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JPEG Still Image Data Compression Standard

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School of Computer Science, University of Central Florida, VLSI and M-5 Research Group

JPEG

May, 1999

JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Expert Group A standard image compression method is needed to enable interoperability of equipment from different manufacturer It is the first international digital image compression standard for continuous-tone images (grayscale or color) The history of JPEG the selection process

very good or excellent compression rate, reconstructed image quality, transmission rate be applicable to practically any kind of continuoustone digital source image good complexity have the following modes of operations:

JPEG Overview

Source image data Encoder model descriptors encoder statistical model symbols entropy encoder compressed image data

model tables

JPEG has the following Operation Modes:

Sequential DCT-based mode Progressive DCT-based mode Sequential lossless mode Hierarchical mode

JPEG Baseline system is composed of:

88 blocks

DCT-based encoder

FDCT quantizer statistical model table specification entropy encoder compressed image data

table specification

Lossy encoding HVS is generally more sensitive to low frequencies Natural images

The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) separates the frequencies contained in an image. The original data could be reconstructed by Inverse DCT.

The mathematical representation of FDCT (2-D):

7 7 1 F (u, v ) C (u)C (v ) f ( x, y ) cos(2(i 1)u / 16) cos(2( j 1)v / 16) 4 x 0 y 0

Where

1 / 2 x0 C( x) 1 otherwise

f(x,y): 2-D sample value F(u,v): 2-D DCT coefficient

An example of 1-D DCT decomposition

(b)

150 100 50 150 100 50

(c)

f(x)

S(u)

1

1 1

Amplitude

Amplitude

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Amplitude

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Amplitude

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

-1

-1

-1

-1

U=0

1

1

U=1

1

U=2

1

U=3

Amplitude

Amplitude

Amplitude

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Amplitude

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

-1

-1

-1

-1

U=4

U=5

U=6

U=7

DC coefficient

The DCT coefficient values can be regarded as the relative amounts of the 2-D spatial frequencies contained in the 88 block the upper-left corner coefficient is called the DC coefficient, which is a measure of the average of the energy of the block Other coefficients are called AC coefficients, coefficients correspond to high frequencies tend to be zero or near zero for most natural images

F (u , v) F ' (u , v) Round ( ) Q(u , v)

F(u,v): original DCT coefficient F(u,v): DCT coefficient after quantization Q(u,v): quantization value

Why quantization? .

to achieve further compression by representing DCT coefficients with no greater precision than is necessary to achieve the desired image quality

Generally, the high frequency coefficients has larger quantization values Quantization makes most coefficients to be zero, it makes the compression system efficient, but its the main source that make the system lossy

16 12 14 14 18 24 49 72 11 12 13 17 22 35 64 92 10 14 16 22 37 55 78 95 16 19 24 29 56 64 87 98 24 26 40 51 68 81 103 112 40 58 57 87 109 104 121 100 51 60 69 80 103 113 120 103 61 55 56 62 77 92 101 99

A simple example

O O X X X X O O O X X X X X X O O X X X X X X O X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X O X X X X X X O O X X X X X X O O O X X X X O O

-10 10 10 10 10 10 10 -10

-10 10 10 10 10 10 10 -10

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

-10 10 10 10 10 10 10 -10

-10 10 10 10 10 10 10 -10

40 0 -45 0 -20 0 -3 0

0 -26 0 0 0 -24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 18 0 0

0 -11 0 0 0 -10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Digitized image

A simple example(cont.)

16 12 14 14 18 24 49 72 11 12 13 17 22 35 64 92 10 14 16 22 37 55 78 95 16 19 24 29 56 64 87 98 24 26 40 51 68 81 103 112 40 58 57 87 109 104 121 100 51 60 69 80 103 113 120 103 61 55 56 62 77 92 101 99

40 0 -45 0 -20 0 -3 0

0 -26 0 0 0 -24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 18 0 0

0 -11 0 0 0 -10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 0 -3 0 -1 0 0 0

0 -3 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

DCT coefficients

Quantized coefficients

Since most image samples have correlation and DC coefficient is a measure of the average value of a 88 block, we make use of the correlation of DC coefficients

quantized DC coefficients

DPCM

DC difference

Horizontal frequency

0 2

1 4 8 11 19 22 34 36

5 7 12 18 23 33 37 49

6 13 17 24 32 38 47 48

14 16 25 31 39 46 50 57

15 26 30 40 45 51 56 58

27 29 41 44 52 55 59 62

28 42 43 53 54 60 61 63

Vertical frequency

3 9 10 20 21 35

Statistical modeling translate the inputs to a sequence of symbols for Huffman coding to use Statistical modeling on DC coefficients:

symbol 1: different size (SSSS) symbol 2: amplitude of difference (additional bits) symbol 1: RUN-SIZE=16*RRRR+SSSS symbol 2: amplitude of difference (additional bits)

quantized DC value DPCM difference SSSS Additional bits

zigzag index AC descriptor RRRR SSSS RUN-SIZE Additional bits

8 9 +1 0 1 33 1

+3 +6 3 110

EOB 0 0 --

+3 0 0 -63 0

Why progressive model? Quick transmission Image built up in a coarse-to-fine passes First stage: encode a rough but recognizable version of the image Later stage(s): the image refined by successive scans till get the final image Two ways to do this: Spectral selection send DC, AC coefficients separately Successive approximation send the most significant bits first and then the least significant bits

Sample values

DPCM

Descriptors

Predictors for lossless coding selection value prediction strategy 0 no prediction 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 A+B-C 5 A+(B-C)/2 6 B+(A-C)/2 7 (A+B)/2

A X

filter and down-sample the original images by the desired number of multiplies of 2 in each dimension Encode the reduced-size image using one of the above coding model Use the up-sampled image as a prediction of the origin at this resolution, encode the difference Repeat till the full resolution image has been encode

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