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# Chapter 15

## Interfacing to the Analog World

Objectives
You should be able to:
Perform the basic calculations involved in the analysis of operational amplifier circuits. Explain the operation of binary-weighted and R/2R digital-to-analog converters. Make the external connections to a digital-to-analog IC to convert a numeric binary string into a proportional analog voltage.

Objectives
(Continued)
Discuss the meaning of the specifications for converter ICs as given in a manufacturers data manual. Explain the operation of parallel-encoded counterramp, and successive-approximation analog-digital converters.

Objectives
(Continued)
Make the external connections to an analog-todigital converters IC to convert an analog voltage to a corresponding binary string. Discuss the operation of a typical data acquisition system.

## Digital and Analog Representations

An analog signal can be represented with digital values at some time interval.

## Four binary positions = 4-bit resolution

16 different representations
256 different representations

## Operational Amplifier Basics

Very high input impedance Very high voltage gain Very low output impedance

Discussion Point

Determine Vout

## Binary-Weighted Digital-to-Analog Converters

Sum of the currents from the input resistors Binary weighting factor

## Binary-Weighted Digital-to-Analog Converters

Accurate resistance over a wide range is difficult Not practical for conversions greater than 4-bit

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Only two resistor values 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 bit resolutions are common

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## Integrated-Circuit Digital-toAnalog Converters

DAC0808 Application

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## IC Data Converter Specifications

Nonmonotonic, offset error, relative accuracy, settling time, and 3-bit ADC transfer characteristic

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## Parallel-Encoded Analog-to-Digital Converters

Parallel encoding
Also called simultaneous, multiple comparator, or flash converting Several comparators with different reference voltages drive a priority encoder

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## Parallel-Encoded Analog-to-Digital Converters

Three-bit parallel encoded ADC priority encoder Analog range of 0-7 V 3 bit (8 level) resolution
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## Counter-Ramp Analog-to-Digital Converters

Counter used in conjunction with a D/A converter To change for continuous conversions end-ofconversion line is tied back to clear input Disadvantage is slow conversion time

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## Successive-Approximation Analog-to-Digital Conversion

Most used in modern ADC ICs Converter circuit is similar to counter-ramp Uses successive approximation register to quickly narrow in on the analog value Result is a much faster conversion when compared to the counter-ramp method

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## Integrated-Circuit Analog-to-Digital Converters

NE5034 similar to the SAR ADC just presented but uses a three-state output buffer instead of a D flip-flop Conversion speeds up to 17 s Compatible with bus oriented microprocessors

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## Integrated-Circuit Analog-toDigital Converters

Successive-approximation Two analog inputs for differential measurements Internal clock (determined by external R and C) Operation similar to NE5034 Analog and digital ground are both provided

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## Data Acquisition System Application

Data bus Control bus Analog Multiplexer Switch (AM3705) Sample-and-Hold Circuit (LF198) Programmable-Gain Instrumentation Amplifier (LH0084) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC0804)
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## Transducers and Signal Conditioning

Physical quantities to electrical quantities Must be conditioned due to different output ranges and signals Manufacturers specifications must be studied Analog output of transducer is converted to binary by ADC Data can then be manipulated by software

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## Thermistors Example conversion circuit

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Table 152 Tabulation of output voltage levels for a temperature range of 0 to 100 C in figure 1522.

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## The Strain Gage

Resistance changes when stretched Example of signal conditioning for a strain gage

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Summary

Any analog quantity can be represented by a binary number. Longer binary numbers provide higher resolution, which gives a more accurate representation of the analog quantity. The binary-weighted D/A converter is the simplest to construct, but it has practical limitations in resolution (number of input bits).
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Summary

Operational amplifiers are important building blocks in analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters. They provide a means for summing currents at the input and converting a current to a voltage at the output of converter circuits. The R/2R ladder D/A converter uses only two different resistor values, no matter how many binary input bits are included. This allows for very high resolution and ease of fabrication in integratedcircuit form.
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Summary

The DAC0808 (or MC1408) IC is an 8-bit D/A converter that uses the R/2R ladder method of conversion. It accepts 8 binary input bits and outputs an equivalent analog current. Having 8 input bits means that it can resolve up to 256 unique binary values into equivalent analog values.

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Summary

Applying an 8-bit counter to the input of an 8bit D/A converter will produce a 256-step sawtooth waveform at its output. The simplest way to build an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter is to use the parallel encoding method. The disadvantage is that it is practical only for low-resolution applications.

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Summary

The counter-ramp A/D converter employs a counter, a D/A converter, and a comparator to make its conversion. The counter counts from zero up to a value that causes the D/A output to exceed the analog input value slightly. That binary count is then output as the equivalent to the analog input.

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Summary

The method of A/D conversion used most often is called successive approximation. In this method, successive bits are tested to see if they contribute an equivalent analog value that is greater than the analog input to be converted. If they do, they are returned to zero. After all bits are tested, the ones that are left ON are used as the final digital equivalent to the analog input.
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Summary

The NE5034 and the ADC0802 are examples of A/D converter ICs. To make a conversion, the start-conversion pin is made LOW. When the conversion is completed the end-of-conversion pin goes LOW. Then to read the digital output, the output enable pin is made LOW.

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Summary

Data acquisition systems are used to read several different analog inputs, respond to the values read, store the results, and generate reports on the information gathered. Transducers are devices that convert physical quantities such as heat, light, or force into electrical quantities. Those electrical quantities must then be conditioned (or modified) before they can be interpreted by a digital computer.
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