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# FORCE FORCE VECTORS, VECTORS, VECTOR VECTOR OPERATIONS OPERATIONS & & ADDITION ADDITION OF OF FORCES FORCES 2D 2D &

## & 3D 3D Todays Objective:

1. Resolve a 2-D vector into components. 2. Add 2-D vectors using Cartesian vector notations. 3. Represent a 3-D vector in a Cartesian coordinate system. 4. Find the magnitude and coordinate angles of a 3-D vector. 5. Add vectors (forces) in 3-D space.

2D

3D

APPLICATION OF VECTOR ADDITION There are three concurrent forces acting on the hook due to the chains. We need to decide if the hook will fail (bend or break)? To do this, we need to know the resultant force acting on the hook.

FR

## SCALARS AND VECTORS (Section 2.1)

Scalars Examples: Characteristics: Mass, Volume It has a magnitude (positive or negative) Addition rule: Special Notation: Simple arithmetic None

Vectors Force, Velocity It has a magnitude and direction Parallelogram law Bold font, a line, an arrow or a carrot

In these PowerPoint presentations, a vector quantity is represented like this (in bold, italics, and red).

## Scalar Multiplication and Division

VECTOR ADDITION USING EITHER THE PARALLELOGRAM LAW OR TRIANGLE Parallelogram Law:

## Triangle method (always tip to tail):

How do you subtract a vector? How can you add more than two concurrent vectors graphically ?

Analyzing a Force Triangle If we form a force triangle that represents the forces in a given problem, we can analyze the triangle using trigonometry.
A B R=A+B

Force Triangle Right Triangles: If the triangle is a right triangle, we can use the following relationships:

## adjacent A cos( ) = = hypotenuse R opposite B sin( ) = = hypotenuse R opposite B tan( ) = = adjacent A R = A 2 + B2

R B

R=A+B RA+B

Analyzing a Force Triangle Oblique or Obtuse Triangles: If the triangle is NOT a right triangle, we can use the following relationships:
Law of cosines Useful when:

## You know 2 side and the angle between

R 2 = P 2 + Q 2 2 PQ cos B You know all 3 sides and want to find the angles. R = P+Q
b
A

a
B

## You know 2 sides and an opposite angle

sin A sin B sin C =any two angles = You know 1 side and Q R A

## Example: Finding Resultant Forces using a force triangle

To steady a sign as it is being lowered, two cables are attached to the sign at A. Using trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 300N, determine: A) The required angle if the resultant R of the two forces applied at A is to be vertical. B) The corresponding value of R.

## Example: Finding Resultant Forces using a force triangle

Two structural members A and B are bolted to a bracket as shown. Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is 30 kN in member A and 20 kN in member B, determine, using trigonometry, the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces applied to the bracket by members A and B. (Note: If a force is pushing, it is in compression. If a force is pulling, it is in tension.)

## ADDITION OF A SYSTEM OF COPLANAR FORCES (Section 2.4)

We resolve vectors into components using the x and y axis system. Each component of the vector is shown as a magnitude and a direction. The directions are based on the x and y axes. We use the unit vectors i and j to designate the x and y axes.

## For example, F = Fx i + Fy j or F' = F'x i + ( F'y ) j

The x and y axis are always perpendicular to each other. Together, they can be directed at any inclination.

ADDITION OF SEVERAL VECTORS Step 1 is to resolve each force into its components. Step 2 is to add all the xcomponents together, followed by adding all the y components together. These two totals are the x and y components of the resultant vector. Step 3 is to find the magnitude and angle of the resultant vector.

## An example of the process:

Break the three vectors into components, then add them. FR = F1 + F2 + F3 = F1x i + F1y j F2x i + F2y j + F3x i F3yj = (F1x F2x + F3x) i + (F1y + F2y F3y) j = (FRx) i + (FRy) j

You can also represent a 2-D vector with a magnitude and angle.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE Given: Three concurrent forces acting on a tent post. Find: The magnitude and angle of the resultant force.

Plan: a) Resolve the forces into their x-y components. b) Add the respective components to get the resultant vector. c) Find magnitude and angle from the resultant components.

## EXAMPLE EXAMPLE (continued) (continued)

F1 = {0 i + 300 j } N F2 = { 450 cos (45) i + 450 sin (45) j } N = { 318.2 i + 318.2 j } N F3 = { (3/5) 600 i + (4/5) 600 j } N = { 360 i + 480 j } N

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE (continued) (continued) Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get, FR = { (0 318.2 + 360) i + (300 + 318.2 + 480) j } N = { 41.80 i + 1098 j } N Using magnitude and direction: FR = ((41.80)2 + (1098)2)1/2 = 1099 N = tan-1(1098/41.80) = 87.8 x y FR

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

## Example Example using using calculators calculators

Using calculators to find resultants Solutions to the problems shown above can be produced quickly using calculators that can perform operations using complex numbers (or numbers in polar and rectangular form). Polar numbers - can be used to represent forces in terms of their magnitude and angle Example: Repeat the last example using the TI-85/86 or TI-89/92 calculator Rectangular - can used to represent forces in terms of unit (Determinenumbers the resultant ofbe the 3 forces on the hook below.) vectors

3D 3D APPLICATIONS APPLICATIONS

Many structures and machines involve 3Dimensional Space. In this case, the power pole has guy wires helping to keep it upright in high winds. How would you represent the forces in the cables using Cartesian vector form?

