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Waveguide

Antennas
Ravindra.S.Kashyap (06307923)
Sarvagya.P.Dwivedi (06307909)
EE609: Radiating Systems
Term Paper Presentation
EE609: Radiating Systems
Outline
Basics of Slot Radiators
Waveguide-Fed Slots
Open Waveguide Antennas
Introduction to Waveguide Slot Arrays
Design of Waveguide Slot Arrays
Circularly Polarized Waveguide Slot Arrays
Applications of Waveguide Antennas
Summary
EE609: Radiating Systems
Basics of Slot Radiators
Slots are cuts in a metallic sheet
They are dual structures of half-wave dipoles
Analysis of slot makes use of a fictious magnetic
sheet


The form of currents for a dipole and a slot are
same

2 /
Electric Sheet Magnetic Sheet
s 2 1
J H n H n =
ms 2 1
J E n E n =
Boundary Conditions to be Satisfied
Dipole Slot
|)] | ( sin[ ) (
0
z l k I z I
m
=
|)] | ( sin[ 2
0
z l k E
g
=
x ms
a n J
EE609: Radiating Systems
Basics of Slot Radiators
Due to this duality, slots are referred to as
magnetic dipoles
Far field components of the slots are thus found
out by the duality principle



Radiation pattern is exactly same as that of a
dipole except for the reversed polarization
Horizontal Slot gives Vertical Polarization
Vertical Slot gives Horizontal Polarization


dipole slot
dipole slot
H E
E H
| |
u u

EE609: Radiating Systems


Slot Radiators
Far Field Components of Slot Radiation
EE609: Radiating Systems
Bookers Relation:



Our speculation is that the design equation for
dipole can be used for single slots also

The terminal impedance at the slot center would
be however high even though purely real

) 20 / ( given 48 . 0 << = + w w l
Slot Radiators
( ) O = 547 ) 65 4 /( 377
2
4
2
q
=
slot dipole
Z Z
( )
( )
dipole dipole
dipole dipole
slot
jX R
X R
Z
+
=
2 2
530 , 35
EE609: Radiating Systems
Waveguide-Fed Slots
Any slot will radiate
only if it cuts the
surface currents
A longitudinal slot
placed on the
waveguide axis would
not radiate
A slot in the
transverse wall
perpendicular to axis
would also not radiate

Surface
currents for
dominant mode
excitation
Radiating & Non-radiating
waveguide slots
EE609: Radiating Systems
Waveguide-Fed Slots
Slot excitation and hence radiation increases
when
Displacement of longitudinal slot is higher
Angular displacement of the broad wall slot is higher
Inclination of transverse-wall slot is higher
Position of the slot Nature of the impedance
Longitudinally displaced
slot
Shunt impedance
Broadwall inclined slot Series impedance
Transverse inclined slot Shunt impedance
EE609: Radiating Systems
Waveguide-Fed Slots
A longitudinal-shunt slot would not radiate if a
short circuit is at from the slot centre
A longitudinal-series slot would not radiate if a
short circuit is at from the slot center
Long slots should be fed at the center to
prevent excitation of higher order modes
2 /
g

) ( ~ l
4 /
g

EE609: Radiating Systems


Waveguide-Fed Slots
Polarization Mechanism
Slots placed across the
waveguide axis will have
opposite polarization
A pair of slots in space
quadrature & displaced
from the axis gives circular
polarization
Sense of polarization can
be reversed by placing the
pair in its image position
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Slot for linear
polarization
Crossed slot for
circular polarization
EE609: Radiating Systems
Open Waveguide Antennas
An open end of rectangular or circular
waveguide can be used as a radiator
Waveguides are usually excited with dominant
modes due to its favorable radiation pattern
It is a rudimentary form of horn antennas without
any flaring
They do not give high directivity and are usually
used to feed reflector antennas
Owing to the missing flare, impedance matching
with the free space is not good and hence
causes reflections

EE609: Radiating Systems
Open Waveguide Antennas
Radiation pattern of three
rectangular waveguides
Radiation pattern of three
circular waveguides
EE609: Radiating Systems
Open Waveguide Antennas
H-plane pattern is smoother than E-plane
pattern owing to the larger aperture in that
plane
Larger waveguides are needed to get high
directivities and gain
Gain is less due to considerable back
radiation
Precautions has to be taken to kill higher
order modes


EE609: Radiating Systems
Open Waveguide Antennas...
Gain Enhancements
Schematic
representation
Waveguide
antenna with
HIGP
Radiation
pattern
EE609: Radiating Systems
Open Waveguide Antennas...
Gain Enhancements
GHz f
res
12 :
Radiation patterns for various spacing and
dielectric permittivity
Antenna geometry
EE609: Radiating Systems
Open Waveguide Antennas...
Array Configurations
Two circular waveguide
antenna array
Four circular waveguide
antenna array
EE609: Radiating Systems
Waveguide Slot Arrays
Resonant arrays consists of slots
spaced apart and alternate
slots placed on the opposite sides of
the axis
Waveguide is terminated with a
short circuit at from the last slot
They are broadside arrays
These arrays are inherently narrow
band
Arrays should be designed for lower
side lobe level (SLL) than required
to cater for manufacturing
tolerances
2 /
g

