrifugal Fans 1.Better ability to cope with fluctuating Operating conditions 2. Better accessibility of motor 3.Better motor protection against hot and Contaminated gases 4. Natural adaptability to duct system requiring 90 degree turn.

4. Low noise level

CapacityCapacity-Volume of gas actually delivered when operating between Specified inlet and discharge pressure at the condition of pressure, Temperature, gas composition and moisture content existing at inlet Flange of equipment. Static pressureStatic pressure- Force per unit area tending to compress the fluid. Pressure required to overcome resistance to flow due to friction It acts in all directions and tries to burst the duct. Velocity Pressure Velocity Pressure- Pressure required to accelerate the flowing mass from rest to existing velocity. It acts in the direction of velocity only.

Total,Impact or Dynamic Pressure- Sum total of above two. Always measured in the direction of flow.

Measurement of Pressure

Static Pressure- Measured at right angle to direction of flow to avoid influence of fluid velocity by a manometer.

Total Pressure- Measured in the direction of flow by manometer

Velocity pressure- Calculated by deducting static from total.

Flow (cfm) x Total Pressure (inch of WG) Mechanical Efficiency = X 100 BHP X 6356

Compression Ratio-

Absolute discharge /Absolute intake pressure

Flow (cfm) x Total Pressure (inch of WG)

Power Consumption6356

Effect of Density and Temperature

Volume delivered is independent of density

Pressure and power varies directly as density.

Volume delivered is increases with rise of temp.

Pressure and power decreases with rise in temp.

Effect of Speed on Fan Performance

Density remaining constant

Capacity is proportional to speed Pressure is proportional to square of speed

Power is proportional to cube of speed

Efficiency is independent of operating speed

Effect of size on fan performance

Capacity is directly proportional to diameter Pressure is directly proportional to square of diameter

Power is proportional to cube of diameter

Efficiency is independent of diameter.

In short

Pressure is function of Peripheral speed

Capacity is function of runner volume

Power is function of pressure and capacity.

Fan Selection
Necessary Information 1.Design operating point of the fan - Volume and pressure 2.Normal operating point - Volume and pressure

3. Type of Material to be handled

a) Fibrous , Heavy dust load Choose radial blade fan

b) Ordinary Air Choose centrifugal or axial as per pressure.

4. Explosive or Inflammable Material- Use non sparking


Fan Selection
Necessary Information 5. Direct driven or Belt driven- Direct is compact and give fixed flow Belt drive gives flexibility for variation. 6. Space Limitation 7. Noise level acceptable 8 Operating Temperature- Decides brg.and material selection. 9. Efficiency 10. Corrosive application- Special coating or construction

Fan Selection
Necessary Information
11. Maximum continuous rating

12. Altitude of the fan

13. Low load operation - This is particularly essential for units, which in the initial few years may operate at lower capacities, with plans for up gradation at a later stage. The initial low load and the later higher load operational requirements need to be specified clearly, so that, the manufacturer can supply a fan which can meet both the requirements, with different sizes of impeller.

14. Density of gas at different temperatures at fan outlet

Fan Selection
Necessary Information
15 Composition of the gas - This is also very critical for choosing the material of construction of the fan and hence is to be clearly communicated to the fan supplier.
16.Margin of safety The choice of safety margin also affects the efficient operation of the fan. in . In general, the safety margin can be 5 % over the maximum requirement on flow rate. In the case of boilers, the I.D. fan can be designed with a safety margin of 20 % on volume and 30 % on head. The FD fan do not require any safety margins. However, a safety margin of 10 % on volume and 20 % on pressure can be maintained for FD fans.

Fan Selection at Air Density other than standard

Density of air depends on 1. Temperature 2. Humidity 3. Altitude

Density decreases with rise in Temp., Humidity, Altitude.

