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T.K.

Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Chapters 5 & 6

Chapter -5
RESPONSE SPECTRUM
METHOD OF ANALYSIS
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Introduction
Response spectrum method is favoured by
earthquake engineering community because of:

It provides a technique for performing an
equivalent static lateral load analysis.

It allows a clear understanding of the
contributions of different modes of vibration.

It offers a simplified method for finding the
design forces for structural members for
earthquake.

It is also useful for approximate evaluation
of seismic reliability of structures.

1/1
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
The concept of equivalent lateral forces for earth-
quake is a unique concept because it converts a
dynamic analysis partly to dynamic & partly to
static analysis for finding maximum stresses.

For seismic design, these maximum stresses are
of interest, not the time history of stress.

Equivalent lateral force for an earthquake is
defined as a set of lateral force which will
produce the same peak response as that
obtained by dynamic analysis of structures .

The equivalence is restricted to a single mode of
vibration.
1/2
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd

A modal analysis of the structure is carried out
to obtain mode shapes, frequencies & modal
participation factors.

Using the acceleration response spectrum, an
equivalent static load is derived which will
provide the same maximum response as that
obtained in each mode of vibration.

Maximum modal responses are combined to
find total maximum response of the structure.

1/3
The response spectrum method of analysis is
developed using the following steps.
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis

The first step is the dynamic analysis while , the
second step is a static analysis.
The first two steps do not have approximations,
while the third step has some approximations.

As a result, response spectrum analysis is
called an approximate analysis; but applications
show that it provides mostly a good estimate of
peak responses.
Method is developed for single point, single
component excitation for classically damped
linear systems. However, with additional
approximations it has been extended for multi
point-multi component excitations & for non-
classically damped systems.
Contd
1/4
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Equation of motion for MDOF system under
single point excitation
(5.1)

Using modal transformation, uncoupled sets of
equations take the form





is the mode shape;
i
is the natural frequency
is the more participation factor; is the
modal damping ratio.











Development of the method
g
x + + = Mx Cx Kx MI
2
2 ; 1 (5.2)
i i i i i i i g
z z z x i m e e + + = =
T
i
i
T
i i
|

| |
=
MI
M
1/5
i
|

i

i
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Response of the system in the ith mode is
(5.3)

Elastic force on the system in the ith mode
(5.4)

As the undamped mode shape satisfies
(5.5)

Eq 5.4 can be written as
(5.6)

The maximum elastic force developed in the ith
mode
(5.7)
Contd
i i i
x =z
si i i i
f =Kx =Kz
i
|
2
i i i
K = M
2
si i i i
f = Mz
2
simax i i imax
f =M z
1/6
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Referring to the development of displacement
response spectrum
(5.8)

Using , Eqn 5.7 may be written as
(5.9)

Eq 5.4 can be written as
(5.10)

is the equivalent static load for the ith mode
of vibration.
is the static load which produces structural
displacements same as the maximum modal
displacement.




Contd
( )
max
,
i
i i d i i
z S e =
max
i
i a
S = =
i
si i e
f M P |
1 1
max max

= =
i
i si e
x K f K P
2
a d
S S e =
P
ei
1/7
P
ei
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis

Since both response spectrum & mode shape
properties are required in obtaining , it is known
as modal response spectrum analysis.

It is evident from above that both the dynamic &
static analyses are involved in the method of
analysis as mentioned before.

As the contributions of responses from different
modes constitute the total response, the total
maximum response is obtained by combining modal
quantities.

This combination is done in an approximate manner
since actual dynamic analysis is now replaced by
partly dynamic & partly static analysis.
Contd
P
ei
1/8
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis


Three different types of modal combination rules
are popular
ABSSUM

SRSS

CQC

Contd
Modal combination rules
ABSSUM stands for absolute sum of maximum
values of responses; If is the response quantity
of interest
x
max
1
m
i
i
x x
=
=
(5.11)
is the absolute maximum value of
response in the ith mode.
max
i
x
2/1
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
The combination rule gives an upper bound to the
computed values of the total response for two
reasons:
It assumes that modal peak responses occur at
the same time.
It ignores the algebraic sign of the response.

Actual time history analysis shows modal peaks
occur at different times as shown in Fig. 5.1;further
time history of the displacement has peak value at
some other time.

Thus, the combination provides a conservative
estimate of response.

Contd
2/2
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
T
o
p

f
l
o
o
r

d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
)







t=6.15
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
Time (sec)
F
i
r
s
t

g
e
n
e
r
a
l
i
z
e
d

d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
)

t=6.1
(a) Top storey displacement
(b) First generalized displacement
2/3
Fig 5.1
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
Time (sec)
S
e
c
o
n
d

g
e
n
e
r
a
l
i
z
e
d

d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
)

t=2.5
(c) Second generalized displacement
Fig 5.1 (contd.)
2/3
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
SRSS combination rule denotes square root of sum
of squares of modal responses

For structures with well separated frequencies, it
provides a good estimate of total peak response.




When frequencies are not well separated, some
errors are introduced due to the degree of
correlation of modal responses which is ignored.

The CQC rule called complete quadratic
combination rule takes care of this correlation.
Contd
2
max
1
(5.12)
m
i
i
x x
=
=

2/4
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
It is used for structures having closely spaced
frequencies:





Second term is valid for & includes the effect
of degree of correlation.

Due to the second term, the peak response may be
estimated less than that of SRSS.

Various expressions for are available; here
only two are given :




Contd
2
1 1 1
(5.13)
m m m
i ij i j
i i j
x x x x
= = =
= +

i j =
2/5
i

j
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis

(Rosenblueth & Elordy) (5.14)

(Der Kiureghian) (5.15)


Both SRSS & CQC rules for combining peak modal
responses are best derived by assuming
earthquake as a stochastic process.

If the ground motion is assumed as a stationary
random process, then generalized coordinate in
each mode is also a random process & there
should exist a cross correlation between
generalized coordinates.

Contd
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
1
1 4
ij
ij
ij ij
|

| |
+
=
+
( )
( ) ( )
3
2
2
2 2
2
8 1
1 4 1
ij ij
ij
ij ij ij
| |

| | |
+
=
+ +
2/6
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis

Because of this, exists between two modal
peak responses.

Both CQC & SRSS rules provide good estimates of
peak response for wide band earthquakes with
duration much greater than the period of structure.
Because of the underlying principle of random
vibration in deriving the combination rules, the
peak response would be better termed as mean
peak response.

Fig 5.2 shows the variation of with frquency
ratio.

rapidly decreases as frequency ratio
increases.






Contd
2/7
i

j
i

j
i

j
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Fig 5.2
Contd
2/8
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
As both response spectrum & PSDF represent
frequency contents of ground motion, a relationship
exists between the two.

This relationship is investigated for the smoothed
curves of the two.

Here a relationship proposed by Kiureghian is
presented


















Contd
0
2.8
( ) 2ln (5.16 b)
2
p
et
e
t
| |
=
|
\ .
2/9
( )
( )
( )
2
2
0
,
2 4
(5.16 a)
g
ff
x
D
S
p
u
u u
e
e e
e
e e t tt e
+
(
(
= +
(
(
+


T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
Frequency (rad/sec)
P
S
D
F

o
f

a
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
m

2


s
e
c

-

3

/
r
a
d
)

Unsmoothed PSDF from Eqn 5.16a
Raw PSDF from fourier spectrum
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
Frequency (rad/sec)
P
S
D
F
s

o
f

a
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
m

2
s
e
c

-
3

/
r
a
d
)


Eqn.5.16a
Fourier spectrum of El Centro
Unsmoothed
5 Point smoothed
Fig5.3
2/10
Example 5.1 : Compare between PSDFs obtained
from the smoothed displacement RSP and FFT of
Elcentro record.
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Degree of freedom is sway degree of freedom.

Sway d.o.f are obtained using condensation
procedure; during the process, desired response
quantities of interest are determined and stored in
an array R for unit force applied at each sway
d.o.f.

Frequencies & mode shapes are determined
using M matrix & condensed K matrix.

For each mode find (Eq. 5.2) & obtain P
ei

(Eq. 5.9)





Application to 2D frames
i

( )
1
2
1
(5.17)
N
r
ir
r
i
N
r
ir
r
W
W
|

|
=
=
=

2/11
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Obtain ; is the modal peak
response vector.

Use either CQC or SRSS rule to find mean peak
response.
Example 5.2 : Find mean peak values of top dis-
placement, base shear and inter storey drift between
1
st
& 2
nd
floors.







