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Genes which have more than two alleles

Since the information stored in any gene is extensive, mutations can modify the gene in many ways. Each mutational change has the potential for producing a different allele. Therefore for any gene the number of alleles within members of a population of individuals is not necessarily restricted to two. When three or more alleles of the same gene are found, multiple alleles are said to be present, creating a characteristic mode of inheritence.

Multiple alleles can be studied only in populations. The best examples of multiple allelic system have been observed in coat colour of rabbits, wings of drosophila, self sterility in nicotiana and blood groups in man

Coat color in rabbits- agouti, chinchilla, Himalayan, albino.

Coat color in rabbits is determined by alleles of the C gene

Four different alleles exist


C = full coat color cch = chinchilla ch = himalayan c = albino

Any particular rabbit possesses only two alleles

Dominant/recessive relationships between coat color alleles


C is dominant to cch, ch, and c cch is recessive to C, but incompletely dominant to ch, and c ch is recessive to C and cch, but dominant c c is recessive to C, cch, ch

C > cch > ch > c

A series of multiple alleles for self-sterility in tobacco was reported by E.M. East. Self sterility would mean that the pollen from a plant will not be able to bring about fertilization in the ovules of the same plant.

Lecture 12 25/7/12

Blood Groups
Phenotype (Blood Type Genotype Antigen on Red Blood Cell Safe Transfusions To From

Blood type is an example of a trait determined by a single gene. Each of us has two copies of the gene for blood type on chromosome pair number 9. One copy is inherited from our mother, the other from our father. There are three versions (called alleles) of this gene: A, B, and O. A persons blood type is determined by which allele he/she inherits from each parent. The genetic constitution of an organism is called the genotype.

The phenotype refers to the visible properties of an organism that are produced by the interaction of the genotype and the environment. In this case, the A, B, O allele combination a person has is their genotype, while their blood type is their phenotype.

In humans the blood groups are produced by various combinations of three alleles IA, IB, and i. Blood type A is caused by either IA IA or IA i; type B by IB IB or IB i; type AB by IA IB; and type O by i i. Suppose a child is of blood type A and the mother is of type 0. What type or types may the father belong to? Suppose a father of blood type B and a mother of blood type O have a child of type O. What are the chances that their next child will be blood type O? Type B?

An archeologist discovers an unopened tomb in Egypt. Inside the tomb, he finds the mummies of two adults and two children. Inscriptions identify the two adults as the chief scribe and his wife. The inscriptions tell how their son and his best friend drowned in the Nile River when their boat overturned. The mummies are so well preserved that lab technicians are able to type their blood. Both adults are type B. Child 1 is type A.

What are the possible blood types of a child who's parents are both heterozygous for "B" blood type? Determine the possible genotypes & phenotypes with respect to blood type for a couple who's blood types are homozygous A & heterozygous B. A test was done to determine the biological father of a child. The child's blood Type is A and the mother's is B. P1 has a blood type of O, & P2 has blood type AB. Which is the biological father?

This is an extremely rare ABO group which derives the name "Bombay" because it was first discovered to exist among some people living in the region of Bombay, India. Although the group is more likely to occur in East Indians, it is a very rare group even among this population. Also, it is not restricted to East Indians and has been found to exist in Caucasians, Negroes, Japanese, etc.

Bombay people would be incompatible when crossmatched with red cells of all normal ABO groups (groups O, A, B and AB). If they require blood transfusion, they must receive blood from another Bombay. Donors must be sought among their blood relatives (especially siblings) or from the rare donor file maintained by the Red Cross.

Inheritance: The Bombay group (Oh) results from the inheritance of two rare recessive h genes which occur at a locus other than the ABO gene locus. Because the h gene is very rare, Bombays often result from consanguineous matings in which parents are blood relatives (e.g., first cousins). Whenever inbreeding occurs, the proportion of rare homozygotes increases in frequency