APPLICATIONS APPLICATIONS

In the case of this radio tower, if you know the forces in (continued) (continued) the three cables, how would you determine the resultant force acting at D, the top of the tower?

CARTESIAN CARTESIAN UNIT UNIT VECTORS VECTORS For a vector A, with a magnitude of A, an unit vector is defined as uA = A / A .

Characteristics of a unit vector : a) Its magnitude is 1. b) It is dimensionless (has no units). c) It points in the same direction as the original vector (A). The unit vectors in the Cartesian axis system are i, j, and k. They are unit vectors along the positive x, y, and z axes respectively.

## CARTESIAN CARTESIAN VECTOR VECTOR REPRESENTATION REPRESENTATION

Consider a box with sides AX, AY, and AZ meters long. The vector A can be defined as A = (AX i + AY j + AZ k) m The projection of vector A in the x-y plane is A. The magnitude of A is found by using the same approach as a 2-D vector: A = (AX2 + AY2)1/2 . The magnitude of the position vector A can now be obtained as A = ((A)2 + AZ2) = (AX2 + AY2 + AZ2)

## DIRECTION DIRECTION OF OF A A CARTESIAN CARTESIAN VECTOR VECTOR

The direction or orientation of vector A is defined by the angles , , and . These angles are measured between the vector and the positive X, Y and Z axes, respectively. Their range of values are from 0 to 180 Using trigonometry, direction cosines are found using These angles are not independent. They must satisfy the following equation. cos + cos + cos = 1 This result can be derived from the definition of a coordinate direction angles and the unit vector. Recall, the formula for finding the unit vector of any position vector: or written another way, u A = cos i + cos j + cos k .

ADDITION ADDITION OF OF CARTESIAN CARTESIAN VECTORS VECTORS (Section 2.6) (Section 2.6) Once individual vectors are written in Cartesian form, it is easy to add or subtract them. The process is essentially the same as when 2-D vectors are added.

## For example, if A = AX i + AY j + AZ k and

B = BX i + BY j + BZ k , then A + B = (AX + BX) i + (AY + BY) j + (AZ + BZ) k or A B = (AX - BX) i + (AY - BY) j + (AZ - BZ) k

## IMPORTANT IMPORTANT NOTES NOTES

Sometimes 3-D vector information is given as: a) Magnitude and the coordinate direction angles, or, b) Magnitude and projection angles. You should be able to use both these types of information to change the representation of the vector into the Cartesian form, i.e., F = {10 i 20 j + 30 k} N .

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

Given: Two forces F1 and F2 are applied to a hook. Find: The resultant force in Cartesian vector form. Plan:

## Cartesian vector form.

2. Then add the two forces (by adding x, y and z

components).

Solution : First, resolve force F1. Fx = 0 = 0 lb Fy = 500 (4/5) = 400 lb Fz = 500 (3/5) = 300 lb Now, write F1 in Cartesian vector form (dont forget the units!). F1 = {0 i + 400 j + 300 k} lb

Now resolve force F2. We are not given the direction angles. So we need to find the horizontal component in the xy plane. F2XY = 800 * cos(45) = 565.69 lb F2x = 565.69 * cos(45) = 489.90 lb F2y = 565.69 * sin(30) = 282.84 lb F2z = -800 * sin(45) = -565.69 lb

## F1 = {0 i + 400 j + 300 k} lb F2 = {489.9 i + 282.8 j 565.7 k } lb Now, R = F1 + F2 or R = {489.9 i + 682.8 j 265.7 k} lb

Find the magnitude and the coordinate direction angles of Example Example the resultant force.

geometry.

## b) Represent a force vector directed along a line. c) determine an angle between

two vectors, and,

## d) determine the projection of a vector

along a specified line.

APPLICATIONS APPLICATIONS

This awning is held up by three chains. What are the forces in the chains and how do we find their directions? Why would we want to know these things?

## POSITION POSITIONVECTOR VECTOR

A position vector is defined as a fixed vector that locates a point in space relative to another point.

Consider two points, A and B, in 3-D space. Let their coordinates be (XA, YA, ZA) and (XB, YB, ZB ), respectively.

## POSITION POSITION VECTOR VECTOR

The position vector directed from A to B, r AB , is defined as r AB = {( XB XA ) i + ( YB YA ) j + ( ZB ZA ) k }m Please note that B is the ending point and A is the starting point. ALWAYS subtract the starting point from the ending point.

