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DRAVIDIAN AND INDO ARYAN STYLE TEMPLES

Dravidian style rock cut architecture of pallavas mandapas and rathas eg of masonry temples , shore temple ,mahabalipuram Kailasanathar temple , kanchipuram Evolution of Dravidian order Evolution of gopuram & temple complexes During pandyan period. Meenakshi Amman temple ,Madurai Salient features of an Indo Aryan Temple Examples at Orissa - Lingaraja Temple, Bhuvaneswar & Sun Temple,

Evolution of the Dravidian order

Compound wall height 15 m Gopuram is made with single stone of 80 tonnes. A huge statue of Nandi measuring 6 m length and 3.7 m in height faces the inner sanctum.It is also made up single piece of stone which weighs about 25 tonnes.

BRIHADESAWARA TEMPLE , TANJORE


Raja raja cholan built the temple around 1000 A.D . It has taken the 7 yrs to built the temple. it was the largest highest and most ambitious production taken by the Indian builders ,it was the landmark in the evolution of the building art in southern india. The multiplication of parivra shrines and the introduction of a separate shrine for the goddess are the two significant changes in the temple complex effected during this period. Even in the Tanjore temple the Devi shrine is not contemporaneous with the main cella but was built later.

The temple is approached from the East via two gopuras. Unlike the later practice in Southern India, these gopuras are smaller than the shrine tower.its entranceway is flanked by two very large dvarapalas; the carvings below represent various Shaiva legends.

The main structure is 180 long and the sikhara which raises then in about 190. It has several structures combined together .a nandi pavilion ,a pillared portico , a large assembly hall and a outer wall which encloses these structures. The main features of the entire scheme is the grand tower of the vimana at the western end which dominates every thing in its vicinity.

The sanctuary is approached by a porch, then a columned Mandapa , ante chamber at last a narrow passage to the cella.
There are three parts. Square vertical base tall tapering body and the graceful domical finial. Vertical base 82 side , 50 height from the pyramidal body mounts up in 13 diminishing zones , until the width of its apex equals 1/3 of its bases. It ends in the octagonal dome like roof.

In the middle of the sanctuary is colossal linga 3.66m (12) high, which is elevated on a circular pedestal. The surrounding passageway is divided into chambers , sculptures here include a large dancing siva image ( north wall ).paintings also adorns the walls and ceiling. A short distance to the east of the temple is a tall lamp-column and a monolithic nandi image sheltered by a 16th century pavilion. The pavilion has slender column with carvings of devotees on the shaft. Among the subsidiary building is the chandeshvara shrine , which faces southwards towards the main temple. The sanctuary of this small building is crowned with an octagonal roof , the basement and wall details imitate those of the main temple but on a smaller scale. which is Attached with the outer wall. the statues of 63 nayanmars and persons who wrote about The glory of lord were placed in the colonnade. The long prakaram surrounds the great temple (500 feet/250 feet).

The sanctum, the ardhamandapam, the mukhamandapam and the Mahamandapam, although distinct, form a composite unit with an imposing appearance that awes visitors, forcing one to wonder how such timeless architectural feat was executed about a 1000 years ago.
Another shrine north west of the main temple is dedicated to subrahmanya. The finely finished monument dates carved basement moldings and wall pilasters A treasury , museum and library are also included within the courtyard. There are also shrines like dakshina moorthy , ganesha are placed with in the compound but detached from the main temple. Whole complex had the colonnade

BRIHADESAWARA TEMPLE , TANJORE

The foundation of the temple are of granite, upper portions are of sand stone thus providing a hard and firm substructure to carry out its weight and more plastic substance for the sculpture. The well balanced and proportionate form of the shore temple and the ratha could be seen in this temple. The main shrine of the temple was built during the reign of Rajasimha but the whole completion was by his son Mahendravarman III. It has a sanctuary with its pyramidal tower, a pillared hall or Mandapas , the whole contained with in a rectangular courtyard enclosed by a high substantial wall composed of cells. Later the sanctuary and Mandapas were joined together by a spacious intermediate hall or antrala to accord with the ceremonial of the time. The carvings of the enclosing wall , Mandapas pillars , rampant lion pilasters makes the temple a elegant one.

