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Recruitment Selection Induction

The process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers, and with appropriate qualifications, and encouraging them to apply for jobs with an organization


Increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants. Reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected, will leave the organization only after a short period of time. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term and long term.

Negative consequences of a poor recruitment process

Failure to generate an adequate number of reasonably qualified applicants can May result in lowering of selection standards. When recruitment fails to meet organizational needs for talent, a typical response is to raise entry-level pay scales. This can distort traditional wage and salary relationships in the company, resulting in unavoidable consequences. The poor quality of selection means extra cost on training and supervision.

Factors Influencing Recruitment

External Forces Supply and demand Unemployment rate Labor market Political legal Image


Internal Forces Recruitment policy HRP Size of the firm Cost Growth and expansion

Supply and demand- If Demand for a particular skill is high an extraordinary recruiting effort may be needed. Unemployment rateIf unemployment rate in a given area is high, recruitment process may be simpler. If unemployment rate drops, then new sources explored.

Labor-market conditions in a local area are of primary importance.

Political and legal considerations- Reservation of jobs for SCs, STs, minorities, and other backward classes (OBCs) is a political decision. Company's image -Perception of the job-seekers about the company. Blue chip companies attract large number of applications. Infosys, for example, handles nearly one million applications per annum.

Internal Factors
Recruiting policy of the organization-Internal or External. Temporary and part-time employees Local citizens- MNCs operating in other country prefer local citizens .
Size - Large organizations will find recruiting less problematic. As systems are defined. Cost- Recruiting costs are calculated per new hire and the figure is considerable nowadays. Growth and expansion will have more recruiting on hand than the one which finds its fortunes declining.

THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS External Environment Internal Environment

Human Resource Planning

Alternatives to Recruitment
Human Resource Planning

Internal Sources

External Sources

Internal Methods


Recruited Individuals

The process comprises five interrelated stages, viz. (i) planning, (ii) strategy development, (iii) searching, (iv) screening, and (v) evaluation and control.

Recruitment Planning
Planning involves the translation of likely job vacancies into a set of objectives or targets that specify the (i) number, and (ii) type of applicants to be contacted.

Number of Contacts Organizations plan to attract more applicants than they will hire.
Type of Contacts Refers to the type of people to be informed about job openings. Depends on the tasks and responsibilities involved and the qualifications and experience expected. These details are available through job description and job specification.


Companies calculate yield ratios (yRs)

Relationship of applicant inputs to outputs at various decision points.
Ex Organization attempting to recruit Sales people ran a series of newspaper advertisements. The advertisement generated resumes from 2000 applicants, of these 2000, 200 were judged to be potentially qualified (yR = 10:1) of these 200, 40 attended the interview for final selection (yR = 5:1). Of these 40, 30 were actually qualified and offered jobs (yR= 4:3); and of the 30, 20 accepted (yR = 3:2). In this case, the overall yR is 100: 1. Thus, a requirement of 30 hires, during a specified period, would mean a recruitment target of 3000.


Strategy Development
Once it is known how many and what type of recruits are required, Serious consideration needs to be given to

1. 2. 3. 4.

'make' or `buy' employees; technological sophistication of recruitment and selection devices; geographic distribution of labor markets comprising job seekers; sources of recruitment.


Professional or Trade Associations

Sources of Recruitment
Present employees


Employment Exchanges
Campus Recruitment


Internal Sources

Walk-ins and Write-ins Consultants Contractors

Employee Referrals

Former Employees

Displaced Persons
Radio and Television

Previous Applicants Acquisitions and Mergers Competitors E-Recruiting


External Sources

Internal Sources


Promotions from among the present employees i. it builds morale; ii. it encourages competent individuals who are ambitious; iii. it improves the probability of a good selection, since information on the individual's performance is readily available; iv. it is cheaper than going outside to recruit; v. those chosen internally are familiar with the organization; and

Present Employees

Promotion from within can be dysfunctional to the firm.

Advantage of hiring outsiders who may be better qualified and skilled is denied. Inbreeding


Employee Referrals
Employees can develop good prospects for their families and friends by acquainting them with the advantages of a job with the company, furnishing cards of introduction, and even encouraging them to apply. Companies even offer "finders fees" in the form of monetary incentives. Advantage- Low cost, Employees know from their own experiences about what sort of persons the company is looking for. Disadvantage- Possibility of inbreeding, manifesting in groups of people quitting one firm and joining another. They form cliques of their own.