FORCE FORCE VECTOR VECTOR DIRECTED DIRECTED ALONG ALONG A A LINE LINE (Section (Section 2.8) 2.8) If a force is directed along a line, then we can represent the force vector in Cartesian coordinates by using a unit vector and the forces magnitude. So we need to: a) Find the position vector, rAB , along two points on that line. b) Find the unit vector describing the lines direction, uAB = (rAB/rAB). c) Multiply the unit vector by the magnitude of the force, F = F uAB .

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE
Given: The 420 N force along the cable AC. Find: The force FAC in the Cartesian vector form.

Plan: 1. Find the position vector rAC and the unit vector uAC. 2. Obtain the force vector as FAC = 420 N uAC .

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE(continued) (continued) As per the figure, when relating A to C, we will have to go 2 m in the x-direction, 3 m in the y-direction, and -6 m in the z-direction. Hence, rAC = {2 i + 3 j 6 k} m.

(We can also find rAC by subtracting the coordinates of A from the coordinates of C.) 2 1/2 rAC = (2 + 3 + 6 ) =7m Now uAC = rAC/rAC and FAC = 420 uAC N = 420 (rAC/rAC ) 2 2

So FAC = 420{ (2 i + 3 j 6 k) / 7 } N

Example Example

Find the magnitude and the coordinate direction angles of the resultant force.
Plan: 1) Find the forces along CA and CB in the Cartesian vector form. 2) Add the two forces to get the resultant force, FR. 3) Determine the magnitude and the coordinate angles of FR.

DOT DOT PRODUCT PRODUCT Students will be able to use the vector dot product to: a) determine an angle between two vectors, and, b) determine the projection of a vector along a specified line.

APPLICATIONS APPLICATIONS If the design for the cable placements required specific angles between the cables, how would you check this installation to make sure the angles were correct?

APPLICATIONS APPLICATIONS

For the force F being applied to the wrench at Point A, what component of it actually helps turn the bolt (i.e., the force

DEFINITION DEFINITION

The dot product of vectors A and B is defined as AB = A B cos . The angle is the smallest angle between the two vectors and is always in a range of 0 to 180 . Dot Product Characteristics: 1. The result of the dot product is a scalar (a positive or negative number). 2. The units of the dot product will be the product of the units of the A and B vectors.

## DOT DOT PRODUCT PRODUCT DEFINITON DEFINITON (continued) (continued)

Finding a dot product using Cartesian coordinates: By definition, ij =ji =ik =ki =jk =kj =0 ii =jj =kk = 1 so

USING USINGTHE THEDOT DOTPRODUCT PRODUCTTO TODETERMINE DETERMINETHE THEANGLE ANGLEBETWEEN BETWEEN TWO TWOVECTORS VECTORS

For the given two vectors in the Cartesian form, one can find the angle by a) Finding the dot product, A B = (AxBx + AyBy + AzBz ), b) Finding the magnitudes (A & B) of the vectors A & B, and c) Using the definition of dot product and solving for , i.e.,

-1

Example: Example: Finding Finding angles angles using using dot dot products products

Example: Consider the volleyball net shown below. Determine the angle formed by guy wires AB and AC.

Using Using the the Dot Dot Product Product to to determine determine the the projection projection of of a a vector vector along along a a line line

You can determine the components of a vector parallel and perpendicular to a line using the dot product.

Steps: 1. Find the unit vector, uaa along line aa 2. Find the scalar projection of A along line aa by A|| = A uaa = AxUx + AyUy + Az Uz

Using Using the the dot dot product product to to determine determine the the projection projection of of a a vector vector
3. If needed, the projection can be written as a vector, A|| , by using the unit vector uaa and the magnitude found in step 2. A|| = A|| uaa
4.

(continued) (continued)

The scalar and vector forms of the perpendicular component can easily be obtained by

## 2 A = (A - A|| ) and A = A A|| (rearranging the vector sum of A = A + A|| )

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE Given: The force acting on the hook at point A. Find: The angle between the force vector and the line AO, and the magnitude of the projection of the force along the Plan: 1. Find rAO -1 2. Find the angle = cos {(F rAO)/(F rAO)} line AO.

## EXAMPLE EXAMPLE (continued) (continued) rAO = {1 i + 2 j 2 k} m rAO = (1 2 2 2 1/2 + 2 + 2 ) =3m

F = { 6 i + 9 j + 3 k} kN 2 2 2 1/2 F = (6 + 9 + 3 ) = 11.22 kN F rAO = ( 6)(1) + (9)(2) + (3)(2) = 18 kN m -1 = cos {(F rAO)/(F rAO)} -1 = cos {18 / (11.22 * 3)} = 57.67

Example: Example:

Find:

1) The angle between the force vector and the pole 2) The magnitude of the projection of the force along the pole AO Plan:
1. Find rAO 2. Find the angle = cos {(F rAO)/(F rAO)} 3. The find the projection via FAO = F uAO or F cos -1