The main vimana has 4 storeys .the double wall of the shrine provide a circumbulatory passage in between .it has the projecting shrines surrounding the sanctum and the base of the temple extends here also. Only the inner of the sanctum have no sculpture but the whole other parts has the profuse carvings. Prakara surrounds the whole complex. The peripheral shrines all have dome like roofs .externally the enclosure walls are relieved by pilasters. It has the ardha mandapa in front of the temple.

Five rathas

PANCH RATHAS OR THE FIVE RATHAS The five Rathas is a set of magnificent monolithic rock temples. Panch is a Hindi world which means Five. These fine rock temples are located in a sandy compound. These five Rathas are the perfect examples of the evolution of Dravidian style architecture. There are built in the shaper of pagodas and they look similar to that of the Buddhist shrines and monasteries. Rathas in English means carrots. There chariots are constructed with Towers, The cars of gods, multipillared halls, and sculptured walls which are chissled out minutely. The Rathas have an association to the great epic Mahabharata which describes the heroes of Mahabharata with their wife Draupadi which is termed as pancha pandava rathas. The five rathas are (i) Draupadis Ratha, (ii) Arjunas Rath, (iii) Nakul Sahadevs Rath, (iv) Bhima Rath and (v) Dharamraja Yudhistars Rath. DRAUPADIS RATH This is located at the entrance gate, which is spectacular and simple, shaped like a hut and is dedicated to goddess Durga. Female door keepers stand on the either ride of the Rath, one holding a bow and another, a sword. At the eastern wall a bas-relief stands portraying Goddess Durga standing on lotus and two worshippers at here feet offering flowers and one of the persons head respectively. Energy other walls have the figure of the great goddess, and at the front of the temple is a Lions figure, which is the celestial vehicle to the Goddess.

ARJUNAS RATH The next Rath is the Arjunas Rath. This one is dedicated to Lord Shiva. This has a small portico and carved pillar stones. Beautiful carvings of Lord Vishnu and a Garuda on One panel and the other panel with a couple. The eastern wall is carved with a double Dwarka-Palaks, in the middle wall the portrait of Lord Indra riding an elephant, a log standing of the left with has disciples and two beautiful women are perfectly chissled out. These beautiful carvings hare been praised by many poets. There is also a figure of Nandi bull which is still left unfinished.

NAKUL SAHADEVS RATH In front of Arjunas Rath is the Nakula Sahadev Rath. This is a double decored building, dedicated to Lord Indra the God of Rain. As in Greek and Roman mythologies, where there are different gods for various aspects and qualified, the Indian mythologies too lane assigned specific gods for different aspects. One who eaters the Panch Rathas, can visualize the back portion of the elephants and it named as Gajaprishthakara which means elephants back side. The elephant sculptures are huge and are highlights of the Panch Raths. BHIMA RATH This Ratha is faced towards west and this is laid third of the Rathas. The shrine is gorgeous as it measures 42 ft in length, 24ft in width and 25ft in height. The pillars are lion carved whereas the other parts are plain. This Ratha too is an incomplete one.

DHARMARAJA YUDHISTARS RATH


Of all the five Rathas, this last one stands huge. It is named after the eldest of the pandavas. Innovative and well carved designs can be seen in this Rath. The ground floor is in complete. Above the ground floor stands minutely designed double floor. The peculiarity in this monumental construction is that there is no stair route from the ground floor to the first floor, but, there in stairs from the first floor to the second floor. There are eight panels in the ground floor.

Ganesh Ratha
The only completed sculpture of the fine Rathas is the Ganesh Rath. This lies west to the Bhim Rath and it resembles the Arjuna Penance. It was earlier dedicated to lord shiva and now it is a shrine of Ganesha. There was a lingam structure earlier and now an idol of lord Ganesha has been replaced the pallavas did not stop with there fine Raths but they went on to build more sculptures of them four are found lying on the outskirts of mahabalipuram. Two Raths which lie side by side on the way to Tirukkalakundram are named as Pidari Rathas. To the south of these two Rathas lies the Valayankuttai Rath and the fourth one which lies opposite to the Mahishasura Mardini Mandap is nameless.