Since a fan is a constant volume machine, it will move the same CFM of air no matter what density of the air . However, a fan is not a constant mass flow machine. Therefore, mass flow changes as the density changes. This becomes important when equipment must operate at various altitudes.
The mass flow is directly proportional to density change, while the volume flow (CFM) remains constant. As air density decreased, mass flow decreases and the effective cooling will diminish proportionately. Therefore, equivalent mass flow is needed for equivalent cooling, or the volume flow (CFM) required at altitude (low density) will be greater than what required at sea level to obtain equivalent heat dissipation Pressure developed also reduces.

Inlet and outlet ducting The inlet and outlet ducting of the fan also plays a very important role in deciding the efficiency performance of the fan. The general guideline is not to have any branching in the suction/delivery line for a distance of 2.5 to 5.0 times of the diameter.

The ducts in general should be designed to have a gas velocity of 15 to 20 m/s.

Specific speed of the fan The specific speed of the fan is an another important parameter governing the design and choice of the type of fan. The specific speed can be defined as below Ns = (RPM) x (flow) 0.5 /(Head) 0.75 where, flow - m3/s Head - [(Total pressure)/Density] in meters of gas column The radial centrifugal fan is to be chosen, whenever the specific speed is less than 80-90. For all specific speed requirements more than 8090, the choice should be the axial fan



Figure shows a typical fan pressure versus flow curve along with what is considered the normal operating range of the fan. The fan, in any given system, can only deliver as much air as the system will pass for a given pressure. When more flow is required. Increasing the number of fans in a systems, or larger size fan. The system should be analyzed for possible reduction in the overall resistance to airflow. Other considerations, such as available space and power, noise, reliability and operating environment should also be brought to bear on fan choice.

To demonstrate the impact of system resistance on fan performance, figure 3 shows three typical fans .

A is a 120 CFM fan, B is a 100 CFM fan C is a 70CFM fan.

Line D represents a system impedance within a given designed system.
If 50 CFM of air are needed, fan A will meet the need. However, fan A is a high performance, higher noise fan that will likely draw more power and be more costly.

If the system impedance could be improved to curve E, then fan B would meet the 50 CFM requirement, with a probable reduction in cost, noise and power draw.
And if the system impedance could be optimized to where curve F were representative, then fan C would meet the airflow requirement, at a dramatically lower power, noise and cost level. This would be considered a well-designed system . Keeping in mind that a given fan can only deliver a single airflow at a given system impedance, the importance of system design on fan selection becomes obvious.

Determining System Impedance After the airflow has been determined, the amount of resistance to it must be found. This resistance to flow is referred to as system impedance and is expressed in static pressure as a function of flow in CFM. A typical system impedance curve, follows what is called the "square law," which means that static pressure changes as a square function of changes in the CFM.

Static pressure through complex systems cannot be easily arrived at by calculation. In any system, measurement of the static pressure will provide the most accurate result.

Combining fans in series or parallel can achieve the desired airflow without greatly increasing the system package size or fan diameter.

Parallel operation is defined as having two or more fans blowing together side by side.
The performance of two fans in parallel will result in doubling the volume flow, but only at free delivery. when a system curve is overlaid on the parallel performance curves, the higher the system resistance, the less increase in flow results with parallel fan operation. Thus, this type of application should only be used when the fans can operate in a low impedance near free delivery.

Parallel operation is used to increase flow keeping pressure same.

Series Operation- Used when pressure to increase keeping flow same.

Series operation can be defined as using multiple fans in a push-pull arrangement. By staging two fans in series, the static pressure capability at a give airflow can be increased, but again, not to double at every flow point, In series operation, the best results are achieved in systems with high impedance.

In both series and parallel operation, particularly with multiple fans (5, 6, 7, etc.) certain areas of the combined performance curve will be unstable and should be avoided. This instability is unpredictable and is a function of the fan and motor construction and the operating point.

For multiple fan installations, laboratory testing of the system. is strongly recommended

Fan Maintenance

A dust buildup of 1/8 inch on fan blades can reduce fan performance by as much as 30 percent.
Allowing dust to build up on Volute restricts air flow and the fan's performance.

