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Protective Immunity To Microorganisms

Defense against microbes is mediated by: Innate immunity and acquired immunity

Humoral immunity (antibodies) Through both Cell mediated immunity (CMI)

Defenses Against Bacteria-EXTRACELLUAR BACTERIA

The innate immunity: 1. Complement activation 2. Phagocytosis 3. The inflammatory response COMPLEMENT P ACTIVATE
Make membrane attack complex kill bacteria 1. Inflammation: + recruit phagocytes, B & T lymphocytes 2. (Acquired response antibodies, cytotoxic Ts if needed)

Complement P Activates

Figure 24-17: Immune responses to bacteria

Defenses Against Bacteria-EXTRACELLUAR BACTERIA

The acquired immune responses: 1. The humoral mechanisms (antibodies) main role 2. Cell mediated immune response less role Antibodies induce immunity through: 1. Neutralization of bacterial toxins 2. Antibodies attach to the surface of bacteria and; Act as opsonins, enhance phagocytosis (Opsonization) Prevent adherence of bacteria to their target cells e.g. IgA on mucosal surfaces Activation the complement leading to bacterial lysis Agglutinate bacteria, preventing their spread and facilitating phagocytosis

Defenses Against Bacteria-EXTRACELLUAR BACTERIA

Cell mediated immune mechanisms: * Microbes are internalized by APCs and presented to TH * TH cells are activated and release cytokines which; - Activate phagocytosis their microbicidal functions

- Stimulate antibody production

- Induce local inflammation

Defenses Against Bacteria-INTRACELLUAR BACTERIA

1) Innate immunity It is mainly by natural killer (NK) cells - They kill infected cells and secrete IFN- - IFN- activate phagocytosis to kill intracellular microbe E.g. tuberculosis, leprosy, listeriosos 2) Acquired immunity is mainly by CMI - Activation of macrophages to kill intracellular microbes - Lysis of infected cells by cytotoxic cells (CTLs) - Most of these organisms are resistant to phagocytosis, cause chronic infection and granuloma formation

Defenses Against - VIRAL (Humoral Immunity)

1. Virus neutralization * In viremic infections Antibodies neutralize virus, preventing its attachment to receptor sites on susceptible cells e.g. poliovirus, mumps, measles, rubella * In superficial non-viremic infections (influenza) Secretory IgA neutralizes virus infectivity at the mucous surfaces 2. Antibodies destroy free virus particles directly: i- Aggregation of virus and opsonization ii- Complement mediated lysis

Defenses Against - VIRAL (Cell Mediated Immunity)

Cell mediated cytotoxicity, mediated by :

- Cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs) - NK cells - Activated macrophages

Defenses Against - VIRAL (IFNs)

Anti-viral activity of interferons (IFNs) - INF- inhibit intracellular replication of viruses - IFN- activate NK-cells to kill virus infected cells - IFNs have no direct effect on extracellular virus - IFNs act early in viral diseases before antibody - INFs activity is not specific

Defenses Against Viral

Defenses Against - FUNGI

Immune response to fungi consist mainly of : 1) Innate immunity is mediated by: - Neutrophils and macrophages - Fungi are readily eliminated by phagocytes 2) Acquired immunity (cell mediated immunity) - CMI acts in a manner similar to its action against intracellular bacteria * Disseminated fungal infection are seen in: immunodifcient persons