Contd
( 1... )
j ej
R RP j r = =
R
j
23
4
1 2
3
=5.06rad/s; =12.56rad/s;
=18.64rad/s; = .5rad/s
2/12
Solution :
| | | |
| | | |
;
;
T T
1 2
T T
3 4
= -1 -0.871 -0.520 -0.278 = -1 -0.210 0.911 0.752
= -1 0.738 -0.090 -0.347 = 1 -0.843 0.268 -0.145
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Approaches
Disp (m)
Base shear in terms of
mass (m)
Drift (m)
2 modes all modes 2 modes all modes 2 modes all modes
SRSS
0.9171 0.917
1006.558 1006.658 0.221 0.221
CQC
0.9121
0.905 991.172 991.564 0.214 0.214
ABSSUM 0.9621 0.971 1134.546 1152.872 0.228 0.223
Time history 0.8921 0.893 980.098 983.332 0.197 0.198
Table 5.1
Contd
2/13
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Analysis is performed for ground motion applied to
each principal direction separately.

Following steps are adopted:
Assume the floors as rigid diaphragms & find
the centre of mass of each floor.

DYN d.o.f are 2 translations & a rotation; centers
of mass may not lie in one vertical (Fig 5.4).

Apply unit load to each dyn d.o.f. one at a
time & carry out static analysis to find
condensed K matrix & R matrix as for 2D frames.

Repeat the same steps as described for 2D
frame



Application to 3D tall frames
3/1
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
3/2
C.G. of mass line

1
CM

2
CM

3
CM
L
L
L
L

g
x
u

x
(a)
C.G. of mass line

1
CM

2
CM

3
CM
L
L
L
L L

g
x
u

x
(b)
Figure 5.4:
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Example 5.3 : Find mean peak values of top floor
displacements , torque at the first floor &
at the base of column A for exercise for problem
3.21. Use digitized values of the response spectrum
of El centro earthquake ( Appendix 5A of the book).





Results are obtained following the steps of
section 5.3.4.

Results are shown in Table 5.2.





Contd
1 2 3
4 5 6
=13.516rad/s; =15.138rad/s; =38.731rad/s;
=39.633rad/s ; =45.952rad/s; =119.187rad/s
X Y
V and V
3/3
Solution :
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Approac
hes
displacement (m)
Torque
(rad) V
x
(N) V
y
(N)
(1) (2) (3)
SRSS
0.1431 0.0034 0.0020 214547 44081
CQC
0.1325 0.0031 0.0019 207332 43376
Time
history
0.1216 0.0023 0.0016 198977 41205
TABLE 5.2
Contd
Results obtained by CQC are closer to those of
time history analysis.
3/4
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Response spectrum method is strictly valid for
single point excitation.
For extending the method for multi support
excitation, some additional assumptions are
required.
Moreover, the extension requires a derivation
through random vibration analysis. Therefore, it is
not described here; but some features are given
below for understanding the extension of the
method to multi support excitation.

It is assumed that future earthquake is
represented by an averaged smooth response
spectrum & a PSDF obtained from an ensemble
of time histories.
RSA for multi support excitation
3/5
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
3/6
Lack of correlation between ground motions at
two points is represented by a coherence function.

Peak factors in each mode of vibration and the
peak factor for the total response are assumed to
be the same.

A relationship like Eqn. 5.16 is established
between and PSDF.





Mean peak value of any response quantity r
consists of two parts:


d
S
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
2
1
2 ; 1.. (5.18)
s
i i i i i ki k
k
z z z u i m e e |
=
+ + = =

(5.19)
i k
ki
i i
| =
|
| |
T
T
MR
M
3/7
Pseudo static response due to the
displacements of the supports

Dynamic response of the structure with
respect to supports.

Using normal mode theory, uncoupled
dynamic equation of motion is written as:


T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
If the response of the SDOF oscillator to
then


Total response is given by







are vectors of size m x s (for s=3 &
m=2)









Contd
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
1 1 1
(5.21)
(5.22)
(5.23)
s m
k k i i
k i
s m s
k k i ki ki
k i k
r t a u t z t
r t a u t z
r t
|
| |
= =
= = =
= +
= +
= +


|
|
T T
a u t z t
3/8
k ki
u is z
1
(5.20)
s
i ki ki
k
z z |
=
=

and z
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis





Assuming to be random
processes, PSDF of is given by:




Performing integration over the frequency range
of interest & considering mean peak as peak
factor multiplied by standard deviation,
expected peak response may be written as:







Contd
{ }

(

T
1 11 1 21 1 31 2 12 2 22 2 32
T
11 21 31 12 22 32
= (5.24a)
z = z z z z z z (5.24b)
( ) ( ) ( )
t r t ,u t and z
( ) r t
(5.25)
rr
S = + + +
T T T T
uu zz uz zu
a S a S a S S a
| | | |
| | | |
3/9
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis












Contd
( )
|
( )
....
( (

(

(

1 2 3 S
1 2
T T T T
uu uz D D zz D D zu
T
1 p 2 p 3 p S p
T
D 1 11 11 1 21 21 1 s1 s1 m 11 1m
ij i j j
E max r t = b b+b + + b (5.26)
b = a u a u a u a u (5.27a)
= D D D ... D (5.27b)
D =D , i =1,..,s ; j =1,..,m (5.27c)
and are the correlation matrices

whose elements are given by:
,
uu u z
l l
z z
l
( )
}
i j i j
i j

uu uu
u u -
1
= S d (5.28)

3/10
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
( )
}
i kj i k
i kj

*
u z j uu
u z -
1
= h S d (5.29)

( )
} ki lj k l
ki lj

*
z z i j u u
z z -
1
= hh S d (5.30)

( )
( )
i k i k g
1 1
2 2
uu u u u
2 2
coh i,k
1
S = S S coh i,k = S (5.31)

( ) ( )
k l k l g
1 1
2 2
u u u u u
S =S S coh k,l =coh k,l S (5.33)
( )
( )
i j i j g
1 1
2 2
uu u u u
4 4
coh i, j
1
S = S S coh i, j = S (5.32)

3/11
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
( )
ij i j j
D =D ,
For a single train of seismic wave,
that is displacement response spectrum for a
specified ; correlation matrices can be obtained
if is additionally provided; can be
determined from (Eqn 5.6).

If only relative peak displacement is required,third
term of Eqn.5.26 is only retained.

Steps for developing the program in MATLAB is
given in the book.

coh(i, j )
( )
j j
D ,
u g
S
Example 5.4 Example 3.8 is solved for El centro
earthquake spectrum with time lag of 5s.
3/12
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
Solution :The quantities required for calculating the
expected value are given below:










1 2
11 11 11 21 11 31 12 12 12 22 12 32
21 11 21 21 21 31 22 12 22 22 22 32
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1
; ; ,
0.5 1 0.5 1 1 1 1 3
12.24rad/s ; 24.48rad/s
1 1 1
1
;
1 1 1 3
0.0259 0.0259 0.0259 -
T
D
w w
|
| | | | | |
| | | | | |

( ( (
= = =
( ( (


= =
( (
= =
( (

=
|
|
T T
r
a
( )
11 21 31 1
12 22 32 2
1 2
1 1 1 2
2 1
0.0015 -0.0015 -0.0015
0.0129 0.0129 0.0129 0.0015 0.0015 0.0015
( 12.24) 0.056m
( 24.48) 0.011m
0
5 10
, 0 ; exp ; exp
2 2
0
D D D D
D D D D
coh i j
e
e

e e

t t

(
(

= = = = =
= = = = =
(

| | | |
(
= = =
| |
(
\ . \ .
(

3/13
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
1 0.873 0.765
0.873 1 0.873
0.765 0.873 1
0.0382 0.0061 0.0027 0.0443 0.0062 0.0029
0.0063 0.0387 0.0063 0.0068 0.0447 0.0068
0.0027 0.0063 0.0387 0.0029 0.0068 0.0447
1 0.0008 0.0001 0.0142
0.0008 1 0
(
(
=
(
(

(
(
=
(
(

=
uu
uz
zz
0.0007 0.0001
.0008 0.0007 0.0142 0.0007
0.0001 0.0008 1 0.0001 0.0007 0.0142
0.0142 0.0007 0.0001 1 0.0007 0.0001
0.0007 0.0142 0.0007 0.0007 1 0.0007
0.0001 0.0007 0.0142 0.0001 0.0007 1
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

Contd
3/14
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Mean peak values determined are:
Contd
1 2
1 2
( ) 0.106 ; ( ) 0.099
( ) 0.045 ; ( ) 0.022
tot tot
rel rel
u m u m
u m u m
= =
= =
For perfectly correlated ground motion
1 0 0
0 1 0 null matrix
0 0 1
1 1 1 0 0 0
1 1 1 0 0 0
1 1 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
(
(
= =
(
(

(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
(

uu uz
zz
3/15
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
Mean peak values of relative displacement
1
2
RSA RHA
u =0.078m ; 0.081m
u =0.039m ; 0.041m
It is seen thats the results of RHA & RSA match
well.

