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EGINEERING MATERIALS AND METALLURGY

A. NALLAPPAN VSA SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING SALEM

MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

MATERIALS SCIENCE

Its involving the relationships that exist between the structures


and properties of materials. MATERIALS ENGINEERING

Materials engineering is on the basics of these structure-property


correlations, designing or engineering structure of a materials to produce a predetermined set of properties. The focus is on how to translate or transform materials into useful devices or structures.

WHY STUDY MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING ? Right materials to right application

CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS

CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS (contd.)


MATERIALS
METALS POLYMERS
THERMOPLASTIC POLYMIDES POLYCARBONATES POLYSTYRENE PVC POLYETHYLENE THERMOPLASTIC POLYESTERS PHEONAL FORMALDEHYDE UREA FORMALDEHYDE

CREAMICS
ALUMINA SILICA SILICON CARBIDE BORAN CEMENTS

COMPOSITES
POLYWOOD CONCREATR CLASS REINFORCE PLASTIC CORBON FIBER

FERROUS
IRON STEEL CASTIRON

NON FERROUS
COPPER ALUMINIUM LEAD ZINC COBALT TIN

Crystal physics

CRYSTAL STRUCTURES
INTRODUCTION The term crystal is a solid whose constituent atoms or molecules are arranged in a systematic geometric pattern. The term structure means the arrangement of a materials atoms; the structure at a microscopic scale is known as microstructure.

CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS SOLDS

CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS The materials in which the atoms are arranged in some regular repetition pattern
Single crystal - Monocrystal More than one crystal Polycrystalline Examples
steel Gold Silver Copper

NON CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS In this type of materials, the atoms are arranged in the irregular fashion.
Examples
Glass Rubber

polymers

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY
Three-dimensional arrangements of atoms in
a crystal is called crystallography

Its is refer to these as the lattice and basis


concept and the unit cell concept

LATTICE
LATTICE : A lattice is a arrangement of atoms A lattice may be one-,two-, or three-dimensional. LATTICE POINTS: Its denote the position of atoms or molecules in the crystals. SPACE LATTICE : Space lattice is a three-dimensional geometric arrangement of the atoms or molecules or ions composing a crystal. Space lattice is also known as crystal lattice. BASIS: With a group of atoms attached to each lattice point called basis

UNIT CELL
The smallest part of a crystal is called as unit cell. It is formed by combination of atoms and molecules. The whole crystal structure can be formed by the
2D 3D

repetition of these unit cells.


S S

S
S S

S
S S

S S
S S S S

LATTICE GEOMETRY
To define the geometry of the unit cell in 3 dimensions we

choose a right-handed set of crystallographic axes, x, y, and z, which


point along the edges of the unit cell. The origin of our coordinate system is at one of the lattice points. The length of the unit cell along the x, y, and z direction are defined as a, b, and c. Alternatively, we can think of the sides of the unit cell in terms of vectors a, b, and c. The angles between the crystallographic axes are defined by

LATTICE PARAMETERS
The length of the unit cell along the x, y, and z direction are
defined as a, b, and c. Alternatively, we can think of the sides of the unit cell in terms of vectors a, b, and c. The angles between the crystallographic axes are defined by:
= the angle between b and c = the angle between a and c = the angle between a and b

a, b, c, , , are collectively know as the lattice parameters

LATTICE PARAMETERS (contd)


PRIMITIVE CELL

Unit cell, which contains lattice points at its corners only.

NON-PRIMITIVE CELL

Unit cell, which contains more than one lattice points.

CRYARAL TYPES
S.NO CRYSTAL SYSTEM NUMBER OF POSSIBLE TYPES

1 2 3 4

CUBIC TETRAGONAL HEXAGONAL ORTHORHOMIC

3 (Simple, Body- centered, Face- centered) 2(Simple, Body- centered,) 1(Simple) 4(Simple, Body- centered, Face- centered, base- centered ) 2(Simple, Body-centered) 1(Simple)

5
6 7

RHOMBOHEDRAL 1(Simple)
MONOCLINIC TRICLINIC

CRYARAL TYPES (contd..)


Simple cubic structure Face centered cubic

Body- centered cubic structure

CRYARAL TYPES (contd..)

