Sie sind auf Seite 1von 27

Three-Phase Inverter

Three-Phase Inverter Fig.1 Three phase PWM bridge inverter Basically, it is the combination of three sets

Fig.1

Three phase PWM bridge inverter

Basically, it is the combination of three sets of single phase inverter supplied from common DC source and each set conducted with a phase difference of 120 0 to each other.

Let ‘O’ be the mid point of DC supply Ref Zero potential point. V R = Potential of point ‘R’ with respect to ‘O’ V Y = Potential of point ‘Y’ with respect to ‘O’ V B = Potential of point ‘B’ with respect to ‘O’

Waveforms of three-phase inverter :

Waveforms of three-phase inverter : Line to line voltages are: V = V – V V

Line to line voltages are:

V RY = V R V Y

V YB = V Y V B V BR = V B V R

Waveforms of three-phase inverter :

(Contd … )

Waveforms of three-phase inverter : (Contd … ) Considering the balanced three phase load : V

Considering the balanced three phase load :

V RN + V YN + V BN = 0 The per phase voltages are:

V RN = V R V N,

V YN = V Y V N , and

V BN = V B V N

Where, V N = Potential of load neutral point ‘N’ w.r.t. potential of point ‘O’

The above three equations can be re-write as follows:

Waveforms of three-phase inverter :

V R = V RN + V N

V Y = V YN + V N, V B = V BN + V N

(Contd … )

Adding these three equations, gives:

V R +V Y + V B

= V RN + V YN + V BN + 3 V N

Or V N = 1/3(V R + V Y + V B ) Hence the Waveform of V N can be traced.

Then per phase voltage can be written as follows and waveforms can be traced accordingly.

Waveforms of three-phase inverter : V = V + V V Y = V YN +

Fourier Analysis of 3ph inverter waveform

  • V R

V R (1) + V S /2 0  2 -V S /2  (=t) Waveform
V
R (1)
+ V S /2
0
2
-V S /2
 (=t)
Waveform of V R :

Since the waveform has half-wave symmetry, it will have only odd harmonics and given by

4.Vs 1 4.Vs Vs V   Sin (m  ) And V (1)  Sin
4.Vs
1
4.Vs
Vs
V
Sin (m
)
And
V
(1)
Sin (
 
)
1.27
R
.2
R
m
.2
2
m  1, ,2
Considering other two phases:
4.Vs
1
V
Sin (m
)
R
.2
m
m  1,,2
4.Vs
1
V
Sin [m(
2
/ 3)]
Y
.2
m
( 5.13)
m  1, ,2
4.Vs
1
V
Sin [m(
4
/ 3)]
We can break these series into
B
.2
m
m  1, ,2
3 sub series as follow:

Fourier Analysis of 3ph inverter waveform

  • 1 st Sub-series : m = 1,,6

(i.e. 1 st , 7 th , 13 th

and so on )

2nd Sub-series : m = 3,,6

(i.e. 3 rd ,

9 th , 15 th

and so on )

  • 3 rd Sub-series : m = 5,,6

(i.e. 5 th , 11 th , 17 th and so on )

Contd……

Let us study the nature of these three sub-series

1st Sub-series : m = 1,,6

( Or

m = 1+6k;

Where k = 0,1 , 2 , 3

and so on)

V

R

4.Vs

.2

1

Sin (m

)

m 1,,6

m

V

Y

4.Vs

.2

1

Sin [m(

m 1,,6

m

2

/ 3)]

V

B

4.Vs

.2

1

Sin [m(

m 1, ,6

m

4

/ 3)]

=

Same as V Y

Sin [m(- 2/3) ] = Sin [ m- m.2/3] = Sin [ m-(1+6k).2/3] = Sin [m- 2/3 - 2.k.2] = Sin (m- 2/3)

Hence, all the components of 1st sub series of

Y-phase will have phase of -2/3

Similar analysis will give: Sin [m(- 4/3) ] = Sin [m- 4/3 ] Hence, all the components of 1st sub series of B-phase will have phase of -4/3

Fourier Analysis of 3ph inverter waveform

Contd……

Hence, the 1 st sub-series represents the positive sequence system voltage and can be represented by following phasor diagram:

V (m) Y V (m) B
V
(m)
Y
V
(m)
B
Fourier Analysis of 3ph inverter waveform Contd…… Hence, the 1 sub-series represents the positive sequence system
  • V R (m)

2nd Sub-series : m = 3,,6 ( Or m = 3+6k;

Where k = 0,1 , 2 , 3

and so on)

V

R

4.Vs

.2

1

Sin (m

)

m 3, ,6

m

V

Y

4.Vs

.2

1

Sin [m(

  • m 3, ,6

m

2

/ 3)]

V

B

4.Vs

.2

1

Sin [m(

  • m 3,,6

m

4

/ 3)]

= Sin [ m- m.2/3]

= Sin (m) for all values of k = same as V R

Sin [m(- 2/3) ]

= Sin [ m-(3+6k).2/3] = Sin [m- 2- 2.k.2]

Similar analysis will give: Sin [m(- 4/3) ] = Sin (m) Hence, all the components of 2nd sub series of B-phase will have no phase diff with each other.

