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# Introduction to NODAL

Analysis
April 2003
Instructor: Felipe Montoya
Objective
The objective of this course is to give the
engineer the basic tools and knowledge of
Nodal Analysis for him/her to understand
its benefits, usefulness and limitations and
help him/her apply it to his/her work for
production optimization.
Outline
Explain the concept of Nodal Analysis.
List the four major segments between the
reservoir and the separator where pressure loss
occurs.
Give definitions for each of the following terms:
Inflow performance curve
Tubing Intake curve
System graph
Solution node
Benefits of NODAL Analysis

Agenda
1. The concept of Nodal Analysis
2. Segments in the reservoir/well system where
pressure loss occurs
3. Fluid Properties
4. Solution node
5. Inflow performance curve
6. Outflow performance curve
7. System graph
Pressure Losses in Well System
AP
1
= P
r
- P
wfs
= Loss in reservoir
AP
2
= P
wfs
- P
wf
= Loss across completion
AP
3
= P
wf
- P
wh
= Loss in tubing
AP
4
= P
wh
- P
sep
= Loss in flowline
P
r
P
e
P
wfs
P
wf

AP
1
= (P
r
- P
wfs
)
AP
2
= (P
wfs
- P
wf
)
AP
3
= P
wf
- P
wh

AP
4
= (P
wh
- P
sep
)
P
sep

Sales line
Gas
Liquid
Stock tank
AP
T
= P
r
- P
sep
= Total pressure loss
Adapted from Mach et al, SPE 8025, 1979.
P
wh

Nodal Analysis
AP
1
= P
r
- P
wfs
= Loss in reservoir
AP
2
= P
wfs
- P
wf
= Loss across completion
AP
3
= P
wf
- P
wh
= Loss in tubing
AP
4
= P
wh
- P
sep
= Loss in flowline
P
r
P
e
P
wfs
P
wf

AP
1
= (P
r
- P
wfs
)
AP
2
= (P
wfs
- P
wf
)
AP
3
= P
wf
- P
wh

AP
4
= (P
wh
- P
sep
)
P
sep

Sales line
Gas
Liquid
Stock tank
AP
T
= P
r
- P
sep
= Total pressure loss
Adapted from Mach et al, SPE 8025, 1979.
P
wh

Inflow Performance Curve
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Production rate, STB/D
F
l
o
w
i
n
g

b
o
t
t
o
m
h
o
l
e

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
Inflow (Reservoir) Curve
Tubing Intake Curve
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Production rate, STB/D
F
l
o
w
i
n
g

b
o
t
t
o
m
h
o
l
e

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
Tubing Curve
System Graph
2111 STB/D
1957.1 psi
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Production rate, STB/D
F
l
o
w
i
n
g

b
o
t
t
o
m
h
o
l
e

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
Inflow (Reservoir) Curve
Tubing Curve
Solution Node At Wellhead
AP
1
= P
r
- P
wfs
= Loss in reservoir
AP
2
= P
wfs
- P
wf
= Loss across completion
AP
3
= P
wf
- P
wh
= Loss in tubing
AP
4
= P
wh
- P
sep
= Loss in flowline
P
r
P
e
P
wfs
P
wf

AP
1
= (P
r
- P
wfs
)
AP
2
= (P
wfs
- P
wf
)
AP
3
= P
wf
- P
wh

AP
4
= (P
wh
- P
sep
)
P
sep

Sales line
Gas
Liquid
Stock tank
AP
T
= P
r
- P
sep
= Total pressure loss
Adapted from Mach et al, SPE 8025, 1979.
P
wh

Fluid Physical Properties
Oil Properties
Oil in the absence of gas in solution is called dead oil.
The physical properties of dead oil are a function of the
API gravity of the oil, pressure and temperature. The
API gravity of oil is defined as:
5 . 131
F 60 @ SpGr
5 . 141
gravity API
o
=
With gas in solution, oil properties also depend on gas
solubility. Gas solubility is normally represented by R
s
.
Gas Solubility:
Gas solubility is defined as
the volume of gas
dissolved in one stock tank
barrel of oil at a fixed
pressure and temperature.
There are several
correlations for gas
solubility such as:
Standing
Lassater
and others

