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WCDMA Radio Network Planning and

Optimization
Song Pengpeng
Presentation Title 2 All rights reserved 2004
Contents
> WCDMA Fundamentals(including link budget fundamentals)
> Radio Resource Utilization
> Coverage and Capacity issues
> Cell deployment
> WCDMA Radio Network Planning(including WCDMA-GSM Co-
planning issues )
> Co-existing TDD & FDD modes
Presentation Title 3 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Fundamentals
> WCDMA network infrastructure
> WCDMA radio interface protocol architecture
> WCDMA link level characteristics & indicators
> WCDMA link budget analysis


Presentation Title 4 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Fundamentals
> WCDMA Network infrastructure
Presentation Title 5 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Fundamentals
> WCDMA Radio Interface protocol architecture
Radi o Resour ce Cont r ol
Subl ayer ( RRC)
Medi a Access Cont r ol Subl ayer ( MAC)
Physi cal l ayer ( PHY)
Packet Dat a
Conver gence
Pr ot ocol ( PDCP)
Radi o Li nk
Cont r ol
Subl ayer ( RLC)
RLC RLC
RLC RLC
Tr anspor t Channel s
Logi cal Channel s
Si gnal l i ng
Radi o Bear er s
Radi o Bear er s
Layer 3
Layer 2
Layer 1
Presentation Title 6 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Fundamentals
> Mapping between Trch and PHY channels
Transport Channels
DCH
RACH
CPCH
BCH
FACH
PCH
Physical Channels
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH)
Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH)
Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH)
Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)
Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH)
Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH)
Synchronisation Channel (SCH)
Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH)
Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel (AP-AICH)
Paging Indicator Channel (PICH)
CPCH Status Indicator Channel (CSICH)
Collision-Detection/Channel-Assignment Indicator
Channel (CD/CA-ICH)
DSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
HS-DSCH-related Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH)
HS-DSCH High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH)
Dedicated Physical Control Channel (uplink) for HS-DSCH (HS-DPCCH)
Presentation Title 7 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Fundamentals
WCDMA link level indicators
indicators Formularization Comments
BLER Average block error rate calculated for the transport blocks
BER
Information bit error rate
R User information bit rate
Eb/No
Uplink:
Downlink:
Energy per bit divided by noise spectral density(including interference
power density)
Ec/Io
(Eb/No) divided by
processing gain
The received chip energy relative to the total power spectral density;
always used on CPICH,AICH and PICH.
Ec/Ior
The transmitted energy per chip on a chosen channel relative to the
total transmitted power spectral density at the base station.
I
Other-to-own-cell received power ratio
G(Geometry factor)
Mostly used in downlink, G reflects the distance of the MS from the BS
antenna. Atypical range is from 3 dB to 20 dB, where 3 dB is for the
cell edge.
Average Power Rise
The difference between the average transmitted power and the average
received power in low multi-path diversity channels
Noise Rise The ratio of the total received wideband power to the noise power.
Power Control
headroom
(Average required
received Eb/Io without fast PC)-
(average required received
Eb/Io with fast PC) Also referred as TPC headroom or multipath fading margin
Macro Diversity
Combining Gain
The reduction of the required Eb/No per link in soft or softer handover
when compared to the situation with one radio link only.
I
P
R
W
N
E
rx b
=
0
N oth own
rx b
P I I
P
R
W
N
E
+ +
=
) 1 (
0
o
own
oth
I
I
i =
N oth
own
P I
I
G
+
=
Parameters WCDMA
Chip rate 3.84 Mcps
Frame length 10 or 2 ms
Modulation
Downlink: QPSK;
Uplink: HPSK
Bandwidth 5 MHz
Vocoder
Algebraic Code Excited
Linear Prediction Coder(ACELP)
Base synchronization Asynchronization
Power control rate 1500 Hz