Former Employees- Sometimes, people who have left the company for some reason or the other are willing to come back and work. Previous Applicants- Although not truly an internal source. Those who have previously applied for jobs can be contacted by mail, a quick and inexpensive way to fill an unexpected opening.


External Recruitment Sources

High Schools and Vocational Schools Community Colleges Campus Recruitment Competitors and Other Firms Unemployed Older Individuals Military Personnel Self-employed Workers

High Schools and Vocational Schools

Clerical and other entry-level operative employees Some companies work with schools. Companies may loan employees to schools.


Community Colleges
Graduate highly sought-after students with marketable skills Sensitive to specific employment needs in their local labor market


Colleges and Universities

Professional, technical, and management employees


Competitors and Other Firms

When recent experience is needed, competitors and other firms in the same industry are important source of recruits.

Smaller firms look for employees trained by larger organizations.


Former Employees
Smart employers try to get their best exemployees to come back.


Qualified applicants become unemployed every day. Companies go out of business. Cut back operations Merge with other firms Employees are fired.


Older Individuals
Valuable source of employees Perform some jobs extremely well Good work habits Lower absenteeism rates Higher levels of commitment


Military Personnel
Proven work history flexible, motivated, drug free Goal and team orientation


Self-Employed Workers
Entrepreneurial Technical Professional Administrative


External Recruitment Methods

Advertising Employment Agencies Private and Public Rival Companies Job Fairs/Virtual Job Fairs Executive Search Firms Internships Professional Associations Walk-In Applicants Open Houses Event Recruiting Campus Recruitment


Communicates firms employment needs thru media such as newspaper, radio, TV, Publications, Internet. Recruitment advertisement today has to do much more than announce that a company is looking for personnel. It has to sell the idea that the company and the job are perfect for the candidate. Also serve as Corporate advertisements, to build the Company's image.

Experienced advertisers use a four-point guide called AIDA to construct their advertisements. First, attract attention, next develop interest in the job. next create desire and then instigate action on the part of an onlooker.


Most experts are of the opinion that advertisements must contain the following information
1. the job content (primary tasks and responsibilities); 2. a realistic description of working conditions, particularly if they are unusual; 3. the location of the job; 4. the compensation, including the fringe benefits; 5. job specifications; 6. growth prospects; and 7. to whom one applies.


Radio and Television

Radio and television are used but sparingly, and that too, by government departments only. Companies in the private sector are hesitant to use the media they fear that such advertising will make the companies look desperate and damage their image. But there is nothing inherently desperate about using radio or television. Rather it depends upon what is said and how it is delivered that implies some level of desperation.


Employment Exchanges/Agencies
Employment exchanges have been set up all over the country according to the provisions of the Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959.
The Act applies to all industrial establishments having 25 workers or more each.

The Act requires all the industrial establishments to notify the vacancies before they are filled.
The major functions of the exchanges are to increase the pool of possible applicants.


Campus Recruitment
Colleges universities are fertile ground for recruiters. (IIMs) and (IITs) are on the top of the list for recruiters. The IIMs are an important source for recruiting management trainees. Campus recruitment is going global with companies like Hindustan Unilever, Citibank, HCL-HP, L&T, Motorola and Reliance looking for recruiters in global markets.


Job Fairs/Virtual Job Fairs

Job Fair a single employer or group of employers attract a large number of applicants to interview. Virtual Job Fair applicants interviewed face-to-face by recruiters using computers that use cameras to send head-and-shoulder images


Places student in a temporary job No obligation to hire student permanently or for student to accept a permanent position Typically a temporary job for summer or a parttime job during school year Students bridge gap from theory to practice.


Executive Search Firms/Consultants

Locate experienced professionals and executives Serve as consultants to their clients on an exclusive contract basis ABC Consultants, Ferguson Associates, Human Resource Consultants, Head Hunters, Analytic Consultancy Bureau, Aims Management Consultants and The Search House . Advantage -Nation-wide contacts and lend professionalism to the hiring process. They also keep prospective employer and the employee anonymous. Contingency search firms receive fees only upon successful placement Disadvantage-Charge fees ranging from 20 to 50 per cent of the first year salaries of the individuals placed.


