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Clause elements & Clause patterns

It is a key unit.
It can stand on its own. Not all sentences contain a complete clause.

INTRANSITIVE PATTERN

S+V = She dances.

MONOTRANSITIVE PATTERN S+V+DO= John reads a book. COPULAR PATTERNS


S+V+SP= The meat is delicious. S+V+A= The children were in the garden.

DITRANSITIVE PATTERN

S+V+IO+DO= Peter gave Mary a bar of chocolate.


S+V+DO+OP= That makes me so mad S+V+DO+A= They're sending us to Brazil

COMPLEX TRANSITIVE PATTERNS

TRANSITIVE PATTERNS HAVE AN OBJECT FOLLOWING THE VERB

Phrases that have syntactic roles. They are:


Verb phrase (V)
Subject (S) Object (O) Direct Object (DO) Indirect Object (IO) Predicative (P) Subject Predicative (SP)

Object Predicative (OP) Adverbial (A)

Central element of the clause.

It expresses the action or state.

It controls the other kinds of elements & meanings.

The Subject is a Noun Phrase. It occurs with all types of verbs.

STRUCTURE
C R I T E R I A

Subject Pronouns are in the nominative case (he, she: used as Subject) Object Pronouns are in the accusative forms (him, her: used as Object)

The Subject determines the number of the verb phrase.


With transitive verbs: The subject NP can be moved after the verb preceded by by to make the passive.

MEANING

The subject indicates the most important participant in the action or state that the verb refers to (Doer or agent with transitive verbs) The subject generally represents the topic even if it has no actual meaning ( dummy pronoun) e.g.: it never rains.

It is a noun phrase It usually follows the verb It occurs with transitive verbs Object pronoun ( her, him) is in the accusative case , filling the

object position
With transitive verbs : the object NP can be moved to become

subject of the passive clause


3 patterns take DO

monotransitive ditransitive complex transitive

It usually comes after the verb.


Its function is to indicate the entity

affected by the action of the verb. E.g. We parked the car in the worst place
Sometimes verbs take a DO though it has

no meaning (dummy pronoun for DO) E.g. The verb take. Relax, take it easy.

It occurs after a ditransitive verb (give, tell) It comes before the OD

It indicates people receiving something or

benefiting from the action of the verb


E.g. I cooked the kids dinner.

It can be adjective phrase, noun phrase or

sometimes a prepositional phrase.


It follows the verb phrase and( if present) the DO It characterises a previous noun phrase

Types

subject predicative (SP) object predicative (OP)

It characterises or specifies the subject noun phrase .

E.g. His skin was very pink ( SP = adjective phrase )

Features

It immediately follows the verb phrase The main verb must be a copular verb ( be , seem ) They're sometimes called subject complement

It characterizes or specifies the direct object noun phrase .

E. g. Oh, I can't get this milk open (O.P= Adjective Phrase)

Features

It Immediately follows the D.O.

The main verb must be complex transitive (make, find, consider) It's sometimes known as object complement

Types

Obligatory Optional.

Obligatory Adverbial.
The complete meaning of some verbs.

They can occur with copular pattern & complex transitive pattern.
They usually express place or direction (also time or manner meaning) E.G. Your toast is on the table I treated her badly, very badly.

Optional Adverbials
They go with a few verbs. They can be added to clauses with any types of verb. They are usually adverb phrase, P,P or Verb They are additional information (place, time, manner, extent & attitude) E.G. I only bought one today.

a
CLAUSE

N. PH. V. PH.

N. PH.

P. PH.

N. PH.

SHE LOST HER MOBILE PHONE IN THE PARTY

Conjunctions: They are: and , because & but.

e.g. Because he & Jane aren't married


Parentheticals: Separated from the clause by parenthesis .

e.g. At five (yesterday afternoon) a mysterious letter arrived. Prefaces: Have the same reference as a personal pronoun in the clause e.g. This woman, she's ninety years old. Tags: normally added at the end of the clause e.g. She is so generous, isn't she?
Inserts: Mainly used in spoken English . They can occur as free elements

e.g. You know who Peter is, right? Vocatives: Are nouns or noun phrases which refer to people & help to identify the person (s) being addressed e.g. Mum, I'm making such a big sandwich.