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# Stress Analysis of a Singly

## Reinforced Concrete Beam

with Uncertain Structural
Parameters
Dr.M.V.Rama Rao
Department of Civil Engineering,
Vasavi College of Engineering
Dr.Ing.Andrzej Pownuk
Department of Mathematical Sciences,
University of Texas at El Paso
Texas 79968, USA
Dr.Iwona Skalna
Department of Applied Computer Science
University of Science and Technology
AGH, ul. Gramatyka 10, Cracow, Poland
Objective
In the present work, a singly-reinforced
concrete beam with interval area of steel
reinforcement and corresponding interval
Youngs modulus and subjected to an
interval moment is taken up for analysis.
Interval algebra is used to establish the
bounds for the stresses and strains in
steel and concrete.
To introduce interval uncertainty in the
stress analysis of reinforced concrete
flexural members
Stress Analysis of RC sections
based on nonlinear and/or discontinuous stress-
strain relationships - analysis is difficult to
perform
aim of analyzing the beam is to
predict structural behavior in mathematical terms
locate the neutral axis depth
find out the stresses and strains
compute the moment of resistance
design is followed by analysis - process of
iteration.
design process becomes clear only when the
process of analysis is learnt thoroughly.
A singly reinforced concrete beam subjected to an
interval moment is taken up for analysis.
Area of steel reinforcement and the corresponding
Youngs modulus are taken as interval values
Moment of resistance of the beam is expressed as a
function of interval values of stresses in concrete
and steel
Stress distribution model for the cross section of the
beam is modified for the interval case
Internal moment of resistance is equated to the
external bending moment arising due to interval
Stresses in concrete and steel are obtained as
interval values and combined membership functions
are plotted
Steps involved
IS 456-2000 - Indian Standard Code for
Plain and Reinforced concrete
The characteristic values should be based on statistical
data, if available. Where such data is not available, they
should be based on experience. The design values are
derived from the characteristic values through the use of
partial safety factors, both for material strengths and for
loads. In the absence of special considerations, these
factors should have the values given in this section
according to the material, the type of load and the limit
state being considered. The reliability of design is ensured
by requiring that

Design Action Design Strength.
Partial safety factors
for materials

- design value
- characteristic value
u
d
m
S
S

=
m

d
S
c
S
Partial safety factor for materials
account for
the possibility of unfavorable deviation of material
strength from the characteristic value.
the possibility of unfavorable variation of member
sizes.
the possibility of unfavorable reduction in member
strength due to fabrication and tolerances.
uncertainty in the calculation of strength of the
members.

Partial safety factors

- design value
- characteristic value
f

d f c
F F =
d
F
c
F
Limit state is a function
of safety factors
( )
L Q T
R D L Q T o o o o > + + +
( )
0
i
L >
( )
( )
0
L Q T
R D L Q T o o o o + + + >
Calibration of safety factors
( )
0
i
L
o
>
0 f f
P P <
f
P o =
- probability of failure
Interval limit state
L
1
f
P
0 L =
L
o
L
o

f
P o =
( ) ( )
, L L L
o o
e (

( )
0 0 L L
o
> >
Design of structures
with interval parameters
A
P
A P
0
o s
Safe area
] , [
0 0 0
+
e o o o
Design of structures
with interval parameters
A
P
A P
0
o s
] , [
0 0 0
+
e o o o

0
P
0
A
+
0
P
] , [
0 0
+
e P P P
} ], , [ ], , [ : {
0 0 0 0 0 0
A P P P P A o o o o s e e
+ +
More complicated
safety conditions
limit state
uncertain limit state
1
o
2
o
crisp state
uncertain state
Advantages of the interval limit state
Interval limit state takes into account all
worst case combinations of the values
Interval limit state has clear
probabilistic interpretation.
Interval methods can be applied
in the framework of existing civil
engineering design codes

Stress distribution due to a crisp moment
z
f
cc

b
Cross section
c
s

d
A
s

c
cy

x
y
(d-x)
N
s
=A
s
f
s

N
c

Strains
Stresses
Neutral Axis
Stress-strain curves
c
o
Strains
E
s

f
y

Mild steel
f
co

Concrete
c
co

c
cu

Governing equations

cy co cy co
f =f for =
cy cc
y
=
x
| |
|
\ .
Compressive strain in concrete
2
cy cy
cy co
co co

f =f 2 -

(
| | | |
(
| |
(
\ . \ .

