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Micro Pressure Sensor for Tire Pressure Measurement Systems

National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences

Outline
Introduction Literature Review. Novel Idea of Design Results and Discussions Conclusion References

INTRODUCTION
Pressure sensing: In vehicles, pressure sensors are used for many applications and their location varies accordingly. Pressure sensor can be done by measuring the pressure difference between the air at the filter intake and air on the other side of the diaphragm. They can also be used to calculate mass airflow rate, engine speed and air temperature by measuring the pressure from intake fold. The pressure sensor devices used in tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) can be installed inside the tire or mounted on the valve stem.

Two common type of Micro Pressure Sensors


Piezoresistive sensors: - Small in size Linear I/O relation Temperature sensitive
Capacitive sensors: - Tends to be bulky Suited for elevated temperature app Nonlinear I/O relations Lower cost

In this report concentrate in type Piezoresistive sensor.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Sensors are essential component of automotive electronic control systems. Sensors are defined as devices that transform (or transduce) physical quantities such as pressure of acceleration into output signals that serve as inputs for control systems.. MEMS-based automotive sensor technology was recently reviewed by Eddy and Sparks. Franks publication emphasized electronic circuits and sensor include: Wolbers 1978 publication and Heintz and Zablers 1982 publication. Two groups developed automotive sensor - Delco Electronics Group (General Motors) - Ford

NOVEL IDEA OF DESIGN

Nowadays, there is growing interested in Tire Pressure Measurement Systems (TPMS), which has led to the development of pressure sensors. And data shows that nearly 250,000 accidents per year occur in the USA along due to low tire pressure. To avoid the above, the concept of a TPMS was introduced. Direct TPMS contain small sensors for pressure and acceleration that are installed inside the tires. And since the discovery of the piezoresistive effect, piezoresistive sensor have been widely employed in mechanical signal sensing, which plays a very important role in TPMS.

According publication of author Bian Tian, Jiaotong University, Xian, China. They developed the system TPMS. Through analysis of the stress distribution of the diaphragm by finite element method (FEM) using ANSYS software, a model of the structure was established.

Optimal Sensor Parameter was established.


Length (m) Silicon Membrane 1.500 520 Width (m)
1.500

Thickness (m) 480 30

520

REULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Dimention of sensor

The schematic piezoresistive pressure sensor

Wmask(cal) X

45.00

54.7

150.00

() = + 2 450 = = = 318.6 tan (54.7) tan(54.7) () = 520 + 2 318.6 = 1157

Cross-view open mask (Calculate)

3.00

Lmembrane = 520 m

48.00

Wmask(cal) X

45.00

54.7

150.00

() 450 = = = 225 () 2/

Time etch needed

3.00

Lmembrane = 520 m

48.00

Where etch rate of silicon in KOH (19%-80oC): [100:110:111]=[100:16:1] r(100) = 2m/min and r(111) = 0.02m/min But in plane (111) silicon be under-cut pyramid = 111 = 0.02 225 = 4.5

Hence under-cut length = u:


4.5 = = = 5.5 sin(54.7) sin(54.7)

Under cut length

() = () 2 = 1157 2 5.5 = 1146


u = 5.50 5.50

Wmask(real)

s=

4.5

54.7

52.00

Open mask (real)

Schematic of resistor

P(MPa)

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Vp(mV)

-0.47

15.50

31.41

47.44

63.35

79.29

Vn(mV)

-0.48

15.53

31.46

47.49

63.42

79.29

Table 1 : Output of the sensor

Output of the sensor

CONCLUSIONS

CONCLUSIONS
MEMS Piezoresistive Pressure sensor was successfully fabricated with membrane structures of dimension 520m X 520m, and thickness of 30m is realized using anisotropic wet chemical etching technique of bulk silicon. P-type piezoresistors are fabricated by boron diffusion. The sensitivity and measurement range of sensor reached to 79.76 V/kPa and from 0 to 1 Mpa, respectively. Comprehensive results suggested that the pressure sensor for TPMS was a better choice for measuring pressure.

REFERENCES
Oliver Schatz, 0. Recent trends in automotive sensors. IEEE Proc. Sensors 2004, 1, 236-239 Peng, C.T. Lin, J.C., Lin, C.T., Chiang, K.N., Performance and package effect of a novel piezoresistive pressure sensor fabricated by front-side etching technology, Sens. Actuator. A 2005,119, pp 2837 Bian Tian, Y. L Zhao, Z. Jiang, Ling Zhang, Nan sheng Liao, Y. H. Liu and Chao Meng, Fabrication and Structural Design of Micro Pressure Sensors for Tire Pressure Measurement Systems (TPMS) Sensors 2009, 9, 1382-1393; doi: 10.3390/s90301382. William J. Fleming. Overview of Automotive Sensors. IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol 1, No.4, December 2001, pp 296 Z.W. Zhong, X. W. Zhang, H. H. Sim, E. H. Wong, T. S. Teo and M. H. Iyer. Calibration of a Piezoresistive Stress Sensor in (100) Silicon Test Chips. 2002 IEEE. Electronic Technology Conference 2002 Tai-Ran Hsu. MEMS & Microsystems Design and Manufacture, Chine Machine Press: Beijing, 2002