You are on page 1of 20

Global Marketing Management

A European Perspective

Global Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning


Warren J. Keegan Bodo B. Schlegelmilch

Overview
Global Market Segmentation
criteria: geographic, demographic, psychographic, behaviour, and benefit segmentation

Global Targeting Selecting a Global Target Market Strategy Global Product Positioning
High-Tech or High-Touch Positioning

Summary
Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective Chapter 7 / 2

Learning Objectives
To understand the objectives and usefulness of global market segmentation To know the approaches to global market segmentation using different segmentation criteria to define target groups To learn different ways of positioning products in global markets

Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective

Chapter 7 / 3

Global Market Segmentation


... is the process of dividing the world market into distinct subsets of customers that have similar needs (eg country groups or individual interest groups).

Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective

Chapter 7 / 4

Criteria for Global Market Segmentation


Geographic segmentation
geographic subsets

Demographic segmentation
eg age, gender, income, occupation

Psychographic segmentation Behaviour segmentation Benefit segmentation

Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective

Chapter 7 / 5

Psychographic Segmentation
... is based on attitudes, values and lifestyle ... is measured through extensive item batteries which cover activities, interests and opinions (AIO-studies) lifestyle surveys, eg by
the Research Institute of Social Change (RISC) the Centre de Communication Avanc (CCA) and the Values and Life Styles (VALS) by SRI International
Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective Chapter 7 / 6

Psychographic Profiles of Porsches American Customers


Category % of all owners
Top Guns Elitists Proud Patrons Bon Vivants 27% 24% 23% 17%

Description

Driven and ambitious; care about power and control; expect to be noticed Old money; a careven an expensive oneis just a car, not an extension of ones personality Ownership is what counts; a car is a trophy, a reward for working hard; being noticed doesnt matter

Cosmopolitan jet setters and thrill seekers; car heightens excitement


Car represents a form of escape; dont care about impressing others; may even feel guilty about owning car

Fantasists

9%

Source: ALEX III Taylor, Porsche Slices up its Buyers, Fortune, 16 January 1995, p. 24

Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective

Chapter 7 / 7

Backer Spielvogel & Bates Global Scan (BSB Global Scan )


... encompasses 18 countries, mostly in the Triad The researchers studied
consumer attitudes and values, media viewership/readership, buying patterns, product use.

5 global psychographic segments represent 95% of the adult populations in the countries surveyed.
Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective Chapter 7 / 8

The Target Groups of BSBs Global Scan

Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective

Chapter 7 / 9

Darcy Massius Benton & Bowles Euroconsumer Study


... focuses on Europe ... identified four lifestyle groups:
The first two groups represent the elite, the latter two mainstream European consumers.

Successful idealists Affluent materialists Comfortable belongers Disaffected survivors


Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective Chapter 7 / 10

Europanels Eurostyles

Source: adapted from Josef Mazanec, Exporting Eurostyles to the USA, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 5,4 (1993): p.4

Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective

Chapter 7 / 11

Behaviour and Benefit Segmentation


Behaviour segmentation
Focus on whether and how much people buy or use a product; eg usage rates: heavy , medium, and light users, and nonusers eg user status: potential users, nonusers, ex-users, regulars, first timers, and users of competitors products

Benefit segmentation
Today, consumers basic needs are fulfilled. Therefore, consumers seek additional value from purchase decisions; eg cars: in addition to movement buyers seek personal safety, image, superior engine power (speed) etc.
Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective Chapter 7 / 12

Global Targeting
After markets have been segmented, targeting aims at evaluating and comparing the indentified segments in order to select one or more as prospect(s) with the highest potential.

Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective

Chapter 7 / 13

Criteria for Targeting


As in single-country targeting, the most important criteria are: Current size of the segment and anticipated growth potential Competitive intensity and potential competition Compatibility with the companys overall objectives and the feasibility of successfully reaching a designated target
Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective

Chapter 7 / 14

Selecting a Global Target Market Strategy


standardised global marketing
i.e. mass marketing, the same marketing mix for a broad market of potential buyers; e.g. Revlon

concentrated global marketing


targeted at a single segment of the global market, e.g. Winterhalter (German dishwashers for hotels)

differentiated global marketing


2 or more different segments; e.g. VW (cars for various target groups: Porsche, Skoda, VW Golf etc.)
Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective Chapter 7 / 15

Global Product Positioning


is the location of a product in the mind of the consumer is partly controlled by the marketer (marketing mix) and partly not! is visualised by a positioning map
2 dimensions or multidimensional (MDS)

Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective

Chapter 7 / 16

Positioning Map of American Fast-FoodRestaurants in the Mind of Consumers

Source: adapted from James H. Myers, Segmentation and Positioning for Strategic Marketing Decisions (American Marketing Association, Chicago, 1996), S. 187

Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective

Chapter 7 / 17

High-Tech Positioning
Positioning stragtegy for products which are purchased on concrete product features; buyers typically already possess or wish to acquire considerable technical information Suitable for
technical products, such as computers or chemicals, special-interest products, such as sporting goods, products that can be demonstrated easily.; eg polaroid cameras
Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective Chapter 7 / 18

High-Touch Positioning
The emphasis lies more on the products image; specialised information appears of minor relevance Suitable for
products that solve a common problem; e.g., soft drinks global village products, such as cosmetics or fashion products that use universal themes; e.g. heroism in Levis ads (jeans)

Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective

Chapter 7 / 19

Summary
Before a company expands to foreign markets it must analyse the global environment. Global market segmentation aims at identifying similarities and differences of potential customers. Global targeting: The market segments are evaluated and compared and an appropriate targeting strategy is developed. To reach the targeted market segment(s) a positioning strategy must be chosen; in a global context high-tech or high-touch positioning are promising.
Keegan/Schlegelmilch Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective Chapter 7 / 20