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Module 2

Job Analysis
It is the process of examining the content of the job by collecting job related information. Such information helps in the preparation of job description and Job specification

Job Description

Job Specification

Job description
A statement containing items like Job title Location Job summary Duties Machines ,tools ,Equipment Materials & forms used Supervision given or received Working conditions

Job Specification
A statement of human qualifications necessary to do the job . Education Experience training Initiative Physical effort Responsibilities Communication Skills Emotional characteristics

Use of a Job Analysis

Human resourc e plannin g

Recruitme nt and selection

Trainin g and develo pment

Job evaluation

Remun eration

Performance appraisal

Safety and health

Job Evaluation
It is the process of analysing and assessing the various jobs systematically to ascertain their relative worth in an organization
It is the jobs that are being rated not the job holders It is to establish the salary differentials

Recruitment & Selection

Recruitment and Selection are two processes within a function. RECRUITMENT refers to the processes followed by organisations when they wish to attract applicants for vacant or new positions. It is the process of attracting and obtaining as many applications as many as possible from eligible job seekers

Recruitment & Selection

SELECTION follows the recruiting process with the appointment of the most suited applicant to the position. This involves: Reviewing the applications, short listing the candidates ,interviewing them, appointing and orienting the candidates

Factors that affect recruitment

External forces Supply & demand Unemployment rate Labour market Political legal Companys image

Factors that affect recruitment

Internal forces Recruitment policy HRP Size of the firm Cost Growth and expansion

The recruitment Process- stages

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Personnel planning Strategy development Searching Screening Evaluation and control

The Recruitment Process

1. Personnel Planning for Recruitment Identify Job vacancies Job Analysis Job Qualifications Job Description Recruitment planning Objectives Numbers Types 2. Recruitment & Selection strategy Where ? How ? When ? Searching Screening Evaluation and control

HR Planning Process

Internal Assessment of the Organizational Workforce

Auditing Jobs and Skills
What jobs exist now? How many individuals are performing each job? How essential is each job? What jobs will be needed to implement future organizational strategies? What are the characteristics of anticipated jobs?

The Recruitment Process

Locating Prospective Candidates

Internal Sources External Sources

The Recruitment Process

Locating Prospective Candidates Internal Sources

Employee Referral Programs Present employees Rehiring former employees Succession planning

The Recruitment Process

External Sources
Advertisements Private Employment Agencies Colleges and Universities Job Fairs Professional Societies Executive recruiters /Head hunters Referrals and walkins

The Recruitment Process

4. Screening
Remove applicants who are visibly unqualified for the job Is the fist step to selection

5. Evaluation & Control

Ensuring whether the recruitment methods used are valid and cost effective
Payment to recruiters Managerial time spent Cost of advertisements and supporting literature Administrative cost


Ability to work in a team Analytical and problem solving skills Communication and other soft skills Creativity and resourcefulness Leadership potential General management skills Entrepreneurial skills
Survey conducted by Executive Access

It is the process from preliminary interview to contract of employment
It is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify and hire those with a greater likelihood of success in a job

The selection stages

Preliminary interview Selection tests Employment interviews Reference checks Selection decision Physical examination Job offer Employment contract Evaluation

The Selection Process Initial Screening of Resumes and Applications

Screening interview Application blanks
WABs- Weighted Application Blanks

Interview the candidate

Interview Guide Initial Interview Intensive Interview

The Selection Process

. Interview There are several types of interview styles which include: One to one interviews, Panel interviews, Serial interviews, Telephone interviews, and Video conferencing. The interview can either be formal, with a rigid structure or semi-structured or unstructured.