Dirt built up on a motor acts as insulation, causing the motor to operate at elevated temperatures, a common cause of short motor life and premature motor burnout

Fan Maintenance
BELT ADJUSTMENT Belt adjustment is one of the primary, and often overlooked, maintenance problems with belt-driven fans. These must be regularly adjusted if full air movement is to be achieved, and efficiency maintained Therefore, belts should be easy to adjust. When a new fan or a new belt has been installed, the belt should be retensioned after two weeks of operation to take up the initial stretch After this initial period of operation, the belt should be checked -- and adjusted if necessary -- on a monthly basis.


Efficiency Factors
Motor efficiency -Some manufacturers offer fan models with high efficiency motors. Although usually more expensive initially, high efficiency motors can require over 20 percent less energy to operate than low efficiency motors

Speed of the fan motor and blade also influences fan efficiency. As the speed of a fan increases, turbulence of the air moving through the fan increases and efficiency decreases. fan blade tip speed should be less than 4,500 feet per minute

Blade design or shape is important for determining the energy efficiency of a fan. In addition, some fan companies utilize blade designs that reduce or minimize the buildup of dirt. This is particularly important because of the high levels of moisture and dust in most livestock housing facilities. Generally, a machete or teardrop shaped blade is more efficient than one shaped like a cloverleaf (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Machete (A) and teardrop (B) shaped fan blades are generally more efficient than cloverleaf (C) shaped blades.

The blade-to-housing clearance is important for determining the static pressure capabilities and efficiency of a fan. Fans with large clearances between the tip of the blades and the housing generally have low static pressure capabilities and low efficiencies due to the "blow-by" that occurs during operation of the fan

Housing design also influences fan efficiency. As air enters and moves through an opening, turbulence is created and the effective cross-sectional area of the opening is reduced, a phenomenon known as vena contracta. Reducing the effective area of the opening reduces the amount of air that can move through it. The shape of the opening, particularly the point at which the air enters, determines the degree of reduction that occurs.

Efficiency ratings are a convenient way to compare two or more fans of different sizes that have similar 1. Air delivery 2. Static pressure capacities, 3. Meet the total system performance requirements. While fan efficiency is an important consideration, do not use it as the sole criterion to make purchasing decisions.

Initial cost, parts availability, noise level, housing durability, ease of cleaning, and expected annual hours of operation are among the factors affecting long-term costs and serviceability. All of these factors, as well as efficiency, must be evaluated.
Life Cycle Cost should be lowest

The following "rules of thumb" can be used to help select an energy efficient fan when the system performance requirements are known: For a given airflow rate and static pressure, a large diameter fan is more efficient than a smaller one. The larger blades move more air per unit of energy input. For a given airflow rate and static pressure, one large fan is usually more efficient than a number of small ones. When two fans have the same blade diameter, the one with the lower horsepower or motor current input rating (motor full load amps or FLA listed on the motor nameplate) is usually more energy efficient. If two fans have the same airflow and static pressure capabilities, the one with the slower speed motor is usually quieter and more energy efficient.

Capacity Control of Fan

The capacity control mechanism has a vital role to play in the energy consumption of the fan. The fans depending on the safety margin generally need to operate at a lower capacity for majority of the time. Hence, the choice of the control system is very important for efficient operation of the fan. In the case of centrifugal fan the methods of control are as below 1. Damper 2.Inlet vane control 3.Speed variation The damper control though common & simple, is not energy inefficient. The energy consumption by inlet damper control is lower than that by outlet damper control. The inlet vane control is another form of capacity control and is more energy efficient than the damper control.

Capacity Control of Fan

The capacity control by varying the speed is the modern method and the most energy efficient. The different methods of speed control commonly used are mentioned below in the order of reducing efficiency 1.Variable Frequency Drive(VFD) 2.DC Drive 3.Slip Power Recovery System ( SPRS ) 4.Variable Fluid Coupling ( VFC ) 5.Grid Resistance Control ( GRC )

6.Liquid Resistance Control ( LRC )