Fluid Physical Properties
( )
( )
2 . 1
T 00091 . 0
API 0125 . 0
g s
10
10
x
18
p

STB
scf
R
(

=
|
.
|

\
|
Formation Volume Factor (B
o
):
Is the volume in barrels occupied by one stock tank barrel
of oil with the dissolved gas at any elevated pressure and
temperature. It measures the volumetric shrinkage of oil
from the reservoir to surface conditions.
There are different correlations for calculating the
formation volume factor. They are empirical and based
on oil from different areas. The Standing correlation was
developed for California crude and can be written as
follows:
B
o
= 0.972+0.000147 x F
1.175

Fluid Physical Properties
( ) T 25 . 1 R F
5 . 0
o
g
S
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

Example
Required
Formation volume at
200
o
F of a bubble point
liquid having a gas/oil ratio
of 350 CFB, a gas gravity
of 0.75, and a tank oil
gravity of 30
o
API
Procedure
Starting at the left side
of the chart, proceed
horizontally along the 350
CFB line to a gas gravity of
0.75 . From this point, drop
vertically to the 30
o
API
line. Proceed horizontally
from the tank oil gravity
scale to the 200
o
F line.
The required formation
volume is found to be 1.22
barrel per barrel of tank oil.
Properties of natural mixtures of hydrocarbon gas and liquids, formation volume of bubble-
point liquids after Standing.
Copyright 1952
Chevron Research Company
Reprinted by Permission
Graphical Form of Standings Correlation, B
o
Standings or any other correlation for formation
volume factor cannot be used above the bubble
point pressure P
b
. Above the bubble point:
Fluid Physical Properties
( ) | |
b o
P P C
ob o
e

B = B
Where P
b
and B
ob
are calculated from Standings or Lassaters
correlation using R
s
=R
p
, R
p
being the produced GOR. The
parameter C
o
is not a constant and can be calculated by Trubes
correlation as follows:
5
g s
o
10 x P
API 61 . 12 180 , 1 T 2 . 17 R 5 433 , 1
C
+ + +
=
Properties of Natural Hydrocarbon Mixtures of Gas
and Liquid Bubble Point Pressure
Example:

Required
Bubble point pressure at 200
o
F of a
liquid having a gas-oil ratio of 350
CFB, a gas gravity of 0.75, and a tank
oil gravity of 30
o
API.
Procedure:
Starting at the left side of the chart,
proceed horizontally along the 350
o

CFB line to a gas gravity of 0.75.
From this point drop vertically to the
30
o
API line. Proceed horizontally from
the tank oil gravity scale to the 200
o
F
line. The required pressure is found to
be 1930 PSIA.
Bubble Point Pressure
-
Graphical Form of Standings Correlation, P
b
The fluid viscosity of reservoir oil containing
solution gas decreases with pressure up to the
bubble point pressure
Oil Viscosity
Oil Viscosity
In the absence
of lab data the
Beal correlation
is used.
Rate of increase of oil viscosity above
bubble-point pressure. After Beal.
Dead Oil Viscosity
A
b
s
o
l
u
t
e

V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y

o
f

G
a
s
-
F
r
e
e

O
i
l

(
c
p
)

