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Teknik Sungai

Dwita S K Marsudiantoro
Departemen Teknik Sipil
Fakultas Teknik Universitas Indonesia
Kampus UI Depok 16424
Telp.: (021) 727 0029 atau (021) 786 3458
Fax.: (021) 727 0028 atau (021) 727 0025
Email: dwita@eng.ui.ac.id
HP: 0811 82 4878

TOPIK 6
Hidrolika Sungai

KLASIFIKASI
ALIRAN SUNGAI

Open Channel Flow Classification
A. Steady Flow
1. Uniform flow
2. Non-uniform (Varied flow)
a. Gradually varied flow
b. Rapidly varied flow
B. Unsteady Flow
1. Unsteady uniform flow (rare)
2. Unsteady flow
a. Gradually varied unsteady flow
b. Rapidly varied unsteady flow

Problems Staging

Stage 1:
study of the problem for uniform steady flow conditions
(equilibrium conditions and constant discharge)

Stage 2:
study of the problem for non-uniform conditions (backwater
curves)

Stage 3:
study of the problem for non-uniform, and unsteady
conditions

Stage 4:
study of three dimensional effects, for steady flow conditions

KLASIFIKASI ALIRAN DI SALURAN TERBUKA
TYPE ALIRAN DI SALURAN TERBUKA

Steady Flow and Unsteady`Flow :


Waktu yang menjadi kriteria

Uniform Flow and Varied Flow :


Tempat/ruang yang menjadi kriteria
KEADAAN ALIRAN

Effect of Viscosity (R) :

Reynold number (R) :


R = VL/

Effect of gravitasi (Fr) :

Froude Number (Fr) :

Fr = V/(gh)

Steady Uniform Flow (Stage 1)
A computation for uniform flow
conditions may serve to:

Study the feasibility of a project

Obtain a general insight into a problem

Study a case where uniform flow really


exists (in rivers hardly never the case, but
occurs often in irrigation canals)

KEADAAN ALIRAN

Effect of Viscosity (R) :


Reynold number (R) :R = VL/
Laminar : R < 500
Turbulent : R > 2000
Transitional : 500 < R < 2000

Effect of gravitasi (Fr) :


Froude Number (Fr) :
Fr = V/(gh)
Subcritical (Fr < 1)
Critical (Fr = 1)
Supercritical (Fr > 1)

Steady Non-Uniform Flow (Stage 2)
The water level surface profile (backwater
and drawdown curve) are important to
know as:

Local water levels are often a design


criteria

The backwater curve (or drawdown curve)


should be known to compute erosion and
sedimentation

Etc.


Unsteady Non-Uniform Flow
(Stage 3)
In river the flow will generally be non-
steady and the water level at a certain
place will change with time :

Short waves, due to wind navigation or


opening of gate

Design of bank protection due to variation


in rainfall which is influence on the
variation in discharge and water level


1995-1998 1995-1998
In In
Collaboration Collaboration
with with
Jakarta Office Jakarta Office
of of
Environmental Environmental
Protection Protection
(KPPL-DKI) (KPPL-DKI)

Background
Background
The idea of The idea of
developing Jakarta developing Jakarta
northwards socalled northwards socalled
Jakarta Waterfront Jakarta Waterfront
City concerns the City concerns the
JOEP relating the JOEP relating the
flood amplification flood amplification
induced by sediment induced by sediment
blockage at Angke blockage at Angke
river mouth river mouth
Java
Sea


Cengkaren
Cengkaren
g Drain
g Drain
System
System

Three Dimensional Flow
(Stage 4)
For the understanding for phenomena of local
scour it is necessary to use a three
dimensional approach :

Flow in River Bends

The motion of fluid particle following a curved


motion can be described with the help of
cylindrical coordinates

SUNGAI MEANDER

MEANDER SUNGAI
CILIWUNG

MEANDER S. CILIWUNG
DI DAERAH KALIBATA

ALIRAN DI DAERAH
MEANDER
HIGH STAGE
THALWEG (H)
LOW STAGE
THALWEG
(L)

Effek Debit terhadap
Pergerakan Meander
(U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1945).

Effek Kemiringan terhadap
Ukuran Lengkung
(U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1945).

