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After assuming charge as Prime Minister, Chaudhry

Muhammad Ali along with his team worked day and night to formulate a constitution for Pakistan. His efforts led to the first constitution that was enforced in the country on March 23, 1956. Pakistan's status as a dominion ended and the country was declared an Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Thereupon the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan became the interim National Assembly and Governor General Sikander Mirza was sworn in as the first President of Pakistan.

Constitution of Pakistan of 1956


The Constitution of 1956 consisted of 234

articles, which were divided into 13 parts and 6 schedules. One of the main features of the Constitution was its Islamic character.

Salient Features

Islamic Republic of Pakistan - The name of the country Islamic Republic


of Pakistan. Objectives Resolution Federal System - The constitution provides for a federal system in the country. Powers was divided between the centre and the provinces. The subjects were divided into three lists; The Federal List, The Provincial List, and the Concurrent List. Unicameral Legislature - The legislature would consist of a single house. Both the wings of the country were given representation in the National Assembly. The National Assembly consisted of 300 members. 150 members were drawn from each wing. Parliamentary System - a parliamentary system was adopted, according to it the president was the head of state and the Prime Minister the head of government.

The President - required to be a Muslim of at least forty years of age. The tenure of

his office was five years. In case of internal or external danger he could declare a state of emergency in the country. He was authorized to appoint theGovernors, the Judges of the Supreme Court, Auditor General and the Advocate General. The Prime Minister - He was to be the leader of the Parliamentary group and was thus indirectly elected by the people. He could choose his cabinet from the members of the National Assembly. Islamic Law - no law would be passed against the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah. Free Judiciary - An independent judiciary in the country. Fundamental Rights - included freedom of movement, freedom of speech and expression, freedom to choose profession and freedom to profess religion. Right to life, liberty, and property. Language - Urdu & Bengali were made national languages

Islamic provisions
Islamic Republic of Pakistan - The name of the country was adopted as the

Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Islamic Law - No Law would be passed against the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah, and existing laws would be made Islamic in character. Muslim President - a requirement. Religious Freedom - Freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion and the right to establish, maintain and manage religious institutions. Life According to the Holy Quran and Sunnah- According to the directive principles, steps were to be taken to enable the Muslims of Pakistan individually and collectively to order their lives in accordance with the Holy Quran and Sunnah. Teachings of the Holy Quran - Were to be made compulsory for all Muslims. Alcohol and narcotics - sale was banned and were prohibited Special tax - No person should be compelled to pay any special tax whose proceeds were to be spent on the propagation of any religion other than the person's own. Unity among Muslim countries - States were required to strengthen the bonds of Muslims. Organization for Islamic Research and Instructions

Draw backs Constitution of Pakistan of 1956


The devolution prevailed as the government

power was transferred on provincial basis. The federal list was reduced and provincial list was enlarged, many power on resources were transferred to provinces. This was contrary to the practice of advanced countries and did not do any good to bring together the country already divided by geography. Regional loyalties were further consolidated by the introduction of equal representation by members from different provinces in the National Assembly. This meant that each province was concerned about its own advantages only instead of good of the whole country.

With the aim of investigating the reasons of

failure of the parliamentary system in Pakistan, and to make recommendations for a new constitution, Ayub Khan appointed a Constitution Commission under the supervision of Justice Shahab-ud-din. After a number of considerations, the Commission submitted its report on May 6, 1961. Ayub Khan was not satisfied with the report and had it processed through various committees. As a result the Constitution, which was promulgated on March 1, and enforced on June 8, 1962, was entirely different from the one recommended by the Shahab-ud-din Commission

Constitution of Pakistan of 1962


The Constitution of 1962 consisted of 250

Articles, which were divided into 12 Parts and three Schedules.

Salient Features

Islamic Republic of Pakistan - The name of the country Islamic Republic

of Pakistan. Federal System A federal system was introduced in the country. It consisted of a central government and two provincial government comprising East and West Pakistan. Presidential forum of Government President was the head Executive of the nation. He was empowered to nominate the ministers of his cabinet. Unicameral Legislature Indirect Method of Election The President was elected by an Electoral College comprising 80,000 Basic Democrats, equally distributed between the two provinces. Provincial Legislature Each province was provided with a legislature. It originally consisted of 150 members. However, later on this number was increased to 218.

Powers of President the President should be a Muslim with the term of 5 years. He

was eligible to promulgate Ordinances and veto against legislated laws only override-able by two/thirds of the National Assembly. Restrictions to the President The President was not allowed to hold any office of profit in the service of Pakistan but was not prevented from holding a managing private property. Islamic Law No Law would be passed against the teaching of Quran and Sunnah and the existing laws would be made Islamic in character. Fundamental Rights The constitution of 1962 laid down fundamental rights of speech and expression, freedom to choose profession and freedom to profess religion. With Regards to civil rights, familiar right such as the rights of life, livery and property were granted. Role of Judiciary The Judiciary was responsible for the interpretation of laws and executive orders Language Urdu and Bengali were recognized as National Languages.

Islamic provisions
Islamic Republic of Pakistan - The name of the country was adopted as

the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.


Islamic Law - No Law would be passed against the teachings of the

Quran and Sunnah, and existing laws would be made Islamic in character.
Muslim President - a requirement. Religious Freedom - Freedom to profess, practice and propagate any

religion and the right to establish, maintain and manage religious institutions.
Life According to the Holy Quran and Sunnah- According to the directive

principles, steps were to be taken to enable the Muslims of Pakistan individually and collectively to order their lives in accordance with the Holy Quran and Sunnah.
Teachings of the Holy Quran - Were to be made compulsory for all

Muslims.
Alcohol and narcotics - sale was banned and were prohibited
Unity among Muslim countries - States were required to strengthen the

bonds of Muslims.
Proper organization of Zakat, waqf, and mosques was ensured.

When Ayub Khan handed over power to Yahya

Khan, Martial Law was enforced in the country and the Constitution was terminated on March 25, 1969.