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FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN

The internal genital organs comprises a pair of ovaries, a pair of uterine tube or fallopian tube, single uterus and vagina.

Ovaries
Ovaries are female gonads. Oocytes are formed in them. Ovary lies in ovarian fossa on lateral pelvic wall. Boundaries of ovarian fossa Anteriorly obliterated umbilical artery Posteriorly ureter and internal iliac artery

Position In nulliparous long axis is vertical In multiparous long axis is horizontal.

Before ovulation the surface is smooth and colour is greyish pink. After ovulation the surface is uneven and colour is grey.
Upper pole and lower pole. Anterior border (mesovarin ) and posterior border (free). Medial and lateral surface. It is entirely covered by peritoneum, except along mesovarian border. Arterial supply ovarian or gonadal artery Venous drainage inferior vena cava on rt side and into renal vein on left side. Lymphatic drainage lateral aortic and preaortic group of lymph nodes. Nerve supply- sympathetic T10, T11and parasympathetic from s1, s2,s3.

Microanatomy of ovary- cortex is lined by germinal or cuboidal epithelium derived from peritoneum. Cortex consists of ovarian follicles medulla is made up of vascular connective tissue , nerves and vessels.

Uterine tubes - is a duct which convey oocyte from ovary to uterus. Situation in the upper free margin of broad ligament of uterus. It is 10 cm long and its lateral end opens into peritoneal cavity through abdominal ostium. Infundibulum bearing fimbriae, ampulla, isthmus and intramural part. Isthmus and ampulla are directed posterolaterally in horizontal plane. Blood supply by uterine and ovarian artery. Venous drainage into uterine vein and pampiniform plexus of the ovary. Lymphatic drainage into lateral aortic, preaortic and superficial group of lymph node.

Microanatomy of ft- it has three layers Serous layer Mucous muscular layer Mucous membrane is lined by ciliated columnar epithelium and mucous membrane is thrown into folds.

Uterus it is a thick walled hollow organ situated in pelvis bet bladder and rectum. Shape is pyriform, length 7.5 cm, breath 5 cm , thickness 2.5 cm and weight is 30 to 40 gm. Uterus has fundus, body and cervix. Body forms upper 2/3 portion and cervix form lower 1/3 portion. Body has anterior and posterior surface, two lateral border. Anterior surface - urinary bladder Posterior surface ilium and sigmoid colon. Lateral border attached to broad ligament. Cervix it is 2.5 cm long. It has internal os and external os. The canal has anterior and posterior wall. lower part of cervix project into the anterior wall of vagina which divide it into supravaginal and vaginal part . Supravaginal part is relaterd anteriorly to bladder and posteriorly to rectouterine pouch.

In vaginal part of cervix there is there is space between wall of vagina and cervix which is called as fornices.
Normal position and angulations of uterus Axis of uterus forms 125 degree with axis of cervix called as antifexsion. Axis of cevix forms 90 degree with axis of vagina which is called as antiversion. Arterial supply of uterus- by uterine artery which is branch of internal iliac artery and partly by uterine artery. Venous drainage- into internal iliac vein. Lymphatic drainage form upper portion into aortic node from lower portion into external iliac node and internal iliac group of lymph node.

Microanatomy of uterus- it consist of three layer endometrium, myometrium and serous coat. Endometrium - is lined by simple columnar epithelium after menstruation , before menstruation epithelium is ciliated columnar. Endometrium has three phases proliferative, secretory or progestational and menstrual phase. Myometrium - is made of outer and inner longitudinal coat and middle circular coat. Serous layer is derived from peritonium.

Support of uterus Primary support a) Muscular support pelvic diaphragm perineal body urogenital diaphragm b) Fibromuscular support uterine axis pubocervical ligament uterosacral ligament transverse cervical ligament round ligament of uterus

Secondary support These are peritoneal fold like broad ligament of uterus, uterovesical fold , rectouterine fold.