Another example (example 3.10) is solved for a time
lag of a 2.5 sec.


Solution is obtained in the same way and results
are given in the book. The calculation steps
are self evident.
3/16
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Cascaded analysis
Cascaded analysis is popular for seismic analysis
of secondary systems (Fig 5.5).









RSA cannot be directly used for the total system
because of degrees of freedom become
prohibitively large ; entire system becomes
nonclasically damped.

4/1
Secondary System


x
g
..

..

k
c
m
x
a
=x
f
+x
g
.. .. ..
Secondary system mounted
on a floor of a building frame
SDOF is to be analyzed for
obtaining floor response spectrum
x
f
Fig 5.5
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
In the cascaded analysis two systems- primary
and secondary are analyzed separately; output of
the primary becomes the input for the secondary.

In this context, floor response spectrum of the
primary system is a popular concept for
cascaded analysis.

The absolute acceleration of the floor in the figure
is

Pseudo acceleration spectrum of an SDOF is
obtained for ; this spectrum is used for RSA of
secondary systems mounted on the floor.



a
x
a
x
4/2
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
Example 5.6 For example 3.18, find the mean peak
displacement of the oscillator for El Centro earthquake.
for secondary system = 0.02 ; for the main
system = 0.05 ;floor displacement spectrum shown in
the Fig5.6 is used
Solution











4/3

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
0
0.5
1
1.5
Frequency (rad/sec)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
)

Using this spectrum,
peak displacement of the
secondary system with
T=0.811s is 0.8635m.

The time history analysis
for the entire system (with
C matrix for P-S system) is
found as 0.9163m.

Floor displacement response
spectrum (Exmp. 5.6)
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Approximate modal RSA
For nonclassically damped system, RSA cannot
be directly used.

However, an approximate RSA can be performed.

C matrix for the entire system can be obtained
(using Rayleigh damping for individual systems
& then combining them without coupling terms)



matrix is obtained considering all d.o.f. &
becomes non diagonal.

Ignoring off diagonal terms, an approximate
modal damping is derived & is used for RSA.







1
2
0
0
C
C
C
(
=
(

|
T
C | |
4/4
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Seismic coefficient method
Seismic coefficient method uses also a set of
equivalent lateral loads for seismic analysis of
structures & is recommended in all seismic codes
along with RSA & RHA.

For obtaining the equivalent lateral loads, it uses
some empirical formulae. The method consists of
the following steps:
Using total weight of the structure, base
shear is obtained by



is a period dependent seismic coefficient




(5.34)
b h
V W C =

h
C
4/5
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
Base shear is distributed as a set of lateral
forces along the height as



bears a resemblance with that for the
fundamental mode.


Static analysis of the structure is carried out
with the force .


Different codes provide different recommendations
for the values /expressions for .




( ) (5.35)
i b i
F V f h =
(i = 1,2...... n)
i
F
( )
i
f h
h
C & ( )
i
f h
4/6
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
4/7
Distribution of lateral forces can be written as
j j j1
j j j1
j j1
j b
j j1
j j
j b
j j
k
j j
j b
k
j j
S
a1
F = W (5.36)
1 j j j1
g
F W
= (5.37)
F W
W
F = V (5.38)
W
W h
F = V (5.39)
W h
W h
F = V (5.40)
W h
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
4/8
Computation of base shear is based on first mode.

Following basis for the formula can be put forward.

( )
( )
i
i
i
i
a
e
b i
b b
a
e
i
a1
b
S
a
i
V =F =(W ) (5.41)
b ji j ji i
g i
S
V = W (5.42)
g
V V (5.43)
S
W i =1ton (5.44)
g
S
V = W (5.45)
g
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Seismic code provisions
All countries have their own seismic codes.

For seismic analysis, codes prescribe all three
methods i.e. RSA ,RHA & seismic coefficient
method.

Codes specify the following important factors for
seismic analysis:
Approximate calculation of time period for
seismic coefficient method.

plot.

Effect of soil condition on


h
C Vs T
a
&
h
S A
or C
g g
5/1
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
Seismicity of the region by specifying PGA.

Reduction factor for obtaining design forces
to include ductility in the design.

Importance factor for structure.


Provisions of a few codes regarding the first three
are given here for comparison. The codes include:

IBC 2000
NBCC 1995
EURO CODE 1995
NZS 4203 1992
IS 1893 2002
5/2
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
IBC 2000
for class B site,





for the same site, is given by





h
C
A
g
0.4 7.5 0 0.08s
1.0 0.08 0.4s (5.47)
0.4
0.4s
n n
n
n
n
T T
A
T
g
T
T

+ s s

= s s

>

1
1
1
1.0 0.4s
(5.46)
0.4
0.4s
h
T
C
T
T
s

=

>

5/3
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
T may be computed by






can have any reasonable distribution.

Distribution of lateral forces over the height
is given by


i
F
1
(5.49)
k
j j
i b
N
k
j j
j
W h
F V
W h
=
=

2
1
1
1
2 (5.48)
N
i i
i
N
i i
i
Wu
T
g Fu
t
=
=
(
(
( =
(
(

5/4
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd


Distribution of lateral force for nine story frame is
shown in Fig5.8 by seismic coefficient method .





( )
1 1 1 1
k={1; 0.5 T +1.5 ; 2 for T 0.5s ; 0.5T 2.5s; T 2.5s (5.50)
0 2 4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Storey force
S
t
o
r
e
y



T=2sec
T=1sec
T=0.4sec


W
2


W


W


W


W


W


W


W


W
9@3m
Fig5.8
5/5
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
NBCC 1995
is given by

For U=0.4 ; I=F=1, variations of with T
are given in Fig 5.9.





h
C
e
h e
C U
C = ; C =USIF (5.51a) ;(5.51b)
R
A
S &
g
0 0.5 1 1.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
Time period (sec)
S
e
i
s
m
i
c

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

f
a
c
t
o
r

S

Fig5.9
5/6
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
For PGV = 0.4ms
-1
, is given by





T may be obtained by




S and Vs T are compared in Fig 5.10 for
v = 0.4ms
-1
, I = F = 1; (acceleration and
velocity related zone)






(
(
(

1
N 2
2
i i
1
1
N
i i
1
Fu
T = 2 (5.53)
g Fu
A
g

n
n
n
1.2 0.03 T 0.427s
A
= (5.52) 0.512
T >0.427s
g
T
A/g
h v
z = z
5/7
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
Time period (sec)
A/g
S
S

o
r

A
/
g

Fig5.10
5/8
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd

Distribution of lateral forces is given by










1
t 1 b 1
b 1
0 T 0.7s
F = 0.07TV 0.7 < T <3.6s (5.55)
0.25V T 3.6s
( )

i i
i b t
N
i i
i=1
Wh
F = V - F (5.54)
Wh
5/9
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd

| |

\ .

1 c
1
e
-
3
c
1 c
1
A
0 T T
g
C = (5.57)
T A
T T
g T
5/10
EURO CODE 8 1995
Base shear coefficient is given by


is given by





Pseudo acceleration in normalized form is given
by Eqn 5.58 in which values of T
b
,T
c
,T
d


s
C
e
C
e
s
C
C = (5.56)
q
'
b c d
T T T
hard 0.1 0.4 3.0
med 0.15 0.6 3.0
soft 0.2 0.8 3.0
(A is multiplied by 0.9)
are
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd







5/11
Pseudo acceleration in normalized form
,
is given by

| |

\ .

0
n
n b
b
b n c
c
c n d g
n
c d
n d
2
n
T
1+1.5 0 T T
T
2.5 T T T
A
= (5.58)
T
2.5 T T T u
T
T T
2.5 T T
T
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Rayleigh's method may be used for calculating T.

Distribution of lateral force is









Variation of are shown in
Fig 5.11.




i i1
i b
N
i i1
i=1
i i
i b
N
i i
i=1
W
F = V (5.59)
W
Wh
F = V (5.60)
Wh
/ & /
e go go
c u A u
5/12
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Time period (sec)


A/u
g0
C
e
/u
g0
C
e

/
u
g
0

o
r

A
/
u
g
0

..
.
.

.
.

.
.

..
Fig 5.11
5/13
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
NEW ZEALAND CODE ( NZ 4203: 1992)

Seismic coefficient & design response curves
are the same.

For serviceability limit,




is a limit factor.


For acceleration spectrum, is replaced by T.


( ) ( )
( )
b 1 s 1
b s 1
C T =C T,1 RzL T 0.45 (5.61a)
=C 0.4,1 RzL T 0.45 (5.61b)
s
L
1
T
6/1
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
Lateral load is multiplied by 0.92.

Fig5.12 shows the plot of

Distribution of forces is the same as Eq.5.60

Time period may be calculated by using
Rayleighs method.

Categories 1,2,3 denote soft, medium and hard.