Professional or Trade Organizations

Recruitment and placement services for members in many professions such as finance, marketing, information technology Publish or sponsor trade journals or magazines for their members. Particularly useful for attracting highly educated, experienced or skilled personnel.

Good for hard-to-fill technical posts. LMA


Walk-ins, Write-ins and Talk-ins

Walk-ins- If Organization has a good reputation Job seekers submit unsolicited application letters or resumes.
Effective in filling entry-level and unskilled vacancies. Write-ins are those who send written enquiries.

Talk-ins are becoming popular nowadays. Job aspirants are required to meet the recruiter (on an appropriated date) for detailed talks.


Open Houses
Pair potential hires and managers in warm, casual environment that encourages on-the-spot job offers Seminars, Conferences, Meets Cheaper and faster than agencies

Popularly called poaching' or `raiding', This method involves identifying the right people in rival companies, offering them better terms and luring them away. Legal issue involved An employee can join a new firm only after obtaining a No objection certificate' from his/her present employer. Violating this requirement bind the employee to pay a few months salary to his/her present employer as a punishment. Ethical issue involved Is money everything in life? Have loyalty and commitment lost their relevance? Today's young managers are known for root lessens and job hopping.



Applicant Tracking System/e recruiting/ recruitment on Internet

Automates online recruiting and selection processes


Remove from the recruitment process, at an early stage, those applicants who are visibly unqualified for the job. Effective screening can save a great deal of time and money.
Care that potentially good employees are not lost and that women and minorities receive full and fair consideration.


Techniques used to screen applicants vary. Interviews and Application blanks may be used to screen walk-ins.


EVALUATION AND CONTROL Evaluation and control is necessary as considerable costs are incurred in the recruitment process. The costs generally incurred are. 1. 2. 3. Salaries for recruiters. Management and professional time spent on preparing job description, job specifications, advertisements, agency liaison and so forth. Cost of advertisements or other recruitment methods, that is, agency fees. Recruitment overheads and administrative expenses. Costs of overtime and outsourcing while the vacancies remain unfilled. Cost of recruiting suitable candidates for the selection process.

4. 5. 6.


Choosing from a group of applicants the individual best suited for a particular position.


Difference between Recruitment and Selection Recruitment refers to the process of encouraging prospective job employees to apply for jobs. Recruitment is said to be positive in its approach as it seeks to attract as many candidates as possible.


Costs of wrong selection are much greater.

4 possible outcomes of a selection decision. 2 of these are True positive' ('high hit') and True negative' ('low hit')are right selection decisions. 2 outcomes represent Selection errors. These are False positive error and False negative error In the 'false positive error', a decision is made to hire an applicant based on predicted success, but failure results. In 'false negative error, an applicant who would have succeeded is rejected based on predictions of failure.

In either case, selectors will have erred.



False Negative Error

True positive (High Hit)


True Negative (Low Hit)

False positive Error

Failure Predicted

Success Predicted

Outcomes of the Selection Decision


Environmental Factors Affecting the Selection Process

Legal considerations Decision making speed Organizational hierarchy Applicant pool Type of organization Probationary period

Company Policy Cost


Legal Considerations Human resource management is greatly influenced by legislation, executive orders, and court decisions. Speed of Decision Making Time available to make selection decision can have major effect on selection process Organizational Hierarchy Different approaches to selection are generally taken for filling positions at different levels in organization.

Applicant Pool Number of applicants for particular job can also affect selection process Probationary Period Probationary period that permits evaluating employees ability based upon performance


The Selection Process External Environment Internal Environment

Recruited Candidate Preliminary Interview Rejected Applicants Review of Applications and Resumes Selection Tests Employment Interviews Reference and Background Checks Selection Decision Physical Examination New Employee

Preliminary Interview
Removes obviously unqualified individuals

Telephone interviews, Videotaped interviews, Computer interviews

Scrutiny enables the HR specialists to eliminate unqualified job seekers based on the information supplied in their application forms. Preliminary interview, on the other hand, helps reject misfits for reasons which did not appear in the application forms. Often called 'courtesy interview', and is a good public relations exercise.


