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Biofuels

Ethanol and Biodiesel

Juan Ayala, Leah Lawrence, K'Shaunna Ross, Christopher Estrada

Objective
St 1.a Students know the definition of Biofuels and understand how they are used. St 1.b Students will be able to identify two raw materials of biofuels. St 2.a Students know the Pros and Cons of Biofuels.

What are biofuels?

In the early 20th century, it was discovered by Henry Ford that cars can run off of peanut oil. Biofuels are similar to fossil fuels like gas except that biofuels are created from plants grown today. Biofuels comes from animal fat, vegetables oil, and plants.This energy source is derived from organic matter. There are two processes for making ethanol: wet milling and dry milling Biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transesterification, whereby the glycerin is separated from the fat or vegetable oil

1st, 2nd, and 3rd Generation

First generation biofuels are made largely from edible sugars and starches. Second generation biofuels are made from inedible plant materials. Third generation biofuels are made from algae and other microbes.

Raw Materials

Ethanol
corn cane maize switchgrass cellulosic gasification Produces less carbon

Raw Material cont.

Biodiesel
Palm(Common in Europe) Soybeans(most commonly used in the US) Rapeseed(Common in Europe) Jatropha Gasification Algae

Energy Generation(How it's made)

Biochemical conversion- Process where enzymes are used to convert biomass by breaking it down to sugars. Yeast and bacteria ferment the sugars into ethanol. Thermochemical conversion- Process where heat and catalysts breakdown biomass. Then the biomass is heated to produce a gas composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Energy Generation(How it's used)


Biofuel can be used in an oil-fired power plant to heat water to steam. The steam drives electrical turbines that produce electricity. Transesterification- Chemical reaction in which the oil is purified and reacted with alcohol to form esters and glycerol. The product is used as fuel.

Economics

Biofuels are easily made on U.S. soil so we don't depend on foreign exports. Ethanol is relatively inexpensive to process. Most of the cost of producing biofuels has to be made back up with the sale price.

Environmental Impact

Cars create a lot of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel, producing less particulate and fewer sulfur compounds. Overall, biodiesels burn 88-90% cleaner when burning. The process of growing the plants and processing them into fuel takes a lot of energy. Ethanol produces more ozone than gasoline and contributes to smog.

Advantages and Disadvantages


Advantages: 1. Can be produced domestically( not needed to import)plants made to produce biofuel consume CO2 2. No special vehicle needed: ethanol can be used by all gasoline vehicles with slight alterations 3. Renewable energy 4. Many types of oils and plants can be made into ethanol and biodiesel 5. Ethanol is relatively inexpensive to process Disadvantages: 1. Less energy comes out from than petroleum 2. Currently limited kinds of vehicles who can use pure ethanol and biodiesel 3. Currently expensive to produce in large scale production 4. Ethanol takes twice as much ethanol to get the same energy as gasoline;biodiesel has slightly less energy than regular diesel 5. Biodiesel is more corrosive to engine parts than standard diesel 6. Likely to produce bacteria buildup in tank

Work Cited

"Biodiesel Economics - Costs, Tax Credits and Co-product - Agricultural Marketing Resource Center." Biodiesel Economics - Costs, Tax Credits and Co-product - Agricultural Marketing Resource Center. N.p., June 2009. Web. 16 May 2013. "Biodiesel Fuel Conversion Technology." RER Energy Group. N.p., 2012. Web. 16 May 2013. "Biofuels: Pros and Cons - Solar Feeds." Solar Feeds. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 May 2013 "Biofuels Pros And Cons." Energy for Mankindorg RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 May 2013.

"Ethanol." Ethanol. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 May 2013.


Frasier, Karen. "Pros and Cons of Ethanol Biofuel." LoveToKnow. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2013. "National Geographic Society." Science (2013): 1. National Geographics. Web. 16 May 2013.

Schiller, Matt. "Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethanol as a Fuel - EasyChem - The Ultimate Resource for HSC Chemistry: Syllabus-Based Dot-Point Study Notes/Summaries, Past Exam Papers, and More." Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethanol as a Fuel EasyChem - The Ultimate Resource for HSC Chemistry: Syllabus-Based Dot-Point Study Notes/Summaries, Past Exam Papers, and More. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 May 2013.