R in Eq 5.61 is risk factor; Z is the zone factor;
is the limit state factor.












1
b
c vs T for =
s
l
6/2
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
Time period (sec)


Category 1
Category 2
Category 3
C
b

Fig5.12
6/3
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
IS CODE (1893-2002)
are the same; they are
given by:
a
e
S
C vs T & vs T
g
Time period is calculated by empirical
formula and distribution of force is given by:

2
j j
j b
N
2
j j
j=1
Wh
F = V (5.65)
Wh

a
1+15T 0 T0.1s
S
= 2.5 0.1 T0.4s for hard soil (5.62)
g
1
0.4 T 4.0s
T
6/4
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd

a
a
1+15T 0 T 0.1s
S
= 2.5 0.1 T 0.55s for medium soil (5.63)
g
1.36
0.55 T 4.0s
T
1+15T 0 T 0.1s
S
= 2.5 0.1 T 0.67s for soft soil (5.64)
g
1.67
0.67 T 4.0s
T
6/5
For the three types of soil S
a
/g are shown in Fig
5.13

Sesmic zone coefficients decide about the PGA
values.
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
6/6
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Time period (sec)
Hard Soil
Medium Soil
Soft Soil
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

a
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

(
S
a
/
g
)

Variations of (Sa/g) with time period T
Fig 5.13
Contd
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
Example 5.7: Seven storey frame shown in Fig 5.14
is analyzed with


For mass: 25% for the top three & rest 50% of live
load are considered.
1 2 3
T =0.753s ; T =0.229s ; T =0.111s
R = 3; PGA = 0.4g ; for NBCC, PGA 0.65g
Solution:
First period of the structure falls in the falling
region of the response spectrum curve.

In this region, spectral ordinates are different
for different codes.
-3 7 -2
-1
Concrete density =24kNm ; E = 2.510 kNm
Live load = 1.4kNm
6/7
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
6/8
A Seven storey-building frame for analysis
Fig 5.14
5m 5m 5m
7@3m
All beams:-23cm 50cm
Columns(1,2,3):-55cm 55cm
Columns(4-7):-:-45cm 45cm
Contd
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
Table 5.3: Comparison of results obtained by different codes

Codes
Base shear (KN)
1st Storey Displacement
(mm)
Top Storey Displacement
(mm)
SRSS CQC SRSS CQC SRSS CQC
3 all 3 all 3 all 3 all 3 all 3 all
IBC 33.51 33.66 33.52 33.68 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 10.64 10.64 10.64 10.64
NBCC 35.46 35.66 35.46 35.68 0.78 0.78 0.78 0.78 11.35 11.35 11.35 11.35
NZ
4203
37.18 37.26 37.2 37.29 0.83 0.83 0.83 0.83 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00
Euro 8 48.34 48.41 48.35 48.42 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 15.94 15.94 15.94 15.94
Indian 44.19 44.28 44.21 44.29 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 14.45 14.45 14.45 14.45
6/9
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Displacement (mm)
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

s
t
o
r
e
y



IBC
NBCC
NZ 4203
Euro 8
Indian
Comparison of displacements obtained by different codes
Fig 5.15
6/10
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Lec-1/74
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Chapter - 6

Inelastic Seismic
Response of Structures
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Introduction
Under relatively strong earthquakes, structures
undergo inelastic deformation due to current
seismic design philosophy.

Therefore, structures should have sufficient
ductility to deform beyond the yield limit.

For understanding the ductility demand imposed
by the earthquake, a study of an SDOF
system in inelastic range is of great help.

The inelastic excursion takes place when the
restoring force in the spring exceeds or equal to
the yield limit of the spring.



1/1
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
For this, nonlinear time history analysis of SDOF
system under earthquake is required; similarly,
nonlinear analysis of MDOF system is useful for
understanding non-linear behaviour of MDOF
system under earthquakes.

Nonlinear analysis is required for other reasons
as well such as determination of collapse state,
seismic risk analysis and so on.

Finally, for complete understanding of the
inelastic behavior of structures, concepts of
ductility and inelastic response spectrum are
required.
The above topics are discussed here.
Contd..
1/2
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Non linear dynamic analysis
If structure have nonlinear terms either in inertia
or in damping or in stiffness or in any form of
combination of them, then the equation of motion
becomes nonlinear.

More common nonlinearities are stiffness and
damping nonlinearities.

In stiffness non linearity, two types of non linearity
are encountered :
Geometric
Material (hysteretic type)

Figure 6.1 shows non hysteric type non linearity;
loading & unloading path are the same.


1/3
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
f
Loading
Loading
Unloading
Unloading
x
x
A
Fig.6.1
1/4
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
Figure 6.2 shows hysteric type nonlinearity;
experimental curves are often idealised as
(i) elasto plastic; (ii) bilinear hysteretic ;
(iii) general strain hardening
y x
f
x
y f
y
x
f
x
y
f
y f
f
x
y x
y
f
y
x
f
x
Variation of force with displacement under cyclic loading
Idealized model of force
displacement curve
Idealized model of force
displacement curve
Fig.6.2
1/5
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis

Equation of motion for non linear analysis takes
the form


and matrices are constructed for the
current time interval.

Equation of motion for SDOF follows as


Solution of Eqn. 6.2 is performed in incremental
form; the procedure is then extended for MDOF
system with additional complexity.

and should have instantaneous values.




Contd..
mx+c x+k x = -mx (6.2)
g
t t
1/6
(6.1) K
g
t t
+ + = M x C x x Mr x A A A A
K
t
C
t
C
t
K
t
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
and are taken as that at the beginning of
the time step; they should be taken as average
values.

Since are not known, It requires an
iteration.

For sufficiently small , iteration may be
avoided.

NewMarks in incremental form is
used for the solution

t
c
t
k
x x

A A &
t A
Method |
Contd..
( )
( )
k
2
2
k k
x = t x + t x (6.3)
t
x = t x + x + t x (6.4)
2
1/7
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
( )
( )
| |
|
\ .
(
| | | |
( | |
\ . \ .

k k
2
k k
t t
2
g t k t k
k+1 k k+1 k k+
1 1 1
x = x - x - x (6.5)
t 2
t

x = x - x + t 1- x (6.6)
t 2
kx = p (6.7)
1
k = k + c + m (6.8a)
t
t
m m
p = -mx + + c x + + t - 1 c x (6.8b)
t 2 2
x = x + x x = x + x x
1 k
= x + x (6.9)
1/8
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
81
For more accurate value of acceleration, it is
calculated from Eq. 6.2 at k+1th step.
The solution is valid for non hysteretic non
linearity.

For hysteretic type, solution procedure is
modified & is first explained for elasto - plastic
system.
Solution becomes more involved because
loading and unloading paths are different.
As a result, responses are tracked at every time
step of the solution in order to determine loading
and unloading of the system and accordingly,
modify the value of k
t
.


Contd..
1/9
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Elasto-plastic non linearity
For material elasto plastic behaviour, is taken
to be constant.

is taken as k or zero depending upon
whether the state is in elastic & plastic state
(loading & unloading).

State transition is taken care of by iteration
procedure to minimize the unbalanced force;
iteration involves the following steps.

Elastic to plastic state
t
c
t
k
( ) ( )
0
(6.10)
e
e
x a x A = A
1/10
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
p e t
( x)for(1- a )p withk =0
e p
x =(x )+(x )
Contd..
Use Eq. 6.7, find


Plastic to plastic state
Eq. 6.7 with K
t
=0 is used ; transition takes place if
at the end of the step; computation is then
restarted.

Plastic to elastic state
Transition is defined by
is factored (factor e) such that
is obtained for with

x<0
x = 0
a
( x )
( )
1- e p
t
k 0
a
x =(x )+Factored x
x = 0 x A
1/11
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Example 6.1 Refer fig. 6.3 ; ; find
responses at t=1.52 s & 1.64s given responses at
t= 1.5s & 1.62s ; m=1kg

Solution:













s rad
n
/ 10 = e
Contd..
2/1
x
x
f
m
c
g
x
..
SDOF system with non-linear
spring
0.15mg
0.0147m
x
x
f
Force-displacement behaviour
of the spring
Fig . 6.3
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
85
t = 1.5s; x = 0.01315m; x = 0.1902m/s;
2 -1
x = 0.46964 m/s ; f = 1.354 ; c =0.4Nsm ;
x
t
-1
k =100Nm
t
-1
k = 10140Nm
x =- 0.00312g
g
p= 37.55N
-1
x =0.0037m; x =- 0.01ms ; f =k x
t
(f ) =1.7243N>0.15mg
x
t+t
(f )+e xk =0.15mg(e=0.3176)
x
t t
2/2
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
( )
X + X = 0
t 1
-1
kx = 1- e p; k =0; x =0.00373m; x =- 0.00749ms
t 2
-1
x = x +x +x = 0.01725m x = 0.1827ms
t 1 t+t 2 t+t
P - c x - f
t k+1 k+1 x(k+1)
-1
x = = 0.279ms
k+1
m
At t =1.625s ; x >0 ; k = 10040; p =- 0.4173; x =0.000042;
x = - 0.061;
( )
( )
; e =- 6.8; x = ex =- 0.000283;
1
-5
kx = 1- e p; k =100; x = x +x =- 4.4410 ; x =- 0.061;
t 1 2 2
x = x +x =0.0298; x = x +x= - 0.033
t t t+t t+t
x from Eqn =3.28; f = f +k x = 1.4435N
xt t t+t t+t 2
2/3
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Solution for MDOF System
Sections undergoing yielding are predefined and
their force- deformation behaviour are specified
as shown in Fig 6.4.