Cell identification
Unique scrambling code (Gold code)
Channelization code
OVSF code
WCDMA parameters
Presentation Title 8 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Radio Network Planning---Example of link budget
analysis
> RF link budget components:
Presentation Title 9 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Radio Network Planning---Example of link
budget analysis
Allowed propagation loss
for cell range[dB] 141.9 v=r-s+t-u
Transmitter(mobile)
Max. Txpower[dBm] 21 a
Mobile antenna gain[dBi] 0 b
Body loss[dB] 3 c
Equivalent Isotropic
Radiated power
(EIRP)[dBm] 18 d=a+b-c
Receiver(base station)
Thermal noise density
[dBm/Hz] -174 e
Base station receiver
noise figure[dB] 5 f
Receiver noise density
[dBm/Hz] -169 g=e+f
Receiver noise power
[dBm] -103.2 h=g+10*log(3840000)
Interference margin[dB] 3 I
Receiver interference
power[dBm] -103.2 j=10*log(10^((h+i)/10)-10^(h/10))
Total effectve noise +
interference [dBm] -100.2 k=10*log(10^(h/10)+10^(j/10))
Processing gain[dB] 25 l=10*log(3840/12.2)
Required Eb/No[dB] 5 m
Receiver sensitivity[dBm] -120.2 n=m-l+k
Base station antenna
gain[dBi] 18 o
Max_path_loss=Ptx_EIRP - Prx_receiver_sensitivity
-Lrx_cable+ Grx_antenna
Cable loss in the base
station[dB] 2 p
Fast fading margin[dB] 0 q
Max.path loss[dB] 154.2 r=d-n+o-p-q
Allowed_propagation_loss=Max_path_loss
-Log_normal_fading_margin
+soft_handover_margin
-in_car_loss
Example of RLB for 12.2 kbps voice service(uplink,120km/h,in-car users,VA channel with soft handover)
Coverage probability[%] 95
Log normal fading
constant[dB] 7
Propagation model exponent 3.52
Log normal fading margin
[dB] 7.3 s
Soft handover gain[dB] 3 t
In-car loss[dB] 8 u
(*) *modeling the impact of the fast power control on the WCDMA uplink, sipila,K., Laiho-Steffens,J.,Jasberg,M. and Wacker.A, Proc VTC99 Spring Huston,Texas,May 1999 pp.1266-1270
A headroom for mobile station to maintain
adequate closed loop fast power control. This
applies especially to slow-moving pedestrian
mobiles.Typical values are 2.0-5.0 dB for slow-
moving mobiles(*)
handovers give a gin against slow fading by
reducing the required log-normal fading margin;it
also gives an additional macro diversity gain
against fast fading by reducing the required
Eb/No due to the effect of macro diversity
combining.
the margin required to provide a specified
coverage availability over the individual cells.
For a 95% coverage with a standard shadowing
deviation of 6.0dB and path loss model with
n=3.6 we need a shadowing margin of
approximately 6.0dB
Closely related with the loading of the cell which
subsequently affects the coverage. For coverage-
limited cases a smaller interference margin is
suggested,while in capacity-limited cases a larger
interference margin should be used. Typical value
for the interference margin in the coverage-limited
cases are 1.0-3.0 dB corresponding to 20-50%
loading.
Presentation Title 10 All rights reserved 2004
Handover
Control
Power Control
Resource
Manager
Admission
control
Load control
Packet data
scheduling
Congestion Control
Radio Resource Management
RADIO RESOURCE UTILIZATION
To adjust the transmit powers in upilnk and
downlink to the minimum level required to
enshure the demanded QoS
Takes care that a connected user is handed
over from one cell to another as he moves
through the coverage area of a mobile
network.
To ensure
that the
network stays
within the
planned
condition
Let users set up or reconfigure a radio
access bearer(RAB) only if these would not
overload the system and if the necessary
resources are available.
Takes care that a system temporarily going
into overload is returned to a non-
overloaded situation.
To handle all non-realtime traffic,allocate
optimum bit rates and schedule
transmission of the packet data, keeping the
required QoS in terms of throughput and
delays.
To control the physical and logical radio
resources under one RNC;to coordinate the
usage of the available hardware resouces
and to manage the code tree.
> Basic RRM functions
* Power Control
* Handover Control
* Congestion Control
* Resource Management

