Antennas
Ravindra.S.Kashyap (06307923)
Sarvagya.P.Dwivedi (06307909)
EE609: Radiating Systems
Term Paper Presentation
EE609: Radiating Systems
Outline
Basics of Slot Radiators
WaveguideFed Slots
Open Waveguide Antennas
Introduction to Waveguide Slot Arrays
Design of Waveguide Slot Arrays
Circularly Polarized Waveguide Slot Arrays
Applications of Waveguide Antennas
Summary
EE609: Radiating Systems
Basics of Slot Radiators
Slots are cuts in a metallic sheet
They are dual structures of halfwave dipoles
Analysis of slot makes use of a fictious magnetic
sheet
The form of currents for a dipole and a slot are
same
2 /
Electric Sheet Magnetic Sheet
s 2 1
J H n H n =
ms 2 1
J E n E n =
Boundary Conditions to be Satisfied
Dipole Slot
)]  ( sin[ ) (
0
z l k I z I
m
=
)]  ( sin[ 2
0
z l k E
g
=
x ms
a n J
EE609: Radiating Systems
Basics of Slot Radiators
Due to this duality, slots are referred to as
magnetic dipoles
Far field components of the slots are thus found
out by the duality principle
Radiation pattern is exactly same as that of a
dipole except for the reversed polarization
Horizontal Slot gives Vertical Polarization
Vertical Slot gives Horizontal Polarization
dipole slot
dipole slot
H E
E H
 
u u
) ( ~ l
4 /
g
( ) ( )
g
g
g
g
d
+
< <
+
0
0
0
0
2
3
2


.

\

< <
g
g
t
0
1
2
sin
2
EE609: Radiating Systems
Design of Waveguide Slot Arrays
Arrays comprises different types of slots,
already mentioned, arranged in a pattern
The lengths & positions of slots are
adjusted to get the required amplitude and
phase distribution
This specific distribution will yield the
required radiation pattern
The combined admittance of all the slots
should also result in perfect impedance
match at the waveguide input
EE609: Radiating Systems
Design of Waveguide Slot
Arrays
Design Objectives
Center frequency of operation
Angle of maximum radiation
Directivity and SLL
Outline of design procedure [1]
Choose an approximating polynomial based
on the required directivity and SLL(Dolph
Chebyshev, Binomial, Taylor, Modified Taylor,
Bayliss)
Get the normalized array coefficients for slot
excitations
EE609: Radiating Systems
Outline of design procedure
An initial value of slot displacement and lengths are
assumed
Curvefit polynomials are generated for
experimentally generated graphs
Based on these polynomials, initial values of slot
displacement and lengths are checked for conformity
with the required array excitation (taking mutual
impedances into account)
The sum of all normalized admittances is checked for
sum being unity
Design proceeds iteratively by altering the slot
parameters simultaneously satisfying the array
requirements and sum being unity
Design of Waveguide Slot
Arrays
EE609: Radiating Systems
Waveguide Slot Arrays
Observations
Choice of slot width is
sufficient for bandwidth
control
Providing the exact
displacements are not
necessary, the values can
be rounded off
Mutual coupling is more in
case of planar slot array
than linear array
Linear array
Planar array
EE609: Radiating Systems
Waveguide Slot Arrays
Intuitive Animations
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Magnetic field strength inside the waveguide
Farfield Radiation : Efield Farfield Radiation : Hfield
EE609: Radiating Systems
Circularly Polarized Waveguide
Slot Arrays
The array makes use of
crossed slots as
individual elements
Crossed slots displaced
from each other is more
popular due to ease in
numerical computation
Displaced crossed slot for CP
Iterative array design procedure
EE609: Radiating Systems
CP Waveguide Arrays
Parameter Value
Frequency 7.5GHz
Dielectric filling Teflon
Waveguide WR90
AR <0.5dB
Array approximation Taylor distribution
Number of elements 15
) 1 . 2 ( =
r
c
EE609: Radiating Systems
Applications of Waveguide
Antennas
EE609: Radiating Systems
Frequency of operation (USA & Canada):
2.41 2.46 GHz
WLAN (802.11b)
8 elements
16 elements
EE609: Radiating Systems
Slot Applicators for Microwave
Heating
Waveguide slot antennas
are used as applicators
for heating lossy
dielectric
Proposed structure is a
resonant array with
broadside radiation
Empirical design method
has been compared
against analytical
methods
Empirical
Method
Analytical
Method
EE609: Radiating Systems
Substrate Integrated Waveguide
Antennas
A rectangular waveguide is created by packing a
substrate in between two metal ground planes
and fencing it with closely spaced vias
A slot cut in such a waveguide can be used as a
radiator called as cavity backed slot (CBS)
EE609: Radiating Systems
Substrate Integrated Waveguide
Antennas
Geometry of
SIW Antenna
Reflection
Coefficient
Radiation
Pattern
EE609: Radiating Systems
Radial Waveguide Slot Array
Linearly polarized RWSA has been
designed for Bluetooth
RSSI performance is better than
monopole and hence is a good alternative
Geometry of RWSA
Radiation pattern of RWSA
EE609: Radiating Systems
Summary
Waveguide antennas have good potential for its use in
varied areas of application
Waveguide antennas suffers from the same
disadvantages faced by waveguides including their
usage at low frequencies
These antennas are favorable for high power
applications
They are mechanically robust
They can be used as lowprofile antennas for millimeter
wave applications
As far as the personal communication is concerned,
waveguide antennas are a good alternative for wire
antennas
EE609: Radiating Systems
Selected References
[1] Robert.S.Elliot, Antenna Theory &
Design, IEEE Press and Wiley
Interscience, 2003
EE609: Radiating Systems
Thank You