0.5k
k
1.5k
k
0.5m
m
m
m
3 y
x
2 y
x
1 y
x
3 p
V
2 p
V
1 p
V
0.5k

k
1.5k
k
x
x
x
Fig.6.4
For the solution of Eqn. 6.1, state of the yield
section is examined at each time step.
2/4
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis

Depending upon the states of yield
sections, stiffness of the members are changed &
the stiffness matrix for the incremental equation is
formed.

If required, iteration is carried out as explained for
SDOF.

Solution for MDOF is an extension of that of SDOF.

Contd..
( )
(
( | |
( | (
\ .

t t
2
g t k t k
Kx = p (6.11)
1
K =K + C + M (6.12a)
t
t
M M
p =- M r x + + C x + +t -1 C x (6.12b)
t 2 2
2/5
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Example 6.2: Refer to Fig 6.5; K/m = 100; m = 1 kg;
find responses at 3.54s. given those at 3.52s.
Solution:



Contd..



` `

)
)
(
(
(
(

(
| | | |
( | |
\ . \ .

1.44977 0.15mg
f = 0.95664 < 0.15mg and x > 0
k
0.63432 0.15mg
10260 sym
1
K = K + C + M = -124 10260
t t
2
t
(t)
0 -124 10137
x = 0.5913
g
M M
p = -MIx + + C x + + t - 1 C x
g
t t k k
t 2 2
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

32.6224
= 18.0256
8.4376
0.0032
-1
x = K p= 0.0018
0.0009
2/6
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis

k/2
k/2
m
m
m
k/2
k/2


k/2

k/2
3m
3m
3m
1
x
2
x
3
x
y
x
x
y
f
0.15m g
y
f
=
0.01475m y
x
=
3 storey frame
Force displacement
curve of the column
Contd..
Fig.6.5
2/7
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
( (
( (
( (
( (


(


(
` `
(

(
)

)
0.0032 0.16
K
x = -0.0014 ; f = x = -0.07
2
-0.0009 -0.045
e(0.16)
1.60977 0.15mg
1
f = f + f = 0.88664 f +ef = f + e (-0.07) = 0.15mg
k+1 k k k 2
0.58932 0.15mg
e (-0.045)
3
e =0.136;
1



` `


)
)





` ` `


) )

)
e =1; e =1
2 3
e x e x
1 1 1 1
x = x = e x +e (x - x ) = e x
e
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
e x +e (x - x )+e (x - x ) e x
1 1 1 2 2 3 3 2 3 3
e
0.000435 0.1358
1
= -0.000965 e = 0.6893
2
-0.001865 3.07
e
3
2/8
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis



` ` `

) )
)
(
| |
(
|
(
\ .
(

0.0028 0.00324 0.02009
x = 0.0027 ; x = x + x = 0.0018 ; x = x + x = 0.00833
1 2 2 k+1 k
0.0026 0.00074 0.0114
0. - 0.0509 0

x = x - x + t 1- x = -0.0406 ; x = x + x =
k k k+1 k
t 2
-0.0524
( )
(
(
(
(






` ` ` `

) )
)

)
.1361
0.07
0.0165
e(0.16)
0.00 0.0218 1.4715
1
f = e (-0.07) + -0.005 = -0.075 ; f = f + f = 0.882
2 k+1 k
-0.005 -0.05 0.584
e (-0.045)
3
-2.289
-1
x = M P - C x - F = -1.7
t k+1 k+1 k+1 k+1
(
(
(
(

018
-2.2825
Contd..
2/9
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Bidirectional interaction assumes importance
under:
Analysis for two component earthquake
Torsionally Coupled System

For such cases, elements undergo yielding
depending upon the yield criterion used.

When bidirectional interaction of forces on
yielding is considered, yielding of a cross
section depends on two forces.

None of them individually reaches yield value;
but the section may yield.


Bidirectional Interaction
3/1
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
If the interaction is ignored, yielding in two
directions takes place independently.

In incremental analysis, the interaction effect is
included in the following way.

Refer Fig 6.6; columns translate in X and Y
directions with stiffness and .

Contd..
eyi
k
exi
k
(
(
(
(


i i i i
ex ex y
e ey ey x
ex y ey x
ex ex ey ey ex y ey x
K 0 K e
K = 0 K K e (6.13a)
K e K e K
K = K ; K = K ; K = K e + K e (6.13b)
3/2
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
x
e
y
e
D
D
Colm. 1
Colm. 2
Colm. 3
Colm. 4
CR
Y
X
C.M.
Fig.6.6
3/3
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Transient stiffness remaining constant over
is given by


The elements of the modification matrix are


t A
p
K
Contd..
t e p
K =K - K (6.14)
2
2
yi xi yi
xi
pxi pyi pxyi pyxi
i i i
2 2
i exi xi eyi yi
xi exi xi yi eyi yi
yi
xi
xi yi
2 2
pxi pyi
B B B
B
K = ; K = ; K =K = (6.15)
G G G
G =K h +K h (6.16a)
B =K h ; B =K h (6.16b)
V
V
h = ; h = (6.16c)
V V
3/4
t
K
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
When any of the column is in the full plastic state
satisfying yield criterion, .

During incremental solution changes as the
elements pass from E-P, P-P, P-E; the change
follows E-P properties of the element & yield
criterion.

Yield criterion could be of different form; most
popular yield curve is



t
k =0
t
k
Contd..
|
| | | |
| |
| |
\ . \ .
2 2
yi
xi
i
pxi pyi
V
V
= + (6.19)
V V
3/5
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
For , curve is circular ; ,
curve is ellipse; shows plastic state,
shows elastic state, is inadmissible.

If , internal forces of the elements are
pulled back to satisfy yield criterion; equilibrium
is disturbed, corrected by iteration.

The solution procedure is similar to that for
SDOF.

At the beginning of time , check the states of the
elements & accordingly the transient stiffness
matrix is formed.



pyi pxi
V V =
pyi pxi
V V =
1 =
i
|
1 <
i
|
1 >
i
|
1 >
i
|
Contd..
3/6
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
If any element violates the yield condition at the
end of time or passes from E-P, then an
iteration scheme is used.

If it is P-P & for any element, then an
average stiffness predictor- corrector scheme
is employed.
The scheme consists of :

is obtained with for the time internal t &
incremental restoring force vector is obtained.


1 >
i
|
Contd..
1
U A
ta
K
1 1
1
1
(6.21)
(6.22 )
(6.22 )
ta
i i
i i
force tolerance a
displacement tolerance b
+
+
A = A
A A s
A A s
F K U
F F
U U
3/7
( )
1
'
K = K +K
ta t t0
2
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
After convergence , forces are calculated &
yield criterion is checked ; element forces are
pulled back if criterion is violated.



With new force vector is calculated & iteration
is continued.

For E-P, extension of SDOF to MDOF is done.

For calculating , the procedure as given in
SDOF is adopted.


ta
K
Contd..
1
(6.23)
i i
i

'
= F F
p
U A
3/8
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
If one or more elements are unloaded from
plastic to elastic state, then plastic work
increments for the elements are negative



When unloaded, stiffness within , is taken as
elastic.
Example 6.3: Consider the 3D frame in Fig 6.8;
assume:
t A
Contd..
1
(6.25)
(6.26)
pi i pi
pi i ei i
F w U
U U K F

A = A
A = A A
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
px py p 0 p p o
B A D
o
p o x y o B C o C o
C A
x y P
A
D=3.5m; h = 3.5m; M =M =M =M ; M = M =1.5M
k
M = 2M ; k = k = k = k ; k = k =1.5k ;k = 2k ; = 50
m
in which m = m = m= 620kg and V =152.05
3/9
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
find Initial stiffness & stiffness at t = 1.38s, given
that t = 1.36s









Contd..
3/10
2k
k
y
x
3.5m
1.5k
1.5k
3.5m
3.5m
A
B C
D
3 D frame
For column A
Displacement (m)
0.00467m
152.05 N
F
o
r
c
e

(
N
)

Force-displacement
curve of column A
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
103
3/11


` ` ` ` ` `


) ) )

)

) )

)
U U
U 0.00336 0.13675 -0.16679
x x
x
U = 0.00037 U = 0.00345 U = -0.11434
y y y
0.00003 0.00311 -0.06153


k
k k
V 627.27
x
F = V = 70.
y
k
V

)
V =102.83 V =10.10
A x Ay
V =154.24 V =19.56
Bx By
888 ; x =- 0.08613g
gk
V =158.66 V =15.15
Dx Dy
773.51
V = 211.54 V = 26.08
Cx Cy
Solution:

Forces in the columns are pulled back (Eq. 6.23)
& displacements at the centre

T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
( )
|
| | | |
(
(
(
(

| | | |
| |
| |
\ . \ .