Presentation Title 11 All rights reserved 2004
RADIO RESOURCE UTILIZATION---power control(1)
> UMTS Power Control(PC) summary
Presentation Title 12 All rights reserved 2004
RADIO RESOURCE UTILIZATION---power control(2)
> Uplink/Downlink inner- and outer- loop power control
DL outer loop PC
SIR_step=f(BLER or BER)
SIR target management
SIR estimate vs. target SIR
DL TPC commands
UL outer loop PC
SIR_step=f(BLER or BER)
SIR target management
MDC and splitting
Presentation Title 13 All rights reserved 2004
RADIO RESOURCE UTILIZATION---handover control
> Soft-Handover:Example of Soft Handover Algorithm
Event 1A: A P-CPICH enters the reporting range
) 2 ( log 10 ) 1 ( log 10 log 10
1 1 10
1
10 10 a a Best
N
i
i new
H R M W M W M
A
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
>

=
Event 1B: A P-CPICH leaves the reporting range
) 2 ( log 10 ) 1 ( log 10 log 10
1 1 10
1
10 10 b b Best
N
i
i old
H R M W M W M
A
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
s

=
Event 1C: A non-active PCPICH becomes better than
an active one

Event 1D: change of best cell. Reporting event is
triggered when any P-CPICH in the reporting range
becomes better than the current bet one plus an
optional hysteresis value.

Event 1E: A P-CPICH becomes better than an absolute
threshold plus an optional hysteresis value.

Event 1F: A P-CPICH becomes worse than an absolute
threshold minus an optional hysteresis value.
Addition window
drop window
AS_Th AS_Th_Hyst
As_Rep_Hyst
As_Th + As_Th_Hyst
Cell 1 Connected
Event 1A
Add Cell 2
Event 1C
Replace Cell 1 with Cell 3
Event 1B
Remove Cell 3
CPICH 1
CPICH 2
CPICH 3
Time
Measurement
Quantity
AT AT AT
Presentation Title 14 All rights reserved 2004
RADIO RESOURCE UTILIZATION---PC and SHO
conclusion
> Bonding of SHO and PC(based on the fact that SHO gain is dependent on
the PC efficiency)
SHO gain depends on the type of channel and the degree of PC
imperfection.It is usually higher with imperfect PC.
SHO diversity can reduce the PC headroom,thus improving the coverage.
The transmit and receive power differences as a result of SHO
measurement errors and SHO windows can affect the PC error rate in
uplink,reducing the uplink SHO gains.
In uplink, SHO gain is translated into a decrease in the outer-loop PCs
Eb/No target.
Presentation Title 15 All rights reserved 2004
RADIO RESOURCE UTILIZATION---congestion
control
> Air interface load definition(load control principles)
Uplink
Wideband power-based uplink loading
where
Throughput-based uplink loading
Downlink
Wideband power-based downlink loading


Throughput-based downlink loading

or

rxTotal
oth own
UL
P
I I +
= q
N oth own rxTotal
P I I p + + =

+

+
=
k
k k k
UL
i
R
W
) 1 (
1
1
v
q
max tx
rxTotoal
DL
P
P
= q
max
1
R
R
N
k
k
DL

=
= q

=

+ =
N
k
k k k
DL DL
W
R
i
1
) ( ] ) 1 [(
v
o q
Presentation Title 16 All rights reserved 2004
RADIO RESOURCE UTILIZATION---congestion
control (contd)
> Congestion control---keep the air interface load
under predefined thresholds
Admission control---handling all the new traffic
Load control---managing the situation when
system load has exceeded the threshold
Packet scheduling---handling all the non-real-time
traffic
Admi ssi on
cont r ol
Load cont r ol
Packet dat a
schedul i ng
Congest i on Cont r ol
> Admission control
Wideband power-based admission control
For uplink, an RT bearer will be admitted if
where and

For downlink, an RT bearer will be admitted if
Throughput-based admission control
For uplink, it follows
For downlink, it follows
et rxT rxNC
P I P
arg
s A +
rxOffset et rxT rxTotoal
P P P + s
arg
L
P
I
rxTotal
A

