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Chapter 5 gp 7, 8 and 9

Psych 30
7. How does social interaction
with adults advance cognitive
competence?
• 'Guided participation'
refers to the coordination
and communication
between persons as they
co-participate in culturally
valued activities. The
'guidance' in guided
participation includes
influence of cultural and
social values, as well as
imitation of more
experienced social
partners
7. How does social interaction
with adults advance cognitive
competence?
• The 'participation'
refers to both hands-
on involvement of an
activity and to
observation of both
one's self and the
other.
7. How does social interaction
with adults advance cognitive
competence?
• In guided participation both
actors are active; the learning
is more by doing than by
telling or being told. Guided
participation emphasizes the
importance of activity,
engagement, observation, and
joint-action. So Guided
participation is when the adult
participates in a child’s activity
in a way that strengthens the
child’s understanding.
8. How do babies develop
language?
• Language is a crucial area of
cognitive development – the
components that are
important in language
development are
• maturation of the physical
structures necessary to
produce sounds
• the neural connections
necessary to associate
sounds and meanings must
be in place
• social interactions with
adults to promote literacy.
8. How do babies develop
language?
12 to 17
• Language Milestones(also see page 178
table 5-4)
month
s
• answers simple questions
• Milestones related to speech and
language: Birth to 5
nonverbally
months • says two to three words to
• coos
• vocalizes pleasure and displeasure label a person or object
sounds (laughs, giggles, cries, or fusses)
• makes noise when talked to (pronunciation may not be
• 6 to 11
months
clear)
• understands "no-no" • tries to imitate simple words
• babbles (says "ba-ba-ba")
• says ma-ma or da-da without meaning
• vocabulary of four to six words
• tries to communicate by actions or
gestures
• tries to repeat your sounds
• says first word
Continued
• 18 to 23
months

correctly pronounces most vowels and n, m, p, h,
especially in the beginning of syllables and short words-
also begins to use other speech sounds.
• vocabulary of 50 words, pronunciation is often unclear

asks for common foods by name

makes animal sounds such as "moo"

starting to combine words such as "more milk"
• begins to use pronouns such as "mine"
• uses two word phrases
continued
2 to 3
years • knows some spatial concepts such as "in," "on"
• knows pronouns such as "you," "me," "her"
• knows descriptive words such as "big," "happy"
• vocabulary of 250 to 900 words
• uses three word sentences
• speech is becoming more accurate but may still leave off
ending sounds- strangers may not be able to understand
much of what is said
• answers simple questions
• begins to use more pronouns such as "you," "I"
• fuses questions inflection to ask for something such as
"my ball?"
• begins to use plurals such as "shoes" or "socks" and
regular past tense verbs such as "jumped"
continued
3 to 4
years

• groups objects such as foods, clothes, etc.


• identifies colors
• uses most speech sounds but may distort some of the more
difficult sounds such as l, r, s, sh, ch, y, v, z, th- these
sounds may not be fully mastered until age 7 or 8
• uses consonants in the beginning, middle, and ends of
words- some of the more difficult consonants may be
distorted, but attempts to say them
• strangers are able to understand much of what is said
• able to describe the use of objects such as "fork," "car," etc.
• has fun with language- enjoys poems and recognizes
language absurdities such as, "is that an elephant on your
head?"
• expresses ideas and feelings rather than just talking about
the world around him/her
9. What influences contribute to
the linguistic process?
• Maturation of the
brain
• The regions of the
brain most closely
associated with
language do not
fully mature until
late preschool years
and some parts not
until adulthood.
9. What influences contribute to
the linguistic process?
• The brainstem and
pons – control cries of
new baby. (Remember
this is a primitive part
of the brain – earliest to
develop)
• The motor cortex
controls movement of
the face and larynx
( muscle movement
which must be
coordinated for speech
to occur)
9. What influences contribute to
the linguistic process?
• Language is a social
interaction – adults
help children learn
to speak by
• adding vocabulary
words
• parroting and
adding modifiers to
the child’s words
9. What influences contribute to
the linguistic process?
• using Child Directed
Speech
• Child Directed speech
is a pattern of speech
which includes
• Simplified words
• High pitched voice
• Much repetition
• Emphasize on vowel
sounds
• End of ch 5 good luck
on test