Resonant broadside array


4 /
g

EE609: Radiating Systems


Waveguide Slot Arrays
Non resonant arrays consists of slots that are
not placed apart and the waveguide is
terminated in a matched load
Maximum radiation can not be in broadside but
limited to a small angle from the axis

2 /
g

( ) ( )
g
g
g
g
d




+
< <
+
0
0
0
0
2
3
2
|
|
.
|

\
|

< <

g
g

t
0
1
2
sin
2
EE609: Radiating Systems
Design of Waveguide Slot Arrays
Arrays comprises different types of slots,
already mentioned, arranged in a pattern
The lengths & positions of slots are
adjusted to get the required amplitude and
phase distribution
This specific distribution will yield the
required radiation pattern
The combined admittance of all the slots
should also result in perfect impedance
match at the waveguide input
EE609: Radiating Systems
Design of Waveguide Slot
Arrays
Design Objectives
Center frequency of operation
Angle of maximum radiation
Directivity and SLL
Outline of design procedure [1]
Choose an approximating polynomial based
on the required directivity and SLL(Dolph-
Chebyshev, Binomial, Taylor, Modified Taylor,
Bayliss)
Get the normalized array coefficients for slot
excitations


EE609: Radiating Systems
Outline of design procedure
An initial value of slot displacement and lengths are
assumed
Curve-fit polynomials are generated for
experimentally generated graphs
Based on these polynomials, initial values of slot
displacement and lengths are checked for conformity
with the required array excitation (taking mutual
impedances into account)
The sum of all normalized admittances is checked for
sum being unity
Design proceeds iteratively by altering the slot
parameters simultaneously satisfying the array
requirements and sum being unity
Design of Waveguide Slot
Arrays
EE609: Radiating Systems
Waveguide Slot Arrays
Observations
Choice of slot width is
sufficient for bandwidth
control
Providing the exact
displacements are not
necessary, the values can
be rounded off
Mutual coupling is more in
case of planar slot array
than linear array
Linear array
Planar array
EE609: Radiating Systems
Waveguide Slot Arrays
Intuitive Animations
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Magnetic field strength inside the waveguide
Farfield Radiation : E-field Farfield Radiation : H-field
EE609: Radiating Systems
Circularly Polarized Waveguide
Slot Arrays
The array makes use of
crossed slots as
individual elements
Crossed slots displaced
from each other is more
popular due to ease in
numerical computation

Displaced crossed slot for CP
Iterative array design procedure
EE609: Radiating Systems
CP Waveguide Arrays
Parameter Value
Frequency 7.5GHz
Dielectric filling Teflon
Waveguide WR90
AR <0.5dB
Array approximation Taylor distribution
Number of elements 15
) 1 . 2 ( =
r
c
EE609: Radiating Systems
Applications of Waveguide
Antennas
EE609: Radiating Systems
Frequency of operation (USA & Canada):
2.41 2.46 GHz
WLAN (802.11b)
8 elements
16 elements
EE609: Radiating Systems
Slot Applicators for Microwave
Heating
Waveguide slot antennas
are used as applicators
for heating lossy
dielectric
Proposed structure is a
resonant array with
broadside radiation
Empirical design method
has been compared
against analytical
methods
Empirical
Method
Analytical
Method
EE609: Radiating Systems
Substrate Integrated Waveguide
Antennas
A rectangular waveguide is created by packing a
substrate in between two metal ground planes
and fencing it with closely spaced vias
A slot cut in such a waveguide can be used as a
radiator called as cavity backed slot (CBS)
EE609: Radiating Systems
Substrate Integrated Waveguide
Antennas
Geometry of
SIW Antenna
Reflection
Coefficient
Radiation
Pattern
EE609: Radiating Systems
Radial Waveguide Slot Array
Linearly polarized RWSA has been
designed for Bluetooth
RSSI performance is better than
monopole and hence is a good alternative
Geometry of RWSA
Radiation pattern of RWSA
EE609: Radiating Systems
Summary
Waveguide antennas have good potential for its use in
varied areas of application
Waveguide antennas suffers from the same
disadvantages faced by waveguides including their
usage at low frequencies
These antennas are favorable for high power
applications
They are mechanically robust
They can be used as low-profile antennas for millimeter
wave applications
As far as the personal communication is concerned,
waveguide antennas are a good alternative for wire
antennas

EE609: Radiating Systems
Selected References
[1] Robert.S.Elliot, Antenna Theory &
Design, IEEE Press and Wiley
Interscience, 2003
EE609: Radiating Systems
Thank You