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Chapter

6
Telecommunications And Networks

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Learning Objectives 1. Identify several major developments and trends in the industries, technologies and business applications of telecommunications and Internet technologies. 2. Provide examples of the business value of Internet, intranet, and extranet applications.
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Learning Objectives 3. Identify the basic components, functions, and types of telecommunications networks used in business.

4. Explain the functions of major types of telecommunications network hardware, software, media, and services.

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Why Study Networking? When computers are networked, two industries computing and communications converge, and the result is vastly more than the sum of the parts. Suddenly, computing applications become available for business-to-business coordination and commerce, and for small as well as large organizations.
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Telecommunications Definition: The exchange of information in any form (voice, data, text, images, audio, video) over networks

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Trends in Telecommunications

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Business Value of Telecommunications

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Internet Definition: A network made up of millions of smaller private networks each with the ability to operate independent of, or in harmony with, all the other millions of networks connected to the Internet

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Internet

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Internet Applications

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Business Use of the Internet

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Business Value of the Internet

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Intranet Definition: A network inside an organization that uses Internet technologies to provide an Internet-like environment within the enterprise for information sharing, communications, collaboration, and the support of business processes

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Business Value of Intranets


Communications and Collaboration includes email, voicemail, paging, faxes, and groupware Web Publishing easy, attractive and low-cost way of publishing and accessing multimedia business information Business Operations and Management platform for developing business applications to support business operations and managerial decision making across the inter-networked enterprise
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Business Value of Intranets Intranet portal management organization must employ IT professional to manage the intranet along with maintaining various hardware and softwares.

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Business Value of Intranets

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Extranet Definition: Network links that use Internet technologies to interconnect the intranet of a business with the intranets of its customers, suppliers, or other business partners

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Business Value of Extranets

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Telecommunications Network Components


Terminals any input/output device that uses telecommunications networks to transmit or receive data Telecommunications Processors devices that perform control and support functions (it controls the speed, accuracy and efficiency of the communication flow)

Telecommunications Channels media over which data are transmitted and received
Computers all sizes and types Telecommunications Control Software programs that control telecommunications activities
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Telecommunications Network Components

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Types of Telecommunications Networks Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitian Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN)

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Types of Telecommunications Networks 1. Local Area Network (LAN) network connecting information processing devices within a limited physical area It typically connects a few computers in small office, all the computers in one building, or all the computers in several buildings It connects with the help of telecommunication media, such as ordinary telephone wiring, or coaxial cable to interconnect computer.
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Types of Telecommunications Networks 2. Metropolitian Area Network (MAN) Its geographic scope falls between LAN and WAN. It provides internet connectivity for LAN in a metropolitian region, and connect them to WAN.

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Types of Telecommunications Networks 3. Wide Area Network (WAN) network that covers a large geographic area i.e entire region, state, countries or globe. Most universal WAN is internet. Such large networks have become a necessity for carrying out the day to day activities of many business and government organisations.

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Types of Telecommunications Networks 4.Virtual Private Network (VPN) Its a secure network that uses the Internet as its main backbone network, but relies on network firewalls, and other security features of its Internet and intranet connections and those of participating organizations Many organisations use VPN to establish secure intranets and extranets.
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LAN & VPN

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Types of Telecommunications Networks


5. Client/Server PCs and workstations, called clients are interconnected by local area networks and share application processing with network servers 6. Network Computing clients provide a browser-based user interface for processing small application programs

7. Peer-to-Peer file-sharing software connects each PC to a central server or to another online users PC
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Client/Server

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Client/Server & Network Computing

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Peer-to-Peer

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Peer-to-Peer

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Network Topologies 1. Star network ties end user computers to a central computer. All network traffic flows through the central computer.

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Network Topologies 2. Ring network ties local computer processors together in a ring on a relatively equal basis. It uses direct communication lines to connect some or all of the computers in the ring to one another. 3. Bus network local processors share the same communications channel

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Network Topologies

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Network Topologies

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Telecommunications Media 1. Wired Technologies Twisted pair wire Coaxial cable Fiber Optics cable 2. Wireless Technologies Bluetooth Wi fi

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Telecommunications Media The different kinds of transmission media used by the networks are: 1. Twisted-Pair Wire It consists of strands of copper wire twisted in pairs and is the oldest type of transmission media. Used extensively in home and office telephone system and many LANs and WANs.
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Telecommunications Media 2. Coaxial Cable - sturdy copper or aluminum wire wrapped with spacers to insulate and protect it. Faster, More interference free than twisted pair Can be placed underground and laid on the floors of lakes and oceans. Used for cable television system

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Telecommunications Media 3. Fiber Optics cable - one or more hair-thin filaments of glass fiber wrapped in a protective jacket. Has the greatest capacity of telecommunications media. A fast, light and durable transmission medium. Can transfer large volume of data. More expensive, and harder to install.
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Telecommunications Media

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Transmission speed Bandwidth The capacity for information flow over a telecommunication channel, measured by bits per second (BPS). This is the frequency range of a telecommunication channel; It determines the channels maximum transmission rate.

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Transmission Speed
Twisted Wire Coaxial cable Fiber optic cable Up to 100 Mbps Low cost Up to 1Gbps Up to 6+ Tbps High cost

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Wireless Technologies
Wireless transmission is based on radio signals, of various frequencies. 1.Terrestrial Microwave earthbound microwave systems that transmit high-speed radio signals through the atmosphere and are widely used for high volume, long distance communication. microwave antennas are usually placed on the top of buildings, tower, hills and mountain peaks.

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Wireless Technologies 2. Communications Satellites - high-earth orbit communications satellites placed in stationary geosynchronous orbits. 3. Cellular and PCS Systems a geographic area divided into cells with one low-power transmitter device per cell used to relay calls from one cell to another 4. Wireless LANs high- or low-frequency radio technology installed in an office or building
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Wireless Technologies
5. Bluetooth A short range wireless technology being built into computers and other devices. It serves as a cable free wireless connection Operating at approximately 1 Mbps with an effective range from 10 to 100 meters. Wireless phones, pagers, computers, printers, and computing devices using bluetooth to communicate with each other and even operate each other without direct user intervention.

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Wireless Technologies
6. Wi Fi - Wi-Fi is a popular technology that allows an electronic device to exchange data wirelessly (using radio waves) over a computer network, including high-speed Internet connections. available at hotels, airports, libraries, cafes, and college campuses to provide mobile access to internet. Major drawback is weak security features, which make these wireless network vulnerable to user

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Telecommunications Processors Modems It is combined abbreviation for modulation and demodulation. convert digital signals from a computer into analog frequencies that can be transmitted over ordinary telephone lines. It also translate analog signals back into digital form for the receiving computer.

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Modem

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Summary
Organizations are becoming networked enterprises that use the Internet, intranets, and other telecommunications networks to support business operations and collaboration within the enterprise, and with their customers, suppliers, and other business partners. Understanding of these major alternatives will help business end users participate in decision involving telecommunication issues.

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Chapter

6
End of Chapter

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