The Selection Process

Assessment Centers A set of well-defined procedures utilizing multiple techniques & exercises for the purpose of employee selection or development
Leaderless group discussion, business game simulations, Presentations Role-playing

In basket exercises

Tests are standardized ,objective measure of a persons behavior ,performance or attitude

Sample Test

Source: Courtesy of NYT Permissions.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Measuring Personality and Interests

Personality tests Tests that use projective techniques and trait inventories to measure basic aspects of an applicants personality, such as introversion, stability, and motivation.
MBTI personality test Thomas profiling EQ tests Thematic Apperception Tests

Computer-Interactive Testing

Types of tests
Specialized work sample tests Numerical ability tests Reading comprehension tests Clerical comparing and checking tests

Online tests
Telephone prescreening Offline computer tests Online problem solving tests

Types of Tests
Tests of cognitive abilities
Intelligence Tests
Tests of general intellectual abilities that measure a range of abilities, including memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, and numerical ability.

Aptitude tests
Tests that measure specific mental abilities, such as inductive and deductive reasoning, verbal comprehension, memory, and numerical ability.

Types of Tests
Tests of motor abilities
Tests that measure motor abilities, such as finger dexterity, manual dexterity, and reaction time.

Tests of physical abilities

Tests that measure static strength, dynamic strength, body coordination, and stamina.

Background Investigations

Reasons for investigations and checks

To verify factual information provided by applicants. To uncover damaging information.

Investigations and checks

Reference checks Background employment checks Criminal records Driving records Credit checks

Background Investigations and

Sources of information for background checks:

Former employers Current supervisors Commercial credit rating companies

Written references

Reference Checking Form

(Verify that the applicant has provided permission before conducting reference checks) Candidate Name: Reference Name: Company Name:

Dates of Employment:
Position(s) Held: Reason for Leaving:

(From: and To:)

Salary History:

Explain the reason for your call and verify the above information with the supervisor (including the reason for leaving) 1. Please describe the type of work for which the candidate was responsible. 2. How would you describe the applicants relationships with coworkers, subordinates (if applicable), and with superiors? 3. Did the candidate have a positive or negative work attitude? Please elaborate 4. How would you describe the quantity and quality of output generated by the former employee? 5. What were his/her strengths on the job? 6. What were his/her weaknesses on the job? 7. What is your overall assessment of the candidate? 8. Would you recommend him/her for this position? Why or why not? 9. Would this individual be eligible for rehire? Why or why not? Other comments?

Hiring decision
The final decision of hiring is taken at this stage after considering the information through different techniques discussed earlier The decision to hire or reject is taken and intimated Appointment order is sent to the successful candidates

Recruitment & Selection

Major Considerations : Taking enough time in the preliminary stages to ensure that the best candidate is employed. Being fully aware of the duties and responsibilities of the job before selecting an applicant. The decision should be more than a gut feeling. Be aware of changes that may have occurred with the job, or the skill requirements of the recruit.

After selection candidate needs to be placed on a suitable job It is the actual posting of an employee to a specific job
Assigning a specific rank and responsibility to an employee The placement decisions are taken by the line manager after matching the requirements of a job with the qualifications of the candidate

This is the task of introducing the new employees to the organization and its policies , procedures and rules It serves the following purpose
Removes fears Creates a good impression Providing information

Induction program- content

1. Organisational issues
History of the company Name and title of key executives Overview of production process and products Company policies and procedures Disciplinary procedures Employee manual Pay scales and pay days, vacations and holidays Training avenues Counseling Insurance ,medical, recreation, retirement benefits To superiors ,trainers ,co workers ,counselors Job location, tasks, safety needs ,job objectives ,relationship with other jobs


Employee benefits



Job duties

Induction programs
At TCS - six weeks program
Named as Initial learning program (ILP) Sessions for personality grooming , professional etiquette , table etiquette to shed of the campus frivolousness Technical training Held at the training centre at Trivandrum

SBI three weeks intensive induction program

soft skills sessions Functional assignments Oganisational policies & procedures

Induction programs
Maruti Udyog for engineers
Familiarization with various functions &meet division heads Work on shop floor Work at various depts Work in the concerned dept for 2 months

CITIBANK Two and half weeks training

Learn about the three levels of banking
corporate banking group Consumer bank Functional divisions

Teambuilding exercises simulation games presentations & role plays The trainees is given complete freedom Third week assigned a specific job with a mentor assigned

Human Resource Management, Tenth edition, Gary Desler Human Resource Management, Text and cases Second edition, V S P Rao