2
2
ex exi 0 ey eyi 0 0
e
2 2
yi
xi
i
pxi pyi
A B C D
t e
t t t
2
KD
K = K = 6k ; K = K = 6k ; K = = 3k 3.5
4
186000 0 54250
K = 0 186000 54250
54250 54250 1139250
V
V
= +
V V
=0.462 ; =0.465; =0.491; = 0.488
K = K
1
K = K + C + M= K +1
t (t)
(
(
(
(

(
(
| | | |
(
( | |
(
\ . \ .

(

4
g t k t k
638.6 sym
0 638.6
5.425 5.425 1379.76
0000M= 10
16282
M M
p = -Mx + + C U + + t - 1 C U = 286
t 2 2
612
3/12
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
With the e values calculated as above, the
forces in the columns are pulled back
( (
( (
( (
( (

)
-1
t
k+1 k
Ax
Bx
k+1 k
Dx
Cx
0.0025 476.1
U= K p = 0.000001 and F = K U= 10.2
0.000001 181.2
0.0059
U = U + U= 0.0004
0.0001
V V =183.89
1103.36
V =275.84
F = F + F = 81.09 ; ;
V =275.84
954.75
V =367.79
| | | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| |
| |
\ . \ .
=
Ay
By
Dy
Cy
2 2
yi
xi
i A B C D
pxi pyi
A B D C
A B D C
= 13.52
V = 20.27
V = 20.27
V = 27.03
V
V
= + & =1.47 ; =1.47 ; =1.47 ; =1.47
V V
1 1 1 1
e = 0.824 e = = 0.824 e = =0.824 e = = 0.824
Contd..
3/13
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis


5 3
2
2
0.254 0.83
0.00122 10 ; is calculed as 0.83 10 in which .
0.00124 0.83
16268.57
(1 ) 285.76
631.48
0.29167
0.00795
0.00
;
xe
e x
x
i i
x y
i
xA
xB
xi
xi
pxi
U
e = etc
U
e
K x
e e
K
h
h
V
h
V

( (
A
( (
A =
( (
A
( (

(
(
A = A =
(
(

= = =
=
=
=

U e
p p
2
0.00059
0.00039 53
; ;
0.00039 0.0053
0.00029 0.00398
yA
yB yi
yi
yD xD pyi
yC xC
h
h V
h
h h V
h h
=
=
=
= =
= =
Contd..
3/14
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
107
2 2
2
2 2
246.56 18.12
246.56 18.12
; ; ;
246.56 18.12
246.56 18.12
1.972
1.314
;
1.314
0.98
; ; ;
2
xA yA
xB yB
xi exi xi yi eyi yi
xD yD
xC xC
A
B
i exi xi eyi yi
D
C
yi
xi
pxi pyi p p pxyi pyxi
i i
B B
B B
B K h B K h
B B
B By
G
G
G K h K h
G
G
B
B D
K K K K K K
G G
u
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
=
=
= +
=
=
= = = =

xi yi
i
B B
G
=
Contd..
3/15
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
3
5
2
1
1.0
16.06 185 10
0.29 53.96 0
62
1
10000 10 0.16 63.85
( )
0 0.54 126.6
0.2917; 0.2917
0.0026
0.0001 ;
0.00
t
t t t
Pyi i Pxi i
xp yp
Pyi Pxi
p
sym
sym
t t
K x K y
e e
K K
o
| |

=
= + + +
A A
= = = =
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

(
(
A = A = A
(
(



2 2
K
K K C M =K M =
U K p U
0.002598 0.0000983
0.002598 0.0001018
;
0.002602 0.0000983
0.002602 0.0001018
x py



= A =
` `


) )
U
3/16
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
2 2
9.78 151.913
11.54 228.043
;
11.37 227.745
10.98 303.471
1.002; 1.002; 1.0; 1.00
ex px pxy px
pi
pxy ey py py
i i
Ay Ax
By Bx
Dy Dx
Cy Cx
yi
xi
i
pxi pyi
A C D
K K K U
K K K U
V V
V V
V V
V V
V
V
V V


A ( (
A =
( (
A

= =
= =
= =
= =
| | | |
= +
| |
| |
\ . \ .
= = = =
B
V
3/17
Because yield condition is practically satisfied,
no further iteration is required.
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Multi Storey Building frames
For 2D frames, inelastic analysis can be done
without much complexity.

Potential sections of yielding are identified &
elastoplastic properties of the sections are
given.

When IMI = M
p
for any cross section, a hinge is
considered for subsequent & stiffness matrix
of the structure is generated.

If IMI > M
p
for any cross section at the end of
IMI is set to Mp, the response is evaluated with
average of stiffness at t and (IMI = M
p
).


t A
t A
t t A +
4/1
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
At the end of each , velocity is calculated at
each potential hinge; if unloading takes place at
the end of , then for next , the section
behaves elastically. ( ).
t A
t A
t A
~ t small A
Contd..
Example 6.4
Find the time history of moment at A & the force-
displacement plot for the frame shown in Fig 6.9
under El centro earthquake; ; compare the
results for elasto plastic & bilinear back bone curves.

Figs. 6.10 & 6.11 are for the result of elasto
-plastic case Figs 6.12 & 6.13 are for the result
of bilinear case
Moment in Fig 6.12 does not remain constant
over time unlike elasto-plastic case.

s t 2 . 0 = A
4/2
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
4/3
k
k
k
k 3m
3m
3m
1.5k
A
1.5k
m
m
m
1
x
2
x
3
x
k = 23533 kN/m
m = 235.33 10
3
kg
i
K
d
K
0.1
di
KK
=
0.01471m Displacement (m)
346.23kN
F
o
r
c
e

(
k
N
)

Frame
Force-displacement
curve of column
Contd..
Fig.6.9
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
4/4
-600000
-400000
-200000
0
200000
400000
600000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (sec)
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
N
-
m
)
-400000
-300000
-200000
-100000
0
100000
200000
300000
400000
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035
Displacement (m)
F
o
r
c
e

(
N
)
Contd..
Fig.6.10
Fig.6.11
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
4/5
-500000
-400000
-300000
-200000
-100000
0
100000
200000
300000
400000
500000
-0.005 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03
Displacement(m)
S
h
e
a
r

F
o
r
c
e
(
N
)
-800000
-600000
-400000
-200000
0
200000
400000
600000
800000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (sec)
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
N
-
m
)
Contd..
Fig.6.13
Fig.6.12
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
For nonlinear moment rotation relationship,
tangent stiffness matrix for each obtained
by considering slope of the curve at the
beginning of
If unloading takes place, initial stiffness is
considered.
Slopes of backbone curve may be interpolated ;
interpolation is used for finding initial stiffness.
If columns are weaker than the beams, then top
& bottom sections of the column become
potential sections for plastic hinge.
During integration of equation of motion is
given by

t A
t A
Contd..
4/6
t
K
(6.27)
t e p
= K K K
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis

Non zero elements of K
p
are computed using
Eqns. 6.15 & 6.16 and are arranged so that they
correspond to the degrees of freedom affected by
plastification.

The solution procedure remains the same as
described before.

If 3D frame is weak beam-strong column system,
then problem becomes simple as the beams
undergo only one way bending.

The analysis procedure remains the same as
that of 2D frame.

Contd..
4/7
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
For 2D & 3D frames having weak beam strong
column systems, rotational d.o.f are condensed
out; this involves some extra computational
effort.








The procedure is illustrated with a frame as
shown in the figure (with 2 storey).

Contd..
Incremental rotations at the member ends
are calculated from incremental
displacements.

Rotational stiffness of member is modified
if plastification/ unloading takes place.

The full stiffness matrix is assembled &
rotational d.o.f. are condensed out.
4/8
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis

Elasto-plastic nature of the yield section is
shown in Fig 6.16.

