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# Process Control & Instrumentation

PID CONTROLLER
MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
School of Chemical Engineering & Chemistry

OUTLINE
Important Concepts Process Time Lags PID Control Algorithms Selection Of Control Action

PROCESS CONTROL
Definition
the physical regulation of a process to maintain a particular process variable as close as possible to a desired value.

Operator

## Set Point (SV)

3. Controller
Process Variable (PV) Controller Output

2. Measuring Element

## 4. Final Control Element

Manipulated Variable (MV)

## FEEDBACK CONTROL ALGORITHM

Feedback Control = PID Control

## OUT(t) = OUTdesign + OUT

where OUT(t) = controller output, 0 - 100% OUTdesign = design (steady state) controller output OUT = control adjustment

## PID CONTROL ALGORITHM

P = Proportional Control Action
I = Integral Control Action D = Derivative Control Action

## Proportional Control Action

control adjustment is proportional to the magnitude of the error

OUT = (Kc)(e)
where

OUT = control adjustment, % Kc = Proportionality Constant (Gain or Sensitivity) e = ERROR = Set Point (SP) - Process Variable (PV)

## Integral Control Action

control adjustment is proportional to the time integral of the error
t

where
0

## Derivative Control Action

control adjustment is proportional to the rate of change of the error

OUT = (Kc)(D)(de/dt)
where

## Types of PID Controller

P - Proportional Controller PI - Proportional Integral Controller PD - Proportional Derivative Controller PID - Proportional Integral Derivative Controller

P - Proportional Controller
OUT(t) = OUTdesign + (Kc)(e)
only one tuning parameter ( Kc )
there is always an offset = steady state error or permanent deviation between the Set Point and the Process Variable

0

## OUT(t) = OUTdesign + (Kc)(e) + (Kc)/(I) (e)dt

eliminates offset more unstable compared to P Controller

## PD - Proportional Derivative Controller

OUT(t) = OUTdesign + (Kc)(e) + (Kc)(D)(de/dt)
faster response does not eliminates offset susceptible to noise two tuning parameters ( Kc , D)

t

0

## Selection of Control Action

PROCESS Flow & Liquid Pressure Gas Pressure Liquid Level PROPORTIONAL 0.2-50 INTEGRAL Required DERIVATIVE Not Required

20 - 2-20

Temperature
CONSTANT AN

1-10

Required