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FREQUENCY HOPPING

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Frequency Hopping
Frequency
Call is transmitted through several frequencies in order to average the interference (interference diversity) minimise the impact of fading (frequency diversity)

F1 F2 F3

Time

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Fading
Slow fading Fast fading

Mobile station

Base station
distance

-70 dBm

dBm

-90

-110

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The Benefits of Frequency Hopping


1. Frequency diversity; Compensates the frequency
selective fast fading
Signal Level

F1 F2 F3

MS Location

Distance

Bursts sent on frequency F2 are degraded or lost, but the initial signal may still be reconstructed from the bursts on frequencies F1 and F3.

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The Benefits of Frequency Hopping


2. Interference diversity; the interference is averaged
over multiple users

Interference

No hopping F1

Interference
F1

With hopping

F3

F1

F1 F2 F 2 F3 F2 F 3

F2

F3

average

MS_1 MS_2
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MS_3

MS_1

MS_2

MS_3

Converting Quality to Capacity


Field strenght Serving carrier worst interference average strongest interference interference margin

average weakest interference no FH FH with improved quality FH with tighter frequency reuse

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FH Implementation
TRX-1

BB-FH

F1(+ BCCH)

MS does not see any difference

F2
TRX-3

Frequency

F3 RF
F1 F2 F3
Time

PSTN
MSC

Dig.
BSC TCSM

TRX-1

F1, F2, F3 BCCH RF

RF-FH

TRX-2

Dig.

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RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Frequency Hopping Parameter summary
General Parameters btsIsHopping BB (BaseBand Hopping) RF (Radio Frequency Hopping) N (No Hopping)
CA MA MAIO HSN = Cell Allocation = Mobile Allocation = Mobile Allocation Index Offset = Hopping Sequence Number

Baseband Hopping hoppingSequenceNumber1 (TS 0) 0 ... 63 (0 = cyclic, 1 ... 63 = pseudorandom) hoppingSequenceNumber2 (TS 1 ... 7) 0 ... 63 (0 = cyclic, 1 ... 63 = pseudorandom)

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BB hopping management
BCCH timeslot, does not hop.
RTSL-0 RTSL-1 RTSL-2 RTSL-3 RTSL-4 RTSL-5 RTSL-6 RTSL-7

TRX-1 TRX-2 TRX-3 TRX-4

BCCH 0 1 2

0 1 2 3

0 1 2 3

0 1 2 3

0 1 2 3

0 1 2 3

0 1 2 3

0 1 2 3

f1 f2 f3 f4

Timeslot 0 of TRXs 2-4 hop over MA(f2,f3,f4). This hopping group uses HSN-1

All timeslots 1-7 hop over MA(f1,f2,f3,f4). This hopping group uses HSN-2

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Hopping TCHs in BTS


BB-FH case
TDMA frame: TRX-1 / f1 TRX-2 / f2 TRX-3 / f3 0 1 2 3 4

TCH-1 (MAIO 0)
TCH-2 (MAIO 1) TCH-3 (MAIO 2)

MAI : 0
1 2

2 0 1

0 1 2

1 2 0

2 0 1

MA list MAI

f1 0

f2 1

f3 2

MAI = (S + MAIO) modulo N S = calculated on frame basis by MS and BTS using GSM hopping algorithm and MA/HSN/FN parameters N = length of MA list

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RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Frequency Hopping Parameter summary

RF ( Synthesized Hopping) (from 3rd generation BTS onward)

mobileAllocationList

1 ... GSM: 1..124 and 975..1023, 0 GSM 1800: 512..885 GSM 1900: 512..810 Note! Max. 63 Frequencies mobileAllocationId 1 128 usedMobileAllocation 1 128 hoppingSequenceNumber1 0 63 (0 = cyclic, 1 ... 63 = pseudorandom)

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RF hopping management
BCCH TRX, does not hop.
RTSL-0 RTSL-1 RTSL-2 RTSL-3 RTSL-4 RTSL-5 RTSL-6 RTSL-7

TRX-1 TRX-2 TRX-3 TRX-4

BCCH 0 1 2

0 0 1 2

0 0 1 2

0 0 1 2

0 0 1 2

0 0 1 2

0 0 1 2

0 0 1 2

MA = {f1}

MA = {f2, f3, f4,..}

HSN-1

MAIOs have to be different for different TRXs within the same hopping group -> no collisions.

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Hopping TCHs in BTS


RF-FH case
TDMA frame: TRX-1 TRX-2 0 1 2 3 4

TCH-1 (MAIO 0)
TCH-2 (MAIO 1)

MAI / freq. : 0 / f1
1 / f2

2 / f3 0 / f1

0 / f1 1 / f2

1 / f2 2 / f3

2 / f3 0 / f1

MA list MAI

f1 0

f2 1

f3 2

MAI = (S + MAIO) modulo N S = calculated on frame basis by MS and BTS using GSM hopping algorithm and MA/HSN/FN parameters N = length of MA list

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RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


RF Hopping (Site based MAIO allocation)
MAIO HSN offset
(sector 1)

MAIO TRX-1
TRX-2

BCCH
TCH TCH TCH BCCH TCH TCH

0 1 2 3

f1

BTS-1

3
TRX-3 TRX-4 TRX-5 f4 f5 f6 f7 f8 f9 f10 f11 f12

f2

(sector 2)

TRX-6

BTS-2

3 TRX-7

4
5 6 7 8 f3

TRX-8
TRX-9
(sector 3)

TCH
BCCH TCH TCH TCH

BTS-3

TRX-10 6 3 TRX-11 TRX-12

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DOCUMENTTYPE TypeUnitOrDepartmentHere TypeYourNameHere

