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Atoms, Electrons & Energy Levels

Electrons are the bonds that hold the world together!

Whats in an Atom?
rotons
Nucleus

eutrons

lectrons
in surrounding cloud

From the Periodic Table


tomic Number = No. of = No. of rotons lectrons

C
Carbon 12

ass number

tomic number eutrons

= No. of

http://us.bestgraph.com/gifs/singes-5.html

Electron Cloud?
1 Energy Level
(Principal Quantum Number)

H Hydrogen
1 2

Electron Capacity
2

2 3
4 5

8 18
32 50

He
Helium 4
http://www.fg-a.com/clipart_science_2.shtml http://store.odulo.com/Item.asp?id=220

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The periodic table is the most important tool in the chemists toolbox!

Alkali Metals

1 electron in outer energy shell React with water to release H2 gas The most reactive metals

ALKALI METALS
Group 1 Hydrogen is not a member, it is a non-metal 1 electron in the outer shell Soft and silvery metals Very reactive, esp. with water Conduct electricity

Image: http://www.learner.org/interactives/periodic/groups2.html

Alkaline Earth Metals

2 electrons in outer energy shell White and malleable Reactive, but less than Alkali metals Conduct electricity

Transition Metals

Generally 2 electrons in outer energy level Commonly have more than one oxidation number Form compounds that are brightly colored Good conductors of heat and electricity. Some are used for jewelry. Can bond with many elements in a variety of shapes.

Rare Earth Metals


2 electrons in outer energy level Primary oxidation number is +3 Lanthanide series: soft, malleable metals with high lustre and conductivity Actinoid series: All radioactive; most human-made

Metalloids

Elements with properties of both metals and nonmetals Elements touching the stairstep

Halogens

7 electrons in their outer energy level Easily combine with metals to form salts Most reactive of all nonmetals

Noble Gases

Full outer energy level Almost completely inactive (inert) All are colorless gases Argon is the most abundant, making up almost 1% of air

Atomic radius decreases Metallic properties decrease


Atomic radius increases Metallic properties increase

The following periodic trends are embedded within the periodic table:
Atomic size (radius), Ionic size (radius), Ionization energy, Electronegativity.

Periodic Table Navigation

Periodic Law:
When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic pattern in their physical and chemical properties.

The horizontal rows of the periodic table are called PERIODS.

1 2 3

Each new period (row) represents an energy level added.

4
5 6 7

Periods

Each row is called a period The elements in each period have the same number of shells

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The elements in any group of the periodic table have similar physical and chemical properties!

The vertical columns of the periodic table are called GROUPS, or FAMILIES.

Groups
Group 1 = 1 electron

Group 8 = 8 electrons Except for He, it has 2 electrons


Each column is called a group Each element in a group has the same number of electrons in their outer orbital, also known as shells.

Group 2 = 2 electrons

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The electrons in the outer shell are called valence electrons

Transition Metals
Transition Metals have slightly different rules for shells and valence electrons.
This is something you will learn about in High School Chemistry.

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This Bohr diagram illustrates energy levels and electrons for Phosphorous

Determine the number of shells and the number of valence electrons for:
2nd Period = 2 shells

4th Group = 4 valence electrons

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Determine the number of shells and the number of valence electrons for:
3rd Period = 3 shells 1st Group = 1 valence electron

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Write your answers in your notebook.


Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?

Write your answers in your notebook.


Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?
Neon

2nd Period = 2 shells 8th Group = 8 valence electrons

Write your answers on your handout.


Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?

Write your answers on your handout.


Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?
Hydrogen

1st Period = 1 shell 1st Group = 1 valence electron

Write your answers on your handout.


Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?

Write your answers on your handout.


Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?
Beryllium

2nd Period = 2 shells 2nd Group = 2 valence electrons

Write your answers in your notebook.


Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?

Write your answers in your notebook.


Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?
Sulfur

3rd Period = 3 shells 6th Group = 6 valence electrons

Write your answers on your handout.


Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?

Write your answers on your handout.


Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?
Potassium

4th Period = 4 shells 1st Group = 1 valence electron

Write your answers on your handout.


Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?

Write your answers in your notebook.


Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?
Helium

1st Period = 1 shell 8th Group = 2 valence electrons


Helium is the exception in Group 8. Since it has just one shell, that shell can only fit 2 electrons instead of 8.

Understand:
Bohr diagram Energy level Valence electron Electron cloud Atomic Mass Atomic number Periodic trend

http://www.pbs.org/hollywoodpresents/copenhagen/story/bohr.html

Got it?

Vocabulary
Electron

Negatively charged fundamental particle Positively charged fundamental particle Uncharged fundamental particle

Proton

Neutron

Nucleus
Small, central unit in the atom that contains neutrons

and protons