PENGGAL SUNGAI MATI
(OXBOW LAKE)
AKIBAT NORMALISASI SUNGAI

STABILISASI TEBING SUNGAI
DENGAN RUMPUT VETIVER




PERSAMAAN-PERSAMAAN POKOK YANG
DIPERGUNAKAN

Aliran pada sungai alam adalah aliran 3


(tiga) dimensi

Selalu berubah menurut arah sumbu x, y


dan z.

Persamaan-persamaan aliran dapat


dituliskan menurut sistim koordinat
rectangular orthogonal cartesian

Sumbu z sebagai axis dengan notasi


positip vertikal keatas terhadap bidang
datar x-y.

Aliran sungai secara dinamik dipengaruhi


oleh tegangan yang bekerja pada partikel-
partikel air

TEGANGAN2 YANG BEKERJA PAA
PARTIKEL AIR

Arah sumbu x :

Arah sumbu y :

Arah sumbu z :
zx yx xx
, ,
zy yy xy
, ,
zz yz xz
, ,

Z
X
Y
ZY
YY
XY
ZX

XX

YX

ZZ

XZ

YZ

Penerapan Sistem Koordinat di Sungai Alam
W
U
V
V
z
y
x
z
Komponen kecepatan dalam arah x, y, z dinotasikan dengan U,
V, W

PERSAMAAN GERAK ALIRAN
0

z
W
y
V
x
U

,
_

z y x
X UW
z
UV
y
U
x t
U
XZ XY XX

1
) ( ) ( ) (
2

,
_

z y x
Y VW
z
V
y
UV
x t
V
YZ YY YX


1
) ( ) ( ) (
2

,
_

z y x
Z W
z
VW
y
UW
x t
V
ZZ ZY ZX

1
) ( ) ( ) (
2
Persamaan Kontinuitas Aliran
(Persamaan Kekekalan Massa) :

Persamaan Dinamika Aliran (Persamaan Kekekalan Momentum) :

PERSAMAAN BERNOULLI
L
h
g
V
y z
g
V
y z + + + +
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
1
1 1

h
z
dx
6 1 2 3 4 5
v
2
2g
E
n
e
r
g
y

g
r
a
d
e
l
i
n
e
d
a
s
a
r

s
u
n
g
a
i
S
o

m
u
ka
air

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

+ +

,
_

+ +
2 2 2
2
3 4
2 2
1
3 4
2 2
1
2
2
2
R
V n
R
V n
x z h
g
V
z h
g
V
S
f
S
w
S
0

Persamaan Dasar
Persamaan Gerak (Equation of Motion)

W = flow resistance
Persamaan Kekekalan Masa (Continuity of Mass)
h C
v v
g W
W
x
z
g
x
h
g
x
v
v
t
v
2

x
v
h
x
h
v
t
h
(1)
(2)

Steady Uniform Flow
W
x
z
g
x
h
g
x
v
v
t
v

0
(3)

h
z
v
y
x

Latihan
Jika diketahui saluran berbentuk trapesium
dengan lebar dasar saluran 5 m dengan data2
sebagai berikut :
I = 10
-4
; D
50
=0,5*10
-3
m ;
D
90
=1*10
-3
m; k = 10 cm
Maka tentukan rating curve dari saluran tersebut
dengan tinggi muka air rendah adalah 0.5 m
dan muka air tinggi 4 m.

Computation for Uniform Flow
Condition

With uniform or parallel flow :

so equation (3) reduces to :

is the bed slope, I,


0 ; 0 ; 0

x
v
t
v
x
h
W
x
z
g

hI C v
k
h
C g
h c
v v
W

;
12
log 18 ;
2
x
z


Persamaan Dasar
Persamaan Gerak (Equation of Motion)

W = flow resistance
Persamaan Kekekalan Masa (Continuity of Mass)
h C
v v
g W
W
x
z
g
x
h
g
x
v
v
t
v
2

x
v
h
x
h
v
t
h
(1)
(2)

Catatan:
S
f
= I
e
= kemiringan garis energi
S
w
= I
w
= kemiringan permukaan air
S
0
= I
b
= kemiringan dasar alur
y = h