cy co
for s
Compressive stress in concrete
Governing equations
2
1 1
0
y x
c cy cc cc
y
N f bdy C C x c c
=
=
(
= =
}
2
2
3
co
co
bf
C
c
| |
=
|
\ .
1
co
co
bf
C
c
| |
=
|
\ .
and

Tensile stress in steel ( )
s s s cc
d x
N A E
x
c

| |
=
|
\ .
Compressive stress in concrete
where
Equation of longitudinal equilibrium leads to
| |
2
1 2
0
cc s s s s
C C x A E x A E d c + =
Governing equations

Depth of resultant compressive force from the neutral axis is given by
| |
1 2
0
1 2
0
2 3
3 4
y x
cy
cc
y
y x
cc
cy
y
C C
bf ydy
y x
C C
bf dy
c
c
=
=
=
=
(
| | | |

| |
(
\ . \ .

= =

}
}
( )
R c c
M N z N y d x = = +
Internal resisting moment is given by
For equilibrium
R
M M s
Stress in steel
0.87
s s s s cc y
d x
f E E f
x
c c

| |
= = s
|
\ .
Singly reinforced section with uncertain
structural parameters and subjected to an
interval moment
All the governing equations are expressed in the
equivalent interval form.
The following are considered as interval values

cc

## Interval extreme fiber strain in concrete

cc
f
Interval extreme fiber stress in concrete
x
Interval depth of neutral axis
Interval stress in steel
s
f
Stress distribution due to an interval
moment
z
f
cc

b
Cross section
c
s

d
A
s

c
cy

x
y
(d-x)
N
s
=A
s
f
s

N
c

Strains
Stresses
Neutral Axis
c
cc

cy cc
y
=
x
| |
|
\ .
SEARCH-BASED ALGORITHM (SBA)
Used to compute the interval value of strain in concrete
as
Mid value M is computed as
The interval strain in concrete is initially approximated
as the point interval
The lower and upper bounds of are obtained as

where and are the step sizes in strain, where
are multipliers
While are non-zero, interval form of
is solved

| |
,
cc
c c c =
2
M M
M
+
=
| |
,
cc cc
c c
| |
1 2
,
cc cc cc
d d c c c c + c =
dc
dc
1 2
and
1 2
and
| |
2
1 2
0
cc s s s s
C C x A E x A E d c + =
SEARCH-BASED ALGORITHM (SBA).

1 2
and are incremented till M M is satisfied
R
s
1
is set to zero if
R
R
M M
M

s
2
is set to zero if
R
R
M M
M

s
=
=0.
1 2
Search is discontinued if and are zero
Sensitivity analysis - Algorithm
Sensitivity analysis - Algorithm
Interval stress in extreme concrete fiber
( )
min, min, min, min,
1
, , ,...,
cc cc cc cc
f f f f
cc cc cc m
f f x p p c =
( )
max, max, max, max,
1
, , ,...,
cc cc cc cc
f f f f
cc cc cc m
f f x p p c =
Interval stress in steel
( )
min, min, min, min,
1
, , ,...,
s s s s
f f f f
s s cc m
f f x p p c =
( )
max, max, max, max,
1
, , ,...,
s s s s
f f f f
s s cc m
f f x p p c =
- Sensitivity
cc cc cc cc
cc
i cc i i i
f f f x
f
p p x p p
c
c
c c c c c c
= + +
c c c c c c
- Sensitivity
s cc s s
s
i cc i i i
f f f x
f
p p x p p
c
c
c c c c c c
= + +
c c c c c c
Example Problem
A singly reinforced beam with the following data is taken up
as an example problem
Breadth = 300 mm Overall depth = 550 mm
Effective depth = 500 mm
As = 2946 mm
2
(6 25 TOR50 bars) Moment = 100 kNm
Allowable compressive stress in concrete fco = 13.4 N/mm
2
Allowable strain in concrete = 0.002
Youngs modulus of steel = 200 GPa
The stress-strain curve for concrete as detailed IS 456-2000 is
Case studies
Case 1
External moment M= [96,104] kNm
Area of Steel reinforcement = 2946 mm
2
Youngs modulus of Steel reinforcement Es= 210
5
N/mm
2
Case 2
External moment M= [90,110] kNm
Area of Steel reinforcement = [0.9,1.1]*2946 mm
2
Youngs modulus of Steel reinforcement = 210
5
N/mm
2