Review of Resumes
A more advanced procedure, resumes automatically evaluated


Administration of Selection Tests

AdvantagesReliable and accurate means of selecting qualified candidates, Identify attitudes and job-related skills, Deficiencies in other techniques

Potential Problems using Selection TestsLegal liabilities and Test anxiety Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests-


Types of Employment Tests

Cognitive aptitude Psychomotor abilities Job Knowledge Work-sample (simulation) Vocational interests Personality Substance Abuse Genetic Graphoanalysis Internet Assessment Centers


Cognitive Aptitude Tests

Measures individuals ability to learn, as well as to perform a job Ability to Learn An aptitude test help determine a person's potential to learn in a given area. Ex of such a test is the General Management Aptitude Test (GMAT)


Psychomotor Abilities Tests

Strength Coordination Dexterity


Job Knowledge Tests

Measure a candidate's knowledge of the duties of the position for which he or she is applying Are commercially available


Vocational Interests
Indicate the occupation in which a person is most interested and is most likely to receive satisfaction from. Primary use has been in counseling and vocational guidance Interest tests are used to measure an individual's activity preferences. These tests are particularly useful for students considering many careers or employees deciding upon career changes.


Personality Tests
Traits Temperaments Dispositions


Personality tests
There are various tests designed to assess a candidate's personality. The Bernsenter Personality Inventory, for example, measures one's self-sufficiency, neurotic tendency, sociability, introversion and extroversion, locus of control, and self-confidence. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) assesses an individual's achievement and motivational levels. Other personality tests, such as the

California Psychological Inventory (CPI), the Thurstone Temperament Survey (TTS), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality (MMPI), and Guilford-Zimroerman Temperament Survey, have been designed to assess specific personality traits.

Medical tests reveal physical fitness of a candidate.


Substance Abuse Testing/Drug Testing

Proponents contend testing necessary to ensure workplace safety, security, and productivity
Drug tests help measure the presence of illegal or performance-affecting drugs.


Genetic Testing
Genetic screening identifies genetic predispositions to specific medical problems. Medical servicing helps measure and monitor a candidate's physical resilience upon exposure to hazardous chemicals.


Graphoanalysis (Handwriting Analysis)

Many people view handwriting analysis in same context as psychic readings or astrology.


Internet Testing
Increasingly being used to test skills required by applicants.


Assessment Centers
Selection technique used to identify and select employees for positions and requires them to perform activities similar to those in job. An assessment centre may last from 2 to 5 days, during which time a group of candidates (usually 6 to 12) takes a series of work sample tests and other selection devices, such as various interviews, tests, exercises and feedback sessions, experiential exercises, group decision-making tasks, case analyses, individual employment tests, role playing exercises and other methods for assessing their potential skills and abilities. A panel of line managers drawn from different departments acts as evaluators whose feedback shall be decisive in making selection decision.


Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests/Choosing Tests

Standardization - Uniformity of the procedures and conditions of administering testA test that is standardized is administered under standard conditions to a large group of persons. Objectivity - When two or more people can interpret the results of the same test and derive the same conclusion(s), the test is said to be objective. Everyone scoring a test obtains the same results. Reliability - Provides consistent results. A person who takes a test one day and makes a certain score should be able to take the same the next day or the next week and make more or less the same score. Example IQ Validity - Measures what it is supposed to measure. Validity is a test which helps predict whether a person will be successful in a given job.

Types of Validation Studies

Criterion-related validity - comparing the scores on selection tests to some aspect of job performance Concurrent validity - Test scores and the criterion data are obtained at essentially the same time. Predictive validity - Administering a test and later obtaining the criterion information. Content validity - Test validation method whereby person performs certain tasks that are actually required by job or completes a paper and pencil test that measures relevant job knowledge. Construct validity - Test validation method that determines whether a test measures certain traits or qualities that are important in performing the job

Interesting Selection Tests

WAB BIB TAT SLC Self-report Inventory Thomas Profiling PA Reference Inventory Delbin Team Role Gordon Inventory Myers-Briggs Indicator Meta Motivation Davids Battery Guilford-Zimmerman

Eliciting candidates responses to specific questions Assessing candidates responses to the background Gauging the need for achievement and power Assessing attitude towards importance of safety Asking for short statements relating to personality Identifying behavioral requirements for the job Behavior in work place vs general behavior Measuring ability to be team player Measuring mental and personal profile Understanding personality type Assessing personal and management style Assessing technical dexterity Gauging extent of temperamental adaptability

Minnesota Multiphase

Identifying traits of aberrant behavior


Employment Interview
Formal, in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant's acceptability. Advantage Excellent selection device. Flexibility. Adapted to unskilled, skilled, managerial and professional employees. Allows a two-way exchange of information. Shortcomings. Absence of reliability -No two interviewers offer similar scoring after interviewing an applicant. Biases of interviewers may cloud the objectivity of interviews.