Considering anti-symmetry :

Contd..
4/9
p
u
M
1
, M
2
M
p1
=M
p2
=M
p3
u
Moment-rotation relationship
of elasto-plastic beam
fig. 6.16
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
4/10
( )
( )
(
(
(

(

(

( `
(
(
)
(
(
(

1
2
2 2
1
1
2
2 2
2
kl kl
k -k - -
2 2

kl
-k 2k 0

2
K = (6.28a)
kl kl kl kl
- +0.67
2 2 2 6

kl kl kl
- 0 +1.33
2 6 2
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
(
(

(
(
(
(


(
( ( (
(
( ( (


-1


-1
1 -1

2
2
-1
1
2
-1
1

2
K = K - K K K (6.28b)
3 +0.67 1
6
K = (6.29a)
1 3 +1.33 kl
3 +0.67 1 1 -1
3
= (6.29b)
1 3 +1.33 1 0 l
3 +0.67 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1
3k
K = k - (6.30)
1 3 +1.33 -1 2 1 0 1 0 l
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
Equation of motion for the frame is given by:





The solution requires to be computed at time
t; this requires to be calculated.

Following steps are used for the calculation

t
g
0
Mx +Cx +K x =-MIx (6.31)
C= K +M (6.32)
4/11
t
K
A
2 1
& o o
x = x +x ; x = x +x (6.33a)
i i-1 i-1 i i-1 i-1
M =M +M ; M =M +M (6.33b)
1i 1i-1 1i-1 2i 2i-1 2i-1
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
& are obtained using Eqn. 6.29b
in which values are calculated as:





& are then obtained; and hence
& & are calculated from
and , is obtained using ( Eq. 6.30).

If Elasto-plastic state is assumed, then
for at the beginning of the time
interval; for unloading are obtained
by (Eq.6.28a.)

1 1
A
i
u
1 2
A
i
u
o
Contd..
1i-1 2i-1
1 2
c c
1i-1 2i-1
1i-1 2i-1
1i-1 2i-1
r l r l
= & =
6EI 6EI
M M
r = ; r =

4/12
1 1
A
i
M
1 2
A
i
M
i
M
1
i
M
2
1
o
2
o
i
M
1
t
K
A
i
M
2
0
2 1
= = o o
P
M = M = M
2 1
2 1
& o o
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
Example 6.5: For the frame shown in Fig 6.17, find
the stiffness matrix at t = 1.36 s given the response
quantities in Table 6.1










4/13
k
k
k
k 3m
3m
3m
5m
1

2

3

4

5

6

k k
1
A
2
A
3
A
E = 2.48 10
7
kN/m
2
Beam 30 40 cm
Column 30 50 cm
Frame
1
3
5
2
4
6
50KN-m
M

Y
= 0.00109 rad

Force-displacement curve
Fig. 6.17
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
123
4/14
Joint
Time
Step
x M
sec m m/s m/s
2
rad rad/s rad/s
2
kNm
1 1.36 0.00293 0.0341 -1.2945 0.00109 0.013 -0.452 50
3 1.36 0.00701 0.0883 -2.8586 0.00095 0.014 -0.297 -23.18
5 1.36 0.00978 0.1339 -3.4814 0.00053 0.009127 -0.098 42.89
2 1.36 0.00293 0.0341 -1.2945 0.00109 0.013 -0.452 -50
4 1.36 0.00701 0.0883 -2.8586 0.00095 0.014 -0.297 23.18
6 1.36 0.00978 0.1339 -3.4814 0.00053 0.009127 -0.098 -42.89
x x u
u

u

Table shows that sections 1 & 2 undergo yielding;
recognising this, stiffness matrices are given below:
x
x x


Table 6.1
Contd..
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

1
2
3
1
4
2
3
4
5
6
1.067
-1.067 2.133 sym
0 -1.067 2.133
0.8 -0.8 0 2.4
= 4.8310 0.8 0 -0.8 0.8 4
0 0.8 0 0 0.8 3.2
0.8 -0.8 0 0.4 0 0 2.4
0.8 0 -0.8 0 0.4 0 0.8 4
0 0.8 0 0 0 0 0 0.8 3.2
(
(
(
(

1
4
2
3
0.4451 sym
= 4.8310 -0.6177 1.276
0.2302 -1.0552 1.811
Contd..
4/15
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Push over analysis is a good nonlinear static
(substitute) analysis for the inelastic dynamic
analysis.

It provides load Vs deflection curve from rest to
ultimate failure.

Load is representative of equivalent static load
taken as a mode of the structure & total load
is conveniently the base shear.

Deflection may represent any deflection & can
be conveniently taken as the top deflection.
Push over analysis
5/1
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
It can be force or displacement control depending
upon whether force or displacement is given an
increment.

For both , incremental nonlinear static analysis is
performed by finding matrix at the beginning
of each increment.

Displacement controlled pushover analysis is
preferred because, the analysis can be carried
out up to a desired displacement level.

Following input data are required in addition to
the fundamental mode shape(if used).
t
K
Contd..
5/2
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Assumed collapse mechanism

Moment rotation relationship of yielding
section.

Limiting displacement.

Rotational capacity of plastic hinge.

Contd..
Displacement controlled pushover analysis is
carried out in following steps:
Choose suitable

Corresponding to , find

1
oA
1
A o
5/3
r r
| o o A = A
1
1
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis

Obtain ; obtain

At nth increment,

At the end of each increment , moments are
checked at all potential locations of plastic
hinge.

For this, is calculated from condensation
relationship.

If , then ordinary hinge is assumed
at that section to find K for subsequent
increment.
Contd..
1
A K = A o p

A =
i Bn
VB V
1 1 n i
o A = A

1 B
V A
n
u
P
M M = | |
5/4
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
Rotations at the hinges are calculated at each
step after they are formed.

If rotational capacity is exceeded in a plastic
hinge, rotational hinge failure precedes the
mechanism of failure.

is traced up to the desired displacement
level.
i B 1i
V Vs
Example 6.6

Carry out an equivalent static nonlinear analysis
for the frame shown in Fig 6.19.
5/5
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Cross
section
Location b (mm) d (mm) (kNm) (rad) (rad)
C1 G,1
st
, 2
nd
400 400 168.9 9.025E-3 0.0271
C2 3
rd
,4
th
, 5
th
& 6
th
300 300 119.15 0.0133 0.0399
B1 G,1
st
, 2
nd
400 500 205.22 6.097E-3 0.0183
B2 3
rd
,4
th
, 5
th
& 6
th
300 300 153.88 8.397E-3 0.0252
y
M
y
u
max
u
Contd..
3m
3m
3m
3m
3m
4m 4m
3m
3m
y M
y u
c u
Frame
Moment rotation
curve for beams
Fig.6.19
Table 6.2
5/6
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
D (m)
Base shear
(KN) Plastic Hinges at section
0.110891 316.825 1
0.118891 317.866 1,2
0.134891 319.457 1,2,3
0.142891 320.006 1,2,3,4
0.150891 320.555 1,2,3,4,5
0.174891 322.201 1,2,3,4,5,6
0.190891 323.299 1,2,3,4,5,6,7
0.206891 324.397 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
0.310891 331.498 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
0.318891 332.035 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
0.334891 333.11 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11
0.350891 334.185 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12
0.518891 342.546 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13
0.534891 343.207 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14
0.622891 346.843 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15
1.448699 307.822 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16
1.456699 308.225 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17
Table 6.3

Solution is obtained by SAP2000.

5/7
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
0.9143
1
0.7548
0.5345
0.3120
0.1988
0.0833
Fig.6.20
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
0
100
200
300
400
B
a
s
e

s
h
e
a
r

(
k
N
)

Roof displacement (m)
Fig.6.21
5/8
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
2 1
3 3 3
4
5
16
17
5
6
7
8 8
12
11
13
10
9
14
15
15
Fig.6.22
5/9
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Ductility & Inelastic spectrum
A structure is designed for a load less than
that obtained from seismic coefficient method
or RSA (say, for

The structure will undergo yielding, if it is
subjected to the expected design earthquake.

The behavior will depend upon the force
deformation characteristics of the sections.

The maximum displacements & deformations
of the structure are expected to be greater than
the yield displacements.
) 4 3 ( . / ~ R R V
B
6/1
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
How much the structure will deform beyond
the yield limit depends upon its ductility;
ductility factor is defined as


x
m
= (6.35a )
x
y
For explaining
ductility , two SDOFs
are considered with
elasto plastic
behavior & the other a
corresponding
elastic system shown
in Fig 6.23.
f
x
y
f
y
x
o
x
o
f
Stiffness k
Elastic
Elasto-plastic
m
x
Fig. 6.23
6/2
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
means that the strength of the SDOF
system is halved compared to the elastic system.