Oil Gravity
o
API at 60
o
F and Atmospheric Pressure
Dead oil viscosity at reservoir temperature and
atmospheric pressure. After Beal.
Gas Viscosity
Carr, Kobayashi and Burrows presented a correlation for
estimating natural gas viscosity as a function of gas
gravity, pressure and temperature
Gas Deviation Factor
Variable used in calculating the gas density
and gas formation volume factor.
To determine this parameter, the law of
corresponding states is used:
This law states that at the same reduced pressure
and reduced temperature, all hydrocarbon gases
have the same gas deviation factor.
Gas Deviation Factor
As a function of P
pr
and T
pr
,
After Standing and Katz
Inflow Performance
Relationship
Inflow Performance
Relationship
Inflow Performance is the ability of the
reservoir to deliver oil or gas through the
formation and is described by the pressure /
rate response of the reservoir. The IPR
depends on reservoir parameters and
reservoir fluid characteristics.
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Production rate, STB/D
F
l
o
w
i
n
g

b
o
t
t
o
m
h
o
l
e

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
Inflow (Reservoir) Curve
Inflow Performance
Relationship
Inflow Performance
Relationship
Progressive
deterioration of
IPRs as depletion
proceeds with
time.
Reservoir Conditions:
Original Pressure = 2150 psi
Bubble Point = 2150 psi
Crude oil PVT. Characteristics
and relative permeability
Characteristics from Ref. 7
Well spacing = 20 acres
Well radius - 0.33 foot
Cumulative recover,
percent of original
oil in place
Producing rate, bopd
B
o
t
t
o
m

h
o
l
e

w
e
l
l

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i

o o B
r
r
s
e
w
ln .
|
\

|
.
| +

(
075
7.08 x 10
-3
kh (P
r
- P
wf
)
q
o
=
Inflow Performance
Relationship
For single phase oil or liquids, the IPR shown
below is stated by Darcys law for radial flow as
follows:

Productivity Index (PI)
On the IPR curve the PI is defined as the negative inverse of
the slope of the line:
For PI calculations, q = surface production of fluids, and P
r
-P
wf

= reservoir pressure drawdown.
q = q
max
when P
wf
= 0
A
P
ws
P
wf
0
0 q B
TAN = = J = PI
OB
OA

Productivity Index (PI)
The Productivity Index of a well is defined as the total
liquid production per day per psi of pressure
drawdown.
or, PI = J = , BPD/psi
(q
o
+ q
w
)
(P
r
- P
wf
)
Example Problem No.1
For the following oil-well data, calculate:
a) The absolute open flow potential, AOF and draw the IPR curve
b) Calculate the Productivity Index

Permeability, Ko = 30 mD
Pay thickness, h = 40 ft
Avg reservoir pressure, Pr = 3,000 psi
Reservoir Temperature, T = 200o F
Well Spacing, A = 160 Acres (43,560 ft2/acre)
OH size, D = 12
Formation Volume factor, b
o
= 1.2 bbl/stb
Oil viscosity,
o
= 0.8 cp
Assume skin, S
t
= 0 and no turbulence
1. Drainage radius = A x 43,560 , ft = 1,490 ft
t

2. Applying Darcys law , qo = 26,550 = 3,672
bopd
7.23

3. PI = = 1.22 bopd/psi
Answers to Example Problem No.1
BPD/psi
q
o

(P
r
- P
wf
)
Darcy Equation for Gas Wells
( )
(

+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

g t
w
e
g
wf
r
g
g
Dq S
r
r
T Z
P P h k E
q
75 . 0 ln
03 . 7
2
2
4

Skin factor
The Skin Factor (St) is a constant which relates
the pressure drop in the skin to the flow rate and
transmissibility of the formation. Thus:
|
.
|

\
|
B
A
=
Kh
q
P
S
o o
skin
t
2 . 141
( )
wf wf skin
P P P = A
'
Skin Factor graphical representation
P
r
P
wf
P
wf
r
w

r
d

Positive skin ~ Damaged wellbore or
Reduced wellbore radius
......, + + + + + + =
s o turb pp p d t
S S S S S S S
Skin factor
S
t
= total skin effect, (+ damaged; - stimulated)
S
d
= skin effect due to formation damage (+)
S
pp
= skin due to partial penetration (+)
S
p
= skin effect due to perforation (+)
S
turb
= D
q
, skin effect due to turbulence (+)
S
o
= skin effect due to slanting of well (-)
S
s
= skin effect due to stimulation (generally -)