Case 3
External moment M= [80,120] kNm
Area of Steel reinforcement = 2946 mm
2
Youngs modulus of Steel reinforcement = [0.98,1.02]*210
5
N/mm
2

Case 4
External moment M= [90,110] kNm
Area of Steel reinforcement As = [0.98, 1.02]*2946 mm
2

Youngs modulus of Steel reinforcement Es= [0.98, 1.02]*210
5
N/mm
2

Web-based application
Computations are performed online using
the web application developed by the
authors
Posted at the website of University of
Texas, El Paso, USA at the URL
http://www.math.utep.edu/Faculty/ampownuk/php/concrete-beam/
SNAP SHOTS OF RESULTS
OBTAINED ARE PRESENTED
IN THE NEXT TWO SLIDES

Fig. 2 Membership function for bending moment
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110
Bending moment (kNm)
M
e
m
b
e
r
s
h
i
p

v
a
l
u
e
Figure 3 Membership function for area of steel reinforcement
2799
2946
2961
2975
2990
3005
3020
3034
3049
3064
3079
3093
2813
2828
2843
2858
2872
2887
2902
2917
2931
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
2796 2846 2896 2946 2996 3046 3096
Area of steel reinforcement (mm^2)
M
e
m
b
e
r
s
h
i
p

v
a
l
u
e
Figure 4 Membership function for Young's modulus of steel reinforcement
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210 0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
190 195 200 205 210
Young's modulus (GPa)
M
e
m
b
e
r
s
h
i
p

v
a
l
u
e
Combined membership functions are
plotted for
Neutral axis depth
Stress and Strain in extreme concrete fiber
Stress and Strain in steel reinforcement
using the o-sublevel strategy suggested by
Moens and Vandepitte
Combined membership functions
Figure 5 Combined membership function for neutral axis depth(x)
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
260.6 265.6 270.6 275.6 280.6
Neutral Axis Depth (mm)
M
e
m
b
e
r
s
h
i
p

v
a
l
u
e
Combinatorial Solution
Search-based algorithm
Figure 6 Membership function for strain in concrete
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
4.50E-04 4.70E-04 4.90E-04 5.10E-04 5.30E-04
Strain in extreme concrete fiber(ecc)
M
e
m
b
e
r
s
h
i
p

v
a
l
u
e
Combinatorial Solution
Search-based algorithm
Figure 7 Combined membership function for stress in extreme concrete fiber
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
5.35 5.45 5.55 5.65 5.75 5.85 5.95 6.05 6.15 6.25
Stress in extreme concrete fiber (N/mm^2)
M
e
m
b
e
r
s
h
i
p

v
a
l
u
e
Combinatorial
Search-based algorithm
Figure 8 Combined membership function for stress in steel
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
67 77 87 97
Stress in steel reinforcement (N/mm^2)
M
e
m
b
e
r
s
h
i
p

v
a
l
u
e
combinatorial
search-based algorithm
Conclusions
Cross section of a singly reinforced beam
subjected to an interval bending moment
is analyzed by search based algorithm,
sensitivity analysis and combinatorial
approach.
The results obtained are in excellent
agreement and allow the designer to have
a detailed knowledge about the effect of
uncertainty on the stress distribution of the
beam.
Conclusions
In the present paper, a singly reinforced
beam with interval values of area of steel
reinforcement and interval Youngs
modulus and subjected to an external
interval bending moment is taken up.
The stress analysis is performed by three
approaches viz. a search based algorithm
and sensitivity analysis and combinatorial
approach.
It is observed that the results obtained are
in excellent agreement.
Conclusions
These approaches allow the designer
to have a detailed knowledge about
the effect of uncertainty on the
stress distribution of the beam.
The combined membership functions
are plotted for neutral axis depth
and stresses in concrete and steel
and are found to be triangular.
Conclusions
Interval stress and strain are also calculated
using sensitivity analysis.
Because the sign of the derivatives in the
mid point and in the endpoints is the same
then the solution should be exact.
More accurate monotonicity test is based on
second and higher order derivatives.
Results with guaranteed accuracy can be
calculated using interval global optimization.
Extended version of this paper is
published on the web page of the
Department of Mathematical Sciences
at the University of Texas at El Paso
http://www.math.utep.edu/preprints/2007-05.pdf

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