1 (1)

RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


TypeDateHere RF Hopping: Flexible MAIO Management (Optional)

Sector HN S 1 N

MAIO-offset 0

MAIO-step 2

TRX TRX-1 TRX-2 TRX-3 TRX-4 TRX-5 TRX-6 TRX-7 TRX-8 TRX-9 TRX-10 TRX-11 TRX-12

MAIO value for all RTSLs BCCH, not allowed to hop MAIO=0 MAIO=2 MAIO=4 BCCH, not allowed to hop MAIO=6 MAIO=8 MAIO=10 BCCH, not allowed to hop MAIO=12 MAIO=14 MAIO=16
Value 1..62

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Parameters MaioStep UnderlayMaioStep

1..62

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RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Flexible MAIO Management
Allows More Flexible RF Hopping enables Frequency Sharing i.e. sharing an MA list between the sectors at same site longer MA lists possible minimised interference New MAIO Step Parameter in BSS7 When used together with MAIO offset, no successive MAIOs will be allocated for TCHs sharing the same MA list

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RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Single MA/HSN per Site - with MAIO Step
HSN same for all sectors
MA = f1, f2, f3, f4,....

MA list can include adjacent frequencies

Sector
1 1

HSN

MAIO Offset

MAIO step

TRX
TRX-1

MAIO, same for all RTSLs within the TRX


BCCH, not hopping

Band allocation: BCCH Hopping Freq's

TRX-2 TRX-3 TRX-4

0
2 4 BCCH, not hopping

2 2 N

TRX-5

TRX-6 TRX-7 TRX-8

6
8 10

3
3 N

TRX-9

BCCH, not hopping

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TRX-10 TRX-11 TRX-12

12
14 16

Nor co-channels neither adj. channels used simultaneouly if number of frequencies > 2*number of TRXs

Operator can set the lowest MAIOs for the cells


17 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Operator can also set the MAIO step size

RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


RF-FH with reuse '1/1'using fractional loading
MAIO Offset Band allocation: BCCH Hopping frequencies MAIO Offset + Step Band allocation: BCCH Hopping Freq's

MA list

MA list

MA list and BCCH need planning MA list possibly shorter -> reduced gain

No need for MA list planning BCCH frequencies planned as usual

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RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Flexible MAIO Management will bring the following benefits:

One MA list per site One MA list can contain a continuous band No risk of co-channel nor adjacent channel being used simultaneously within a site Single MA/HSN possible -> only BCCH frequency planning More tighter reuse possible e.g. RF-FH (1/1) and thus more capacity can be achieved

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RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Flexible MAIO Management (2)
Parameter Value

MaioStep
UnderlayMaioStep BackgroundMaioStep BackgroundUnderlayMaioStep

1..62
1..62 1..62 / ND 1..62 / ND

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Example 3/9 Reuse with MAIOManagement


Frequency band is divided into 3 groups. MA-lists are allocated one per site following 3/3 (omni) reuse pattern. Each cell in a sectorised site uses all the frequencies, but the same frequency is never used in two cells at the same time. Example ( a site using MA-list with 3 frequencies): MA-list: 3 6
3 1 2

3 1 3

2 3 2

9 9
3

3
3 1 2

3 3

6
2

TDMA frame n-1


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TDMA frame n

TDMA frame n+1

Example RF-FH with 3/3 Reuse and Frequency Sharing


MA1 = f1, f4, f7 MA2 = f2, f5, f8 MA3 = f3, f6, f9
Initially 3/9 Cluster, 3/3 with Frequency sharing

F6

F5

F9
F3 F9 F3 F6 F5 F7 F5 F2

F8

F8
F2 F3 F6 F9

F1
F4 F7

F3
F6 F9

F6 F9 F3 F1

F2 F8 F4 F7 F3 F6

F1
F4

Time

F9

As the hopping is random and sites not synchronised, adjacent channels are used at times in neighbouring sites
22 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Random vs Cyclic hopping sequences Where to use?


Cyclic: In the areas where the interference is NOT a problem (low traffic areas)

Random:

In the areas where the interference is a problem (high traffic areas)

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Hard/soft blocking
Hard blocking The whole radio resource is in use - no more calls can be established due to lack of free radio timeslots.
Dominates with large reuse factors

Soft blocking The capacity of individual cells is limited by the level of the interference rather than the number of TRXs available
Is dominating with tight reuse patterns.

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Frequency load, RF FH
75 % 25 % HW load is 75% Fractional load FL is 3 TRX / 5 F = 0.6 = 60% Frequency load is HWL * FL = 45% 0 0 1 2 f1 f2, f3, f4, f5, f6 f3, f4, f5, f6, f2 f4, f5, f6, f2, f3

TRX-1 TRX-2 TRX-3 TRX-4

BCCH 0 1 2

0 0 1 2

0 0 1 2

0 0 1 2

0 0 1 2

0 0 1 2

0 0 1 2

Active slots

Empty slots

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TRX-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Frequency Load
frequency 1: 17 active slots / 5 frames 40 slots totally / 5 frames frequency load is 17/40 = 42.5 %

TRX-2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
TRX-3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TRX-4

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Active slots

Empty slots

f1 f2 f3 f4 f5

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 frame 1 frame 2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
frame 3 frame 4 frame 5 time

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How to allocate a fixed band?


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 3 1 3 1 2 2

3 1

4
3 1 2 1 3 1

2 4 3 1 3

1 2 5 4 7 2 3 6

7 2

1 5

1
1

3
1 2

4 3
2

2
4

4 7 3

FAR

Worsening C/I at the cell border

Increasing collision probability

Max. frequency load

8%

30%

~40%

~70%

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