Computation for Non Uniform Steady
Flow Condition
Untuk Froude Numbers kecil
(4)
rendah
h g
v
F
r

h C
v
I
h C
v v
x
h z
h C
v v
g
x
z
g
x
h
g
x
v
v
w
2
2
2
2
) (
0


Non Uniform Steady Flow
Untuk Froude Number besar
(5)
tinggi
h g
v
F
r

h C
v
I
h C
v v
x
z h
g
v
h C
v v
g
x
z
g
x
h
g
v
x
v
x x
v
v
e
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

,
_

+ +

,
_

,
_


Notice
i. In the case of supercritical flow, the boundary
condition is situated upstream of the section
considered (computation of water level profile has
to be carried out in downstream direction)
ii. In the case of subcritical flow the boundary
condition is situated downstream of the section
considered (computation has to be carried out in
upstream direction)
iii. From the boundary to the section considered, the
water level converges to the equilibrium depth
iv. At the transition from supercritical to subcritical
flow a hydraulic jump exists



Klasifikasi
Profil Aliran
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l

S
l
o
p
e
Y
n

>

Y
c
M
i
l
d

S
l
o
p
e
Y
n

>

Y
c
C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l

S
l
o
p
e
Y
n

=

Y
c
S
t
e
e
p

S
l
o
p
e
Y
n

<

Y
c
A
d
v
e
r
s
e

S
l
o
p
e

Points of Inflection

Variasi Profil
Aliran, karena:

Penampang
melintang yang
bervariasi

Adanya
berbagai
bangunan
pengatur
maupun
pengendali

Dll.


) ( condition boundary
given is h
L x At
0
2
2

g
v
x
assume
x at
x
h
compute
x
x
h
h h
x x at h compute
x x x

+


2
x x
h h
h

+


x x
h h if
0 x x if
x x x :
(4)
(5)
(3)
(2)
(1)
Flow Scheme
Computation
Backwater Curve

Remarks

If the steps are not taken too large (4) can be


left out

For the computation of equation (3) is used,


but is assumed.
With every step this can be checked by
computing and
If is large compared to the other
terms (in cases of rapid change in cross-
section), the value of can be corrected.
x
0
2
2

g
v
x
x
h

h B
Q
v

g
v
2
2
( )
x g
v v
x x x


2
2
x
h


Contoh Perhitungan
Q = 1000
m
3
/s
500 m 250 m 500 m
h
e
= 2,92
m
h
e
= 4,64
m
h
e
= 2,92
m
I
b
= 10
-4
C = 40 m
1/2
/s
q = 2 m
2
/s q = 2 m
2
/s
q = 4 m
2
/s
A B

Contoh Perhitungan
Step No Distance
upward
from B
(km)
Depth at the
beginning of
step
(m)
(x 10
-5
)
h-water
Per step
(cm)
h-bed
Per step
(cm)
Depth (cm) Depth at the
end of step
(m)
0
1 0,5 2,920 40,0 20,0 5 15,0 3,070
2 1,0 3,070 34,5 17,2 5 12,2 3,192
3 1,5 3,192 30,7 15,4 5 10,4 3,296
4 2,0 3,296 26,0 14,0 5 9,0 3,386
5 2,5 3,386 25,6 12,8 5 7,8 3,464
6 3,0 3,464 23,9 12,0 5 7,0 3,534
7 3,5 3,534 22,9 11,4 5 6,4 3,598
8 4,0 3,598 21,6 10,8 5 5,8 3,656
9 5,0 3,656 20,5 20,5 10 10,3 3,759
10 6,0 3,759 19,0 19,0 10 9,0 3,849
11 7,0 3,849 17,5 17,5 10 7,5 3,924
12 8,0 3,924 16,6 16,6 10 6,6 3,990
13 10,0 3,990 15,7 31,4 20 11,4 4,104
14 12,0 4,104 14,5 29,0 20 9,0 4,194
15 14,0 4,194 13,5 27,0 20 7,0 4,264
16 19,0 4,264 12,9 64,5 50 14,5 4,409
17 24,0 4,409 11,6 58,0 50 8,0 4,489
18 29,0 4,489 11,1 55,5 50 5,5 4,544
3 2
2
h C
q
i