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
SIMPLE CUBIC STRUCTURE (SC)

8- Corner atoms

BODY CENTER STRUCTURE(BCC)

8- Corner atoms and one center


atoms
Examples:

Tungsten (W), Chromium (Cr),

vanadium (V),
Molybdenum (Mo), -iron, - iron

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE (contd) FACE CENTER CUBIC STRUCTURE (FCC)

8-Corner atoms and one atoms at the face Examples: Copper (Cu), Gold (Au), Nickel (Ni), Platinum (Pt), Lead (Pb), Silver (Ag)

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE (contd)

HEXAGONAL CLOSE PACKED STRUCTURE (HCP)


8-One atoms at each corner, one atoms each at the center of the hexagonal faces and three more atoms with the body of the cell Examples: Magnesium (Mg), Zinc (Zn), Titanium (Ti), Zirconium (Zr), Graphite, Diamond,

CRYSTAL DEFECTS OR IMPERFECTIONS

DEFECT (OR) IMPERFECTION


A perfect crystal, with every atom of the same type in the correct position, does not exist. All crystals have some defects.

Any deviation from the perfect periodic repeated array of

atoms in the crystal.

PURPOSE OF STUDYOF IMPERFECTION

IN CRYSTAL
Good understanding of crystal

How they affect the properties of metals

Help in finding the possibilities of redusing these defects

CLASSIFICATION OF DEFECTS BASED ON DIMENSIONALITY 0D (Point defects)


Vacancy Impurity Frenkel defect Schottky defect Interstitial

1D (Line defects)
Dislocation
Edge dislocation Screw dislocation

2D (Surface / Interface)
Surface
Interphase boundary Grain boundary

3D (Volume defects/

bulk
Twins Precipitate Faulted region Voids / Cracks Thermal vibration

Disclination Dispiration

Twin boundary
Stacking faults

POINT DEFECT

Point defects are where an atom is missing or is in an irregular place in the lattice structure (OR)

The defects which take place due to imperfection packing of


atoms during crystallization

TYPES OF POINT DEFECT

Vacancy

Impurity Frenkel defect


Schottky defect

Interstitial

WHAT IS VACANCY ?

Vacancies are empty spaces where an atom should be, but is missing. (OR) Point defect means missing of the atoms in the crystal, from the lattice site.
TYPES a) Single vacancy b) Di-vacancy
Tensile Stress Fields ?

SCHOTTKY DEFECT

When vacancies occur in an ionically bonded


material, a stoichiometric number of anions and cations must be missing from regular atomic positions if electrical neutrality is to be preserved.

INTERSTITIAL DEFECT

An interstitial defect is formed when an

extra atom or ion is inserted into the crystal

structure at a normally unoccupied position

INTERSTITIAL DEFECT (contd..)


SELF TNTERSTITIAL

Self-interstitial defects are interstitial defects which contain only


atoms which are the same as those already present in the lattice.

Frenkel defect A Frenkel defect is a vacancy-interstitial pair formed when an ion jumps from a normal lattice point to an inter Frenkel defect can occur in metals and covalently bonded materials stitial site,

What is Impurities (or) compositional defects ?

This defects arise when foreign atoms are present at

the lattice site or at the vacant interstitial sites.

Types:
1. Substitutional impurity 2. Interstitial impurity Substitutional impurity Foreign atom replaced a parent atom in the lattice.

SUMMARY

LINE DEFECT

Dislocation
I. Edge dislocation II. Screw dislocation

Disclination

Dispiration

WHAT IS DISLOCATION ? Dislocations are line imperfections in an otherwise perfect crystal. (OR)

The defect, which take place due to dislocation or distortion of atoms along a line TYPES: 1. Edge dislocation

2. Screw dislocation

EDGE DISLOCATION
This is plastic movement of atoms, which starts within the crystal and their effect s can be seen on the edge of the crystal

(OR)
An edge dislocation can be illustrated by slicing partway through a perfect crystal, spreading the crystal apart, and partly filling the

cut with an extra half plane of atoms.

EDGE DISLOCATION

EDGE DISLOCATION

SCREW DISLOCATION
The screw dislocation can be illustrated by cutting partway through a perfect crystal and then skewing the crystal by one atom spacing.

SCREW DISLOCATION

SCREW DISLOCATION

SURFACE DEFECT (OR) PLANE DEFECTS


Surface defects are the boundaries, or planes, that separate a material into regions
Surface defect

Interphase boundary Grain boundary

Twin boundary
Stacking faults

GRAIN BOUNDARY
The microstructure of many engineered ceramic and metallic materials consists of many grains. A grain is a portion of the

material within which the arrangement of the atoms is nearly


identical; however, the orientation of the atom arrangement, or crystal structure, is different for each adjoining grain

TILT AND TWIST BOUNDARIES

A small angle grain boundary is an array of dislocations that

produces a small misorientation (angle) between the adjoining


crystals.

TWIN BOUNDARIES
A twin boundary is a plane across which there is a special mirror image misorientation of the crystal structure

TWIN BOUNDARIES