~ A
q 1
v
+
= A
R
W
L
1
1
et txT txNC
P P P
arg
s A +
txOffset et txT txTotal
P P P + s
arg
L thresholdU oldUL
L q q s A +
L thresholdD oldDL
L q q s A +
Presentation Title 17 All rights reserved 2004
RADIO RESOURCE UTILIZATION---congestion
control (contd)
> Packet scheduling
Time division scheduling
Code division scheduling
Packet schedul i ng al gor i t hm
Pr ocess Capaci t y r equest s
Cal cul at e l oad budget f or
packet schedul i ng
Load bel ow t ar get
l evel ?
Over l oad t hr eshol d
exceeded?
I ncr ease l oadi ng Decr ease l oadi ng
Al l ocat e/ modi f y/ r el ease
r adi o r esour ces
Yes No
Yes
No
Presentation Title 18 All rights reserved 2004
RADIO RESOURCE UTILIZATION---Code Planning
> Code planning
Code allocation is under the control of RNC.
Code tree may become fragmented and code reshuffling is
needed(arranged by RNC).
> Code allocation
Scrambling and spreading code allocation for uplink(by UTRAN)
Scrambling and spreading code allocation for downlink
Downlink channelization code allocation (by UTRAN)
Downlink scrambling code planning
512 scrambling codes subdivided into 64 groups each of
eight codes
Presentation Title 19 All rights reserved 2004
RRM optimization --- SHO optimization(1)
> Addition window optimization
Determines the relative difference of the cells
at the MS end that are to be included in the
active set
Optimized so that only the relevant cells are
in the active set
Addi t i on
wi ndow
Too wi de
SHOar ea
Too smal l
SHOar ea
Unnecessar y
br anch
addi t i on
MRC gai n
r educt i on
I ncr eased
SHO
over head
Reduced DL
capaci t y
Degr aded
per f or mance
due t o t oo
hi gh l evel
di f f er ence of
t he si gnal s
i n AS
I ncr eased
BS and MS
Tx Power
Reduced DL
and UL
capaci t y
Fr equent AS
updat es
Rel evant
cel l s r emoved
f r omAS
Reduced UL
capaci t y
I ncr easi ng
si gnal l i ng
over head
I ncr eased
Tx power s
Reduced UL/
DL capaci t y
t oo hi gh
t oo l ow
Presentation Title 20 All rights reserved 2004
RRM optimization --- SHO optimization(2)
> Drop window optimization
Slightly larger than the addition window
dr op
wi ndow
Unnecessar y
br anches
st ay i n AS
Fr equent
HOs
Too l ar ge
SHO
over head
I ncr eased
si gnal i ng
over head
Degr aded
per f or mance
due t o t oo
hi gh l evel
di f f er ence of
t he si gnal s
i n AS
I ncr eased BS
and MS Tx
Power
I ncr eased BS
Tx power
Rel evant
cel l s r emoved
f r omAS
I ncr eased
Tx power s
Reduced UL/
DL capaci t y
t oo hi gh
t oo l ow
Reduced DL
capaci t y
I ncr eased
MS Tx power
Reduced UL
capaci t y
t oo l ow
Frequent and
delayed Hos (cells
ping-pong in the
active set)
Presentation Title 21 All rights reserved 2004
RRM optimization --- SHO optimization(3)
> Replacement window optimization
Determines the relative threshold for MS to trigger the reporting Event 1C.
Too high: slow branch replacement and thus non-optimal active set
Too low: ping-pong effect with unnecessary SHOs
r epl acment
wi ndow
Act i veset
subopt i mal
Exceut i on of
unnecessar y
HOs
MS Tx power
i ncr ease
I ncr eased
si gnal i ng
over head
BS Tx power
i ncr ease
DL l oad
i ncr ease
t oo hi gh
t oo l ow
Reduced cal l
set up success
r at e
UL l oad
i ncr ease
I ncr eased
cal l dr op or
bl ock r at e
Reduced DL/ UL
t ot al cel l
t r af f i c
Presentation Title 22 All rights reserved 2004
RRM optimization --- SHO optimization(4)
> Maximum active set size optimization
Max AS
si ze
Possi bl e
unnecessar y
br anch addi t i on
Pr event
necessar y sof t
HObr anch
addi t i on
Requi r e
hi gher Tx
power t o a MS
I ncr eased
BS Tx power
Reduced DL
capaci t y
Degr aded
per f or mance
due t o t oo
hi gh l evel
di f f er ence of
t he si gnal s
i n AS
Reduced UL
capaci t y
Requi r e hi gher
Tx power f r om
a MS
Degr aded DL
BLER
per f or mance
Degr aded UL
BLER
per f or mance
I ncr eased
cal l dr op/
bl ock r at e
t oo bi g
t oo smal l
I ncr eased SHO
over head
I ncr eased
MS Tx power
Presentation Title 23 All rights reserved 2004
RADIO RESOURCE UTILIZATION --- SHO
optimization conclusion
> SHO overhead target level should be 30%~40%.
Addition window & Drop window optimization should be tuned first
Change the active set size if needed
Drop timer value is secondary
P-CPICH power could be the final parameter for SHO optimization(not
recommended!)
Optimization of active set weighting coefficient to give a stable SHO
performance