Types of Interview
Interviews can be of different types. The usual types are 1. structured, 2. unstructured, 3. mixed, 4. behavioral and 5. stress-producing. Structured interview, the interviewer uses a preset standardized questions. This interview is also called 'guided' or 'patterned' interview. Unstructured interview, also known as 'unguided' or Unpatterned' interview. Friendly conversation between the interviewer and the interviewee. Latter reveals more of his or her desires and problems. Lacks uniformity Blend of structured and unstructured questions is used called the mixed interview. Behavioral interviewing focuses on a problem or a hypothetical situation that the applicant is expected to solve. Stress interview -Stressful situations are given to him.

Common Interview Problems

Interviewers do not have a complete job description or an accurate appraisal of the critical job requirements. Make snap judgments early in the interview. Halo effect. Interviewers have a tendency to be swayed by negative information about the applicants. Favor a candidate. Contrast effects. More weight on certain attributes than others, or they may combine attributes differently, as they make their overall decisions.


Reference and Background Checks

Many employers request names, addresses, and telephone numbers or references for the purpose of verifying information and, also gaining additional background information on an applicant.
References are not usually checked until an applicant has successfully reached the fourth stage of a sequential selection process. Previous employers, known public figures, university professors, neighbors or friends can act as references.


Advantage Between 20 to 25 per cent of job applicants there is at least one fraudster. to assess the potential success of a prospect. Who else can give an objective assessment of an individual than his or her previous employer.
Disadvantage Prospect is likely to approach those persons who would speak well about him. People may write favorably about the candidate in order to get rid of him or her. People may not divulge the truth about a candidate, lest it might damage or ruin his or her career.


The Selection Decision

Most critical step of all Person whose qualifications most closely conform to the requirements of the open position should be selected


Physical Examination
Determine whether applicant physically capable of performing the work


Notification to Candidates
Results should be made known to candidates as soon as possible. Delay may result in firm losing prime candidate. Unsuccessful candidates should also be promptly notified.


Job Offer
The next step in the selection process is job offer.
Job offer is made through a letter of appointment. Contains a date by which the appointee must report on duty. The appointee must be given reasonable time for reporting. As he is required to obtain a relieving certificate from the previous employer. Again, a new job may require movement to another city which means considerable preparation and movement of property.


Contracts of Employment

There is also a need for preparing a contract of employment. The basic information that should be included in a written contract of employment will vary according to the level of the job, but the following checklist sets out the typical headings


1. 2.
3. 4. 5. 6.


8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.


Job title. Duties, including a phrase such as "The employee will perform such duties and will be responsible to such a person, as the company may from time to time direct". Date when continuous employment starts and the basis for calculating service. Rate of pay, allowances, overtime and shift rates, method of payments. Hours of work including lunch break and overtime and shift arrangements. Holiday arrangements: (i) paid holidays per year. (ii) calculation of holiday pay. (iii) qualifying period. (iv) accrual of holidays and holiday pay. (v) details of holiday year. (vi) dates when holidays can be taken. (vii) maximum holiday that can be taken at any one time. (viii) carryover of holiday entitlement. (ix) public holidays. Sickness (i) pay for time lost. (ii) duration of sickness payments. (iii) deductions of national insurance benefits. (iv) termination due to continued illness. (v) notification of illness (medical certificate). Length of notice due to and from employee. Grievance procedure (or reference to it). Disciplinary procedure (or any reference to it). Work rules (or any reference to them). Arrangements for terminating employment. Arrangements for union membership (if applicable). Special terms relating to rights to patents and designs, confidential information and restraints on trade after termination of employment. Employer's right to vary terms of the contract subject to proper notification being given.

Concluding the Selection Process

There is another stepa more sensitive one reassuring those candidates who have NOT BEEN SELECTED.

Such candidates must be told that they were not selected, not because of any serious deficiencies in their personalities, but because their profiles did not match the requirements of the company.


Evaluation/Audit of the Selection Programme Areas and questions to be covered in a systematic evaluation.

