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Process Control & Instrumentation

PID CONTROLLER
MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
School of Chemical Engineering & Chemistry

OUTLINE
Important Concepts Process Time Lags PID Control Algorithms Selection Of Control Action

PROCESS CONTROL
Definition
the physical regulation of a process to maintain a particular process variable as close as possible to a desired value.

4 BASIC COMPONENTS IN A FEEDBACK CONTROL LOOP


Operator

Set Point (SV)

3. Controller
Process Variable (PV) Controller Output

2. Measuring Element
Controlled Variable (CV) Load Variable

4. Final Control Element


Manipulated Variable (MV)

Refining Process (Plant) 1. Process

FEEDBACK CONTROL ALGORITHM


Feedback Control = PID Control

OUT(t) = OUTdesign + OUT


where OUT(t) = controller output, 0 - 100% OUTdesign = design (steady state) controller output OUT = control adjustment

PID CONTROL ALGORITHM


P = Proportional Control Action
I = Integral Control Action D = Derivative Control Action

Proportional Control Action


control adjustment is proportional to the magnitude of the error

OUT = (Kc)(e)
where

OUT = control adjustment, % Kc = Proportionality Constant (Gain or Sensitivity) e = ERROR = Set Point (SP) - Process Variable (PV)

Integral Control Action


control adjustment is proportional to the time integral of the error
t

OUT = (Kc)/(I) (e)dt


where
0

OUT = control adjustment, % I = Integral Time Constant, time

Derivative Control Action


control adjustment is proportional to the rate of change of the error

OUT = (Kc)(D)(de/dt)
where

OUT = control adjustment, % D = Derivative Time Constant, time

Types of PID Controller


P - Proportional Controller PI - Proportional Integral Controller PD - Proportional Derivative Controller PID - Proportional Integral Derivative Controller

P - Proportional Controller
OUT(t) = OUTdesign + (Kc)(e)
only one tuning parameter ( Kc )
there is always an offset = steady state error or permanent deviation between the Set Point and the Process Variable

PI - Proportional Integral Controller


0

OUT(t) = OUTdesign + (Kc)(e) + (Kc)/(I) (e)dt


eliminates offset more unstable compared to P Controller

two tuning parameters ( Kc , I )

PD - Proportional Derivative Controller


OUT(t) = OUTdesign + (Kc)(e) + (Kc)(D)(de/dt)
faster response does not eliminates offset susceptible to noise two tuning parameters ( Kc , D)

PID - Proportional Integral Derivative Controller


t

OUT(t) = OUTdesign + (Kc)(e) + (Kc)/(I) (e)dt + (Kc)(D)(de/dt)


0

faster response eliminates offset susceptible to noise three tuning parameters ( Kc , I , D)

Selection of Control Action


PROCESS Flow & Liquid Pressure Gas Pressure Liquid Level PROPORTIONAL 0.2-50 INTEGRAL Required DERIVATIVE Not Required

20 - 2-20

Not Required Occasionally Required Required

Not Required Not Required

Temperature
CONSTANT AN

1-10

Required