With the above definitions, equation of motion
of SDOF system becomes:
2 =
Y
R
Y
R
y
f
Contd..
An associated factor, called yield reduction
factor, is defined as inverse of :

Y Y
Y
0 0
f x
f = = (6.35b)
f x
y
m m
y
0 y 0 y
x
x x
= = f = (6.36)
x x x R
6/3
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
y
y
2
y
y n 0 y
f(x, x)
f(x, x) = ; x(t) = (t)x ;
f
f
a = = x f
m
Contd..
2
n n y y g
g 2 2
n n y n
y
x +2 x + x f(x, x)=- x (6.37)
x
+2 x + x f(,)=- (6.38)
a
depends upon . , ,
y n
f e
6/4
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Time history analysis shows the following :

For , responses remain within elastic
limit & may be more than that for .

For , two counteracting effects take
place (i) decrease of response due to
dissipation of energy (ii) increase of response
due to decreased equivalent stiffness.

Less the value of , more is the permanent
deformation at the end .


1 =
Y
f
1 <
Y
f
1 <
Y
f
Y
f
Contd..
is known if for a & can be
calculated.
m
x
Y
f
0
x
6/5
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis

Effect of time period on are
illustrated in Fig 6.24.

For long periods, &
independent of ; .

In velocity sensitive region, may be
smaller or greater than ; not significantly
affected by ; may be smaller or larger
than .

In acceleration sensitive region, ;
increases with decreasing ; ;
for shorter period, can be very high
(strength not very less).
Y
f
, , ,
m o Y
x x f
go o m
x x x ~ ~
Y
f
Y
R =
m
x
o
x

Y
R
Contd..
o m
x x >
T f
Y
&
Y
R >

6/6
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
0
1
m g y
x x f =
0 m g
xx
0.125
y
f =
0.25
y
f
=
0.5
y
f =
Disp.
sensitive
Vel.
sensitive
Acc.
sensitive
0.01 0.05 0.1 0.5 1 5 10 50 100
0.001
0.005
0.01
0.05
0.1
0.5
1
5
10
0.001
0.005
0.01
0.05
0.1
0.5
1
5
10
T

a

=
0
.
0
3
5

T

f

=
1
5

T

b

=
0
.
1
2
5

T

c

=
0
.
5

T

d

=
3

T

e

=
1
0

Spectral Regions
x

0
/

x

g

0

o
r

x

m

/

x

g

0

T (sec)
n
0.5
y
f =
0.25
y
f =
0.125
y
f =
1
y
f =
Disp.
sensitive
Vel.
sensitive
Acc.
sensitive
0.01 0.05 0.1 0.5 1 5 10 50 100
0.1
0.5
1
5
10
Spectral Regions
x

m

/
x

0

0.1
0.5
1
5
10
T (sec)
n
T

a

=

0

.
0

3
5

T

f

=
1
5

T

b

=

0

.

1
2
5

T

c

=

0

.
5

T

d

=
3

T

e

=

1
0

Normalized peak
deformations for elasto-plastic
system and elastic system
Ratio of the
peak deformations Fig. 6.24
6/7
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Inelastic response spectrum is plotted for :



For a fixed value of , and plots of
against are the inelastic spectra or ductility
spectra & they can be plotted in tripartite plot.

Yield strength of the E-P System.


Yield strength for a specified is difficult to
obtain; but reverse is possible by interpolation
technique.


Y Y Y
A V D , ,
n
T
Inelastic response spectra
2
y y y n y y n y
D =x V = x A = x (6.39)
y y
f = mA (6.40)

6/8
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
For a given set of & , obtain response for
E-P system for a number of .

Each solution will give a ; , is
maximum displacement of elastic system.

From the set of & , find the desired &
corresponding .

Using value, find for the E-P system.

Through iterative process the desired
and are obtained .
n
T

Y
f

o o
x K f =
o
x
f
Y
f
Contd..
Y
f

Y
f
6/9
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Contd..
For different values of , the process is
repeated to obtain the ductility spectrum.
n
T
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0
0.2
1
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
=
1.5
2
4
8
(sec)
n
T
f

y

/
w
=
A

y

/
g

Fig. 6.25
6/10
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis

From the ductility spectrum, yield strength
to limit for a given set of & can be
obtained.

Peak deformation .


n
T

2
m Y Y n
x =x =A
1 =
f
n
T

Contd..
0.01 0.05 0.1 0.5 1 5 10 50 100
0.05
0.1
0.5
1
T

a

=

0

.

0

3

5

T

f

=

1

5

T

b

=

0

.

1

2

5

T

c

=

0

.

5

T

d

=

3

T

e

=

1

0

f
y

20
1
5
10
2
T n (sec)
R

y

0.12
0.195
0.37
8 =
4 =
2 =
1.5 =
0.0
If spectrum for
is known ,it is possible
to plot vs. for
different values of .

The plot is shown in
Fig. 6.26.

Fig. 6.26
6/11
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Above plot for a number of earthquakes are
used to obtain idealized forms of & .
f
n
T
Contd..

1 T < T
n a
-1/2
f = (2 - 1) T < T < T (6.41)
y n c
b
-1
T > T
n c
0.01 0.05 0.1 0.5 1 5 10 50 100
0.05
0.1
0.5
1
T

a

=

1

/
3

3

T

f

=

3

3

T

b

=

=

1

1

/

/
8

T

c

T

e

=

1

0

f
y

T n (sec)
8 =
4 =
2 =
0.2
1 =
T
c'
1.5 =
Fig. 6.27
7/1
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Construction of the spectra
As , idealized inelastic design
spectrum for a particular can be constructed
from elastic design spectrum.

Inelastic spectra of many earthquakes when
smoothed compare well with that obtained as
above.

Construction of the spectrum follows the steps
below :

Divide constant A-ordinates of segment
by to obtain .
Y
f Y
R
1
=

c b 1 2 =
Y
R ' ' c b
7/2
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis

Similarly, divide V ord
inates of segments
by ; to
get ; D ordina-
tes of segments
by to get ;
ordinate by to
get .

Join & ; draw
for
; take as the same
; join .
Draw for
.

) ( d c =
Y
R
' ' d c
) ( e d
=
Y
R ' ' e d
f
' f

' f
' e

go Y
x D = s T
n
33 >
' a
a
' '&b a
go Y
x A

=
s T
n
33
1
<
Contd..
Natural vibration period T
n (sec) (log
scale)

go
V =

T a =1/33 sec
T f =33 sec
T b =1/8 sec T e =10 sec
a
a'
b
b'
c
c'
d
d'
e
e'
f
f '
Elastic design
spectrum
Inelastic design
spectrum
P
s
e
u
d
o
-
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

V


o
r

V
y


(
l
o
g

s
c
a
l
e
)

/ V


o
V
x
.
Illustration of the
Method
Fig. 6.28
7/3
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Example 6.7 :
Construct inelastic design spectrum from
the elastic spectrum given in Fig 2.22.

The inelastic design spectrum is drawn & shown
in Fig 6.28b.
2 =
Contd..
Inelastic design spectrum for = 2
Fig. 6.28b


0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 20 30 50 70 100
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.007
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.07
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.7
1
2
3
4
5
7
10
1
0
m
D
is
p
.
(
m
)
0
.
1
m
0
.1
g
0
.0
0
1
m
0
.0
0
0
1
m
-5
1
1
0
m

0
.0
1
m
0
.0
1
g
0
.0
0
1
g
0
.0
0
0
1
g
1
g
1
0
g
2
A
c
c
.
(
m
/s
e
c
)
a
T
b
T
e
T f
T
c
T
d
T
Timeperiod(sec)
P
s
e
u
d
o

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
(
m
/
s
e
c
)
1
m
Elastic design spectrum
Inelastic design
spectrum
(b)
7/4
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Ductility in multi-storey frames
For an SDOF, inelastic spectrum can provide
design yield strength for a given ; maximum
displacement under earthquake is found as
For multi-storey building , it is not possible
because
It is difficult to obtain design yield strength of
all members for a uniform .
Ductility demands imposed by earthquake on
members widely differ.
Some studies on multi - storey frames
are summarized here to show how ductility
demands vary from member to member
when designed using elastic spectrum for
uniform .

y
x

7/5
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis

Shear frames are designed following seismic
coefficient method ; is obtained using
inelastic spectrum of El centro earthquake
for a specified ductility & storey shears
are distributed as per code.


Frames are analysed assuming E-P behaviour
of columns for El centro earthquake.


The storey stiffness is determined using
seismic coefficient method by assuming
storey drifts to be equal.
BY
V
Contd..
7/6
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis
Results show that

For taller frames, are larger in upper & lower
stories; decrease in middle storeys.

Deviation of storey ductility demands from the
design one increases for taller frames.

In general demand is maximum at the first
storey & could be 2-3 times the design

Study shows that increase of base shear by
some percentage tends to keep the demand
within a stipulated limit.

Contd..

7/7
T.K. Datta
Department Of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis