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Ultra structure of plant cell

Plant cells are eukaryotic cells. Plant cell contains cytoplasm and nucleus. Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum spread throughout the cytoplasm. It also contains Golgi bodies and mitochondria.

Cell wall
The plant cell wall consists of several layers. Cell wall is made up of cellulose fibres. Layers of cellulose fibres are held together by hemicelluloses, pectin and lignin There are mainly three layers in the cell wallmiddle lamella primary cell wall secondary cell wall-


It is the first layer to form when a plant cell divides into two new cells. It is made largely of pectic compounds and proteins. This helps to hold cell walls of neighbouring cells together.

Formed after the middle lamella. Consist of a rigid skeleton of cellulose micro fibrils arranged randomly.

Formed after cell enlargement is completed. It is made of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Cellulose is arranged in parallel rows.

Functions of cell wall

Maintain the structure of the cell. Path way for the exchange of materials. Give protection from mechanical injury and pathogens. Gives structural support and protection. Act as a pressure vessel, preventing over expansion when water enters the cell

They are large organelles. Biconvex shape . Formed from an unspecialized stem cell called leucoplast. Surrounded by an envelope. Outer and inner phospholipid membrane. Most chloroplasts occur in the mesophyll cells of the leaves.

The material within the chloroplast is stroma. Stroma contain small DNA and ribosomes. Flattened disc shaped photosynthetic site called thylakoids are present within the stroma. Thylakoids are arranged in stalks called grana.

Functions of chloroplast
It is the site of photosynthesis in plants. Chlorophyll pigments are found in the thylakoid membrane . Chlorophyll pigments trap energy from the sunlight.

Colourless plastids and membrane bound organelles in which starch grains are stored. Responsible for the synthesis and storage of starch granules.(amylopectin) Converts starch back into sugars. Present in large numbers in fruits and underground storage tissue. They can change into chloroplast

Membrane bound and fluid filled space inside the cytoplasm. Vacuole is a permanent structure in plant cell. It is filled with cell sap ( a solution of various substances in water). This causes the water to move into the cell by osmosis. Keeps the cell turgid and the whole plant upright. Reduces the diffusion distance by pushing the organelles towards the periphery.

Maintaining plant cell shape. Used for the storage of different substances like betacyanin pigment in beet root, proteins in the cells of seeds and fruits, lytic enzymes waste products and

chemicals (digitalis, a poison in foxgloves)

Vacuole of the plant cell is surrounded by a membrane called tonoplast. It separates the vacuolar content from the cytoplasmic content. Composed of partially permeable membrane. Made up of phospholipid bilayer and proteins.

Cytoplasmic bridges between the cells. These are narrow fluid filled channels.

Intracellular exchange of materials occur through these channels.

The inter connected cytoplasm of the cell is called symplast.

These are formed when portions of ER are trapped between the middle lamella.

At some places the cell wall is thin because only the first layer of the cellulose is deposited. These areas are called pits. Each pit has a pit chamber and a pit membrane. Pits are of two types- simple and bordered pits.

Simple pit
There is no secondary wall in the simple pit.
Width is uniform.

Bordered pit
Secondary wall overhangs the pit.

Width is not uniform.

Function :- cell to cell communication

Animal cell
Do not have fixed shape Absent Small and temporary Absent Glycogen Present

Shape Cell wall Vacuole Chloroplast Food storage Centriole

Plant cell
Have fixed shape Present Very large and permanent Present Starch Absent