Kapasitas Banjir Kanal Barat akan diperbesar menjadi 600
m3/detik.
Jika data geometrinya adalah sebagai berikut:
Lebar B = 200 m
Slope I = 0,0002
Bilangan Chezy C = 40 m1/2/detik
1. Berapakah kedalaman normal Banjir Kanal yang
diperlukan untuk melalukan debit rencana tersebut?
2. Pada tabel berikut ini disajikan perhitungan profil muka
air akibat pengaruh pasang laut. Kedalaman air di
muara adalah setinggi 4,0 m. Selesaikan perhitungan
tersebut hingga pada jarak 25 km dari muara.
3. Berapakah jarak pengaruh pasang tersebut terhitung
dari muara ke arah hulu?
Latihan (tgl. 6 Mei 2013)

3 2
2
h C
q
i

Langka
h Ke
Jarak dari
Muara
(m)
Kedalaman
h pada
Awal
Langkah
(m)
Perubahan
Elevasi Air
(m)
Perubaha
n Elevasi
Dasar
(m)
Perubaha
n
Kedalam
an h (m)
Kedalaman
h pada
Akhir
Langkah
(m)
0 0
1 1000 4,00 0,00009 0,09 0,20 -0,11 3,89
2 2000 3,89 0,00010 0,10 0,20 -0,10 3,78
3 3000 3,78 0,00010 0,10 0,20 -0,10 3,69
4 4000 3,69 0,00011 0,11 0,20 -0,09 3,60
5 5000 3,60
6 7500
7 10000
8 12500
9 15000
10 20000
11 25000
3 2
2
2 / 1
2 / 3
2 / 1 2 / 3
h C
q
i
I C B
Q
h
I h C B h hI C B h v B Q



Kedalaman Air Normal
Muara
Pasang Laut
Jarak Pengaruh Pasang Laut
Muka Air Pasang
Muka Air Normal

P
r
o
p
.

S
U
M
B
A
R
P
r
o
p
.

S
U
M
B
A
R

No Kabupaten Kawasan Klasifikasi
Hunian (Ha) Kegiatan Usaha (Ha) Prasarana Transportasi (Km)
Ket.
Perkotaan Pedesaan
Sawah
&Tambak
Perkebunan
Jalan
Raya
Jalan
K.A
Bandara
Pelabuhan
Ha Ha Ha Ha Km Km
1. Kab. Pasaman Bt. Pasaman Regional - 10.00 50.00 - - - -
Bt. Sumpur Regional - 40.00 295.00 - 2.00 - -
2. Kab. Agam Bt. Agam, Sianok/ Regional - 435.00 725.00 - 3.00 - -
Durian
3. Kab. Sawahlunto Bt. Ombilin/Lasi Regional - - 1,145.00 - - - -
Bt. Kuantan, Timpeh Regional - 770.00 1,940.00 1,350.00 2.06 - -
4. Kab. Pd. Pariaman Bt. Pariaman, Regional - 124.00 130.00 670.00 - - -
Bt. Mangor
Bt. Anai Regional - 1,100.00 1,800.00 - - - -
Bt. Tiku Regional - 5.00 70.00 - - - -
5. Kodya Padang Bt. Arau, Kuranji dan Nasional 1,990.00 - 1,510.00 - - - -
Bt. Air Dingin
6. Kab./Kodya Solok Bt. Lembang Regional 335.00 - 720.00 - - - -
Bt. Bangko Regional - 1,500.00 4,500.00 - - - -
7. Kab. Lima Puluh Kota Bt. Sinamar/Lampasi Regional - 200.00 1,300.00 - - - -
8. Kab. Pss. Selatan Bt. Lunang/Sindang Regional - 150.00 1,200.00 3,650.00 1.00 - -
Bt. Tapan/Indarpura Regional - 100.00 3,620.00 1,200.00 - - -
Bt. Surantih Regional - 30.00 35.00 - - - -
Bt. Kapas/Tuik Regional - 30.00 30.00 - - - -
Jumlah 2,325.00 4,494.00 19,070.00 6,870.00 8.06 0.00 0.00
Daerah Rawan Banjir
Propinsi Sumatera Barat

LATIHAN

Berdasarkan informasi yang ada pada


gambar berikut, tentukan dimensi alur
Bt.Arau di muara:
1. Keadaan dengan banjir kanal
2. Keadaan tanpa banjir kanal