Analysis of the programme How adequately are the programme and its procedures communicated to all those involved in and affected by it? How well is the programme implemented? Feedback Analysis of results


Also called Orientation


Planned introduction of new hires to their jobs, their peers and the company.

Following information's
i. ii. general information about the daily work routine; a review of the firm's history, founding fathers, objectives, operations and products or services, as well as how the employee's job contributes to the organization's needs; and a detailed presentation, perhaps, in a brochure, of the organization's policies, work rules and employee benefits.



Purpose of Orientation
The idea is to make the new employees feel at home in the new environment.

Effective orientation reduce the anxiety. Employees feel anxious on entering an organization. They worry about how well they will perform on the new jobs and about how well they will get along with their coworkers.. They compare themselves with the more experienced employees.
Modifying employee expectations. If expectations are realistic, adjustments will be relatively simple. If expectations are unrealistic, adjustment will be more difficult.


The firm needs to make four strategic choices before designing its orientation programme.









Strategic Choices of Orientation


Formal or Informal- Formal orientation is putting the employees directly on the jobs. Informal orientation, Structured programme which is executed when new employees join the firm. Individual or Collective Individual orientation is orienting each person separately. More likely to preserve individual differences and perspectives. Is expensive and time-consuming process. Denies the new hire the opportunity of sharing anxieties with fellow appointees.

Collective orientation is orienting many employees together.


Serial orientation
Experienced employee inducts a new hire and acts as a Tutor and Model for the new hire.

Disjunctive orientation
When new hires do not have predecessors available to guide them or to model their behavior upon, the orientation. Likely to produce more inventive and creative employees because the new hire is not burdened by traditions.

Maintains Traditions and Customs. Ensure a minimum amount of change within the firm over time. If experienced employee is frustrated and apathetic towards work likely that he or she would pass on the same to the new hire.


Investiture Accepts usefulness of the characteristics that the person brings to the new job

Divestiture Make minor modifications in the characteristics of the new hire, although he or she was selected based on his or her potential for performance.

New hires are given freedom to select Done to seek a better fit between a their office furnishings and new member and the firm. subordinates and to make other decisions that will reflect on their performance. Most High-Level appointments follow this approach, because he is appointed on the basis of what he or she can bring to the company.

Most formal programmes consist of 3 stages

1. a general introduction to the company, often given by the HR department; 2. specific orientation to the department and the job, typically given by the Employee's Supervisor; and

3. Follow-up meeting to verify that the important issues have been addressed .


HR Representative

Organizational Issues Employee Benefits Introduction Special Anxiety reduction Seminars Specific Job Location and Duties

To Placement


Formal Orientation Programme


Requisites of an Effective Orientation system. EQUISITES OF AN EFFECTIVE PROGRAMME Prepare for New Employees - Both the supervisor and the HR unit should be prepared to receive the employee. It is very uncomfortable for a new employee to arrive at work and have a manager say, "Oh!, I didn't realize you were coming to work today" or "Who are you? This depersonalization does not create an atmosphere of initial acceptance and trust. Co-workers must also be aware of the arrival of a new worker. Determine Information New Employees Want to Know Determine How to Present Information Verbally or through Handbook. Completion of Paperwork All essential paperwork should be completed during orientation . Nothing more agonizing for a new employee than to miss the first pay cheque.


Topics often covered in Employee Orientation Programmes

Organizational Issues
History of employer Organization of employer Names and titles of key executives Employees title and department Layout of physical facilities Probationary period Product line or services provided Overview of production process Company policies and rules Disciplinary regulations Employee handbook Safety procedure and enforcement Employee Benefits Pay scale and pay days Vacations and holidays Rest breaks Training and education benefit Counseling To supervisor To trainers Job location Job tasks Job safety requirements Insurance benefits Retirement programme Employer-provided services to employees Introduction To co-workers To employee counselor Job Duties Overview of job Job objectives Relationship to other jobs

An orientation Programme can go wrong for a number of reasons. Problems Of Orientation

1. 2. 3. 4.

Supervisor who is entrusted with the job is not trained or is too busy. Employee is overwhelmed with too much information in a short time. Employee is overloaded with forms to complete. Employee is asked to perform tasks where there are high chances of failure that could needlessly discourage the employee. Employee is pushed into the job with a sketchy orientation under the mistaken belief that `trial by fire' is the best orientation. Employee is thrown into action too soon.