7

Fourier Analysis of 3ph inverter waveform

Contd……

Hence, the 1 st sub-series represents the zero sequence system voltage and can be represented by following phasor diagram:

V (m) R V (m) Y V (m) B
V
(m)
R
V
(m)
Y
V
(m)
B

3rd Sub-series : m = 5,,6 ( Or m = 5+6k;

Where k = 0,1 , 2 , 3

and so on)

V

R

4.Vs

.2

1

Sin (m

)

m 5, ,6

m

V

Y

4.Vs

.2

1

Sin [m(

m 5,,6

m

2

/ 3)]

V

B

4.Vs

.2

1

Sin

m 5,,6

m

[m(

4

/ 3)]

= Sin [ m-(5+6k).2/3]

= Sin [m- 10/3 - 2.k.2]

= Sin (m-4/3 )

= Same as V B

for all value of k

Sin [m(- 2/3) ] = Sin [ m- m.2/3]

Similar analysis will give: Sin [m(- 4/3) ] = Sin [m- 2/3 ] Hence, all the components of 3rd sub series of B-phase will have phase of -2/3

Fourier Analysis of 3ph inverter waveform

Contd……

Hence, the 1st sub-series represents the negative sequence system voltage and

can be represented by following phasor diagram:

V

V

(m) Y V R (m) The above results can be summarized as: (m) B
(m)
Y
V
R (m)
The above results can be summarized as:
(m)
B

V

R

4.Vs

.2

[

1

Sin (m

)

m 1,,6

m

V

Y

V

B

4.Vs

.2

4.Vs

.2

[

1

Sin [m(

m 1,,6 m 1,,6

1

m

m

Sin [m(

2

/3)]

4

/ 3)]

Positive Sequence

1

Sin (m

)

m 3,,6

m

1

Sin (m

)

m 3,,6

m

1

Sin (m

)

m 3,,6

m

Zero Sequence

m

1

Sin (m

)

5, ,6

m

1

Sin [m(

m 5,,6

m

4

/ 3)]

1

Sin [m(

m 5,,6

m

2

/ 3)]

Negative Sequence

Fourier Analysis of 3ph inverter waveform

Line to Line voltage:

Contd……

Fourier components of line to line voltage can be calculated as follow:

V RY = V R - V Y The zero sequence system cancels, therefore triplines are absent in line to line voltage.

  • V RY

4.Vs

.2

  • 1 [Sin (m

)

m 1,,6

m

(

Sin m

2

/ 3)]

4.Vs

.2

  • 1 [Sin (m

)

m 5,,6

m

(

Sin m

2

/ 3)]

4.Vs

3
3

.2

3
3

[

  • 1 Sin (m

 

/ 6)

m 1,,6

m

Positive Sequence

m

  • 1 Sin (m

 

/ 6)

5,

 

,6

m

]

Negative Sequence

Hence, the frequency spectrum of line to line voltage waveform is similar to that of V R , but I)There are no triplines

II)The amplitude of remaining components are

3
3

times greater

III)The negative sequence components lags by /3 w.r.t. positive sequence components

Fourier Analysis of 3ph inverter waveform Load neutral voltage(VN) :

Contd……

The potential of load neutral with respect to point ‘O’ is a rectangular square

wave (similar to that of VR) having frequency 3 times that of VR and amplitude

1/3 that of VR. Hence, the fourier components of VN are given by:

V

N

4.Vs

.6

1

Sin (3n

)

m 1, ,2

n

Putting 3n = m

V

N

4.Vs

.2

1

Sin (m

)

m 3, ,6

m

Load pahse voltage :

This is identical to zero sequence series of V R

The fourier components of load phase voltage can be calculates as follow:

V RN = V R V N

Or

V

RN

4.Vs

.2

1

Sin (m

)

m 1,,6

m

-

4.Vs

.2

1

Sin (m

)

m 3,,6

m

Hence, the frequency spectrum of load phase voltage is similar to that of VR, but without triplines.

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters

In many industrial applications, it is often required to control the output voltage and frequency of inverter

  • - to cope with variation of DC input voltage.

  • - for voltage regulation of inverter

  • - for constant volt/hertz control.

There are various methods to vary the inverter gain and frequency. Some of them are:

i) Single pulse width modulation

ii) Multiple pulse width modulation

iii) Sinusoidal pulse width modulation

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters Contd . . .
Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters
Contd
. .
.

i) Single Pulse Width Modulation:

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters Contd . . . i) Single Pulse Width Modulation: The control

The control strategy is:

If modulating sinal (Ar) > Carrier signal (Ac), then V 0 = + Vdc/2 If modulating sinal (Ar) < Carrier signal (Ac), then V 0 = - Vdc/2

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters Contd . . .
Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters
Contd
. .
.
Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters Contd . . . Peak value of modulating signal (Ar) Peak

Peak value of modulating signal (Ar)

Peak Value of carrier signal (Ac) Frequency of carrier signal

Modulation Index(MI)

Frequency Ratio(FR)

Frequency of modulating signal

The frequency of inverter output voltage can be changed by varying the frequency of modulating signal.

14

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters Contd . . .
Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters
Contd
. .
.

The RMS value of the inverter output voltage is given by:

V

0

(rms)

 2 2 1 Vdc  d   4  1
2
2
1
Vdc
d
4
1

Vdc  2 
Vdc
2

; Where

2

1

The fourier series of the output voltage is given by:

V

0

(t)

4.Vdc

.2

m

1,

1

,2

n

Sin (

n

2

).

(

Sin n

t

)

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters Contd . . .
Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters
Contd
. .
.

ii) Multiple Pulse Width Modulation:

The lower order harmonics can be reduced by using multiple pulse width modulation method, which gives several pulses of output in each half cycle. The gate signals for power switches are generated by comparing high

Triangular Carrier Signal(Ac) Modulating Signal(Ar)

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters Contd . . . ii) Multiple Pulse Width Modulation: The lower
Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters Contd . . . ii) Multiple Pulse Width Modulation: The lower

p

FR

(t) 0  9  1  2   3  4  7 
(t)
0
 9
 1  2
 3  4
 7  8
 5  6
 10
 11
 12
 m
 m + 

v

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters Contd . . . ii) Multiple Pulse Width Modulation: The lower
  • 2 Number of pulses per half cycle

Let = width of each pulse

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters Contd . . .
Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverters
Contd
. .
.

The RMS value of the inverter output voltage is given by:

   p 2 p Vdc V (rms)  d    0 
p
2
p
Vdc
V
(rms)
d
0
4
p
Vdc p  2 
Vdc
p
2

The general form of Fourier series of output voltage is given by:

Or

V

0

(t)

1

n

B

(

n

).

(

Sin n

t

)

m

1,

,2

The coefficients B(n) of a pair of positive and negative pulses is given by:

B(n)

1

.

m

m

Vdc

2

Sin n

(

t

)

1

.

 

m

 

m

Vdc

2

Sin n

(

t

)

Or

B(n)

2

Vdc

n

.

.

2

Sin (

n

2

)

Sin

(

n

.(

m

/ 2))

(

Sin n

.(

 

m

/ 2))

Then for the whole cycle:

B(n)

p

m

2

Vdc

1

n

.

.

2

Sin (

n

2

)

(

Sin n

.(

m

/ 2))

(

Sin n

.(

 

m

/ 2))

III ) Sinusoidal PWM Inverter

III ) Sinusoidal PWM Inverter The switching pattern follows the following logics: If modulating signal >

The switching pattern follows the following logics:

If modulating signal > carrier signal, then V RO = If modulating signal < carrier signal, then V RO =

V

dc

2

V

dc

2

18

III ) Sinusoidal PWM Inverter

Contd. . .

.

The switching instants (0 1

. . .

12 ) can be determined by solving the

equations of modulating sine wave and the triangular carrier waves. The modulating sine wave and the triangular carrier wave can be represented

by the following equations:

y

1 ()

=

MI V cpk Sin

(modulating sine-wave)

(1)

y 2 () = k(n).+ C(n) (Triangular carrier wave )

(2)

Where,

K(n)

slope of the n

th

line of the traiangular carrier wave

(-1) n

1

Vpk

 

θper

2

C(n) = intercept made by the n th carrier wave on y-axis = - (-1) n+1 V cpk . k(n) st

θper

360

2.FR

and

θst

θper

-

2

These equations can be solved with the help of a suitable computer program using an iterative methods like Newton-Raphsion method. Then the Fourier coefficients of V R can be then calculated as follows:

III ) Sinusoidal PWM Inverter

Contd. . .

.

θper

360

2.FR

θst

-

θper

2

do

50

i = 0, 12

K(i)

(-1)

n

1

Vpk

θper

2

C(i) = - (-1) n+1 V cpk . K(i)

  • 40 f 1 = MI Vcpk Sin (i) K(i) . st C(i)

f 2 = MI Vcpk Cos (i)

K(i)

= f 1 /f 2 If [abs(err)

err

.le. 0.01 ] then

 

Write (* , * )

K(i),

C(i),

(i)

Go to

100

Else

(i) = (i) err

Go to

40

  • 100 st = st + per Continue

50

20

III ) Sinusoidal PWM Inverter

Contd. . .

.

A(n)

1

[

θ

1

θ

0

V

dc

2

Cos n

t

B(n)

1

[

θ

1

θ

0

V

dc

2

Sin n

t

d

t

d

t

θ

2

θ

1

θ

2

θ

1

V dc Cos n  t d  2 V dc Sin n  t d
V
dc
Cos n
t
d
2
V
dc
Sin n
t
d

2

t

t

........

........

θ

12

θ

11

V

dc

2

Cos n

t

θ

12

θ

11

V

dc

2

Sin n

t

d

t

d

t

Then the Fourier coefficients of V R0 in polar form can be then calculated as follows:

C(n)

2 2 A(n)  B n ( )
2
2
A(n)
 B n
(
)

and

φ(n)

A(n)

B(n)

Once the Fourier coefficients of V R are calculated, then the Fourier coefficients of V N and V RN also can be calculated as follow:

V N =

  • 1 3 (V R +V Y +V B )

and

V RN

= V R0 - V N

Table 1 Fisrt 14 fourier components of V RN for FR=6, Mi = 0.6 and Vs /2 = 300 V

Table 1 Fisrt 14 fourier components of V for FR=6, Mi = 0.6 and Vs /2

Table 2 Fisrt 14 fourier components of V RN for FR= 12, Mi = 0.6 and Vs /2 = 300 V

Table 2 Fisrt 14 fourier components of V for FR= 12, Mi = 0.6 and Vs
From the above results it clear that the harmonics multiples of 3 (triplines) are all zero.
From the above results it clear
that the harmonics multiples of 3
(triplines) are all zero. It is also
clear
that
if
we
increase
the
frequency ratio (FR), the
magnitude of lower order
harmonics will decrease.

The waveform of V RN is found to be as shown in Fig. below for a typical values of Vs/2 = 300 volts, Mi = 0.6 and FR = 6.

400V 200V 0 -200V -400V
400V
200V
0
-200V
-400V

Fig. Waveform of V RN

Current Source Inverter (CSI)

In voltage source inverter, the load voltage is independent of types of load, but load current wave form depends upon the type of load. In CSI, a constant current is injected into the load from the source. Hence, the load current wave form is independent of type of load, but the load voltage waveform depends upon the type of load. A current source can be obtained from a voltage by connecting a high inductance as shown below:

Current Source Inverter (CSI) In voltage source inverter, the load voltage is independent of types of

Current Source Inverter (CSI) Cont ……

Fig. below shows the circuit diagram of single phase current source inverter

Current Source Inverter (CSI) Cont …… Fig. below shows the circuit diagram of single phase current

Let v 0 = Voltage across the load i 0 = Current through the load R 0 = Load resistance L 0 = Load inductance e 0 = Voltage internal emf of the load = E 0 Sin (t +0 )

i) For 0 to period , T1 and T2 are turned ON and load current for this period will be +I S .

ii) For to 2period, T3 and T4 are turned ON and load current for this period will be -I S .

Current Source Inverter (CSI) Cont ……

Current Source Inverter (CSI) Cont …… For 0 to  v  0 e 0 

For 0 to

v

0

e

0

R

i

0

0

L

0

di

o

dt

0

At

t 0,

di

o

dt

v

0

e

0

R

i

0

0

Very high

L

0

di

o

dt

 

 

Hence, Input voltage (v S ) = Output voltage (v 0 ) =

di

Then from 0 to

,

o

dt

0

v 0 = E 0 Sin (t +0 ) + R 0 .I S

and

v S = v 0

Then from to 2,

At

t

,

aain

v 0 = - ,

and

Then from

 

to 2

,

di

o

dt

Very high  

v S = -v 0 = +

di

o

dt

0

v 0 = E 0 Sin (t +0 ) - R 0 .I S

and

v S = -v 0