Presentation Title 24 All rights reserved 2004
Coverage and Capacity issues
> Coverage-limited & Capacity-limited scenarios
> Coverage & Capacity enhancement methods
Additional carriers and Scrambling codes
Mast Head Amplifiers
Remote RF Head Amplifiers
Repeaters
Higher-order Receiver Diversity
Transmit Diversity
Beam-forming
Sectorization

Presentation Title 25 All rights reserved 2004
Coverage and Capacity issues---Coverage
Different service
type(voice@12.2kbps,
data@64,144,384kbps
)supported with
different link budget
and thus different
coverage range!
> How can coverage be deduced from link budget? link budget Max Path
Losscell rangecoverage
> Generally, service coverage is uplink limited but system capacity may be
limited by either uplink or downlink.
Hint: Its critical to decide
whether a specific area
should be planned for high
data rate service coverage
or not
Service type Speech Data Data Data
Uplink bit rate(kbps) 12.2 64 144 384
Maximum transmit power(dBm) 21 21 21 21
Antenna gain(dB) 0 0 2 2
Body loss(dB) 3 0 0 0
Transmit EIRP(dBm) 18 21 23 23
Processing gain 25 17.8 14.3 10
Required Eb/No(dB) 4 2 1.5 1
Target loading (%) 50 50 50 50
Rise over thermal noise(dB) 3 3 3 3
Thermal noise density(dBm/Hz) -174 -174 -174 -174
Receiver noise figure(dB) 3 3 3 3
Interference floor(dBm/Hz) -168 -168 -168 -168
Receiver sensitivity(dBm) -123.1 -117.9 -115 -111.1
Rx antenna gain(dBi) 18.5 18.5 18.5 18.5
Cable loss(dB) 2 2 2 2
Fast fading margin(dB) 3 3 3 3
Soft handover gain(dB) 2 2 2 2
Isotropic power required (dBm) -138.6 -133.4 -130 126.6
Allowed propagation loss(dB) 156.6 -154.4 153.4 149.6
Presentation Title 26 All rights reserved 2004
Coverage and Capacity issues---Capacity
> An uplink-limited scenario --- when the maximum uplink load is reached prior
to the base station running out of transmit power.
> An downlink-limited scenario --- when the base station runs out of transmit
power and additional users cannot be added without modifying the site
configuration.
> Identifying the limited link:
Uplink limited Downlink limited
Limiting factor Uplink cell load BTS transmit power
Common reasons
Planned to a low uplink cell load
High BTS transmit power capability
Relatively symmetric traffic
Planned to a high uplink cell load
Low BTS transmit power
capability
Greater traffic on the downlink
Indications
BTS transmit power not at maximum
Uplink cell load at maximum
BTS transmit power at maximum
Uplink cell load not at maximum
Solution Improve uplink load equation
Improve downlink load equation
Improve downlink link budget
Presentation Title 27 All rights reserved 2004
Coverage and Capacity issues---Enhancement
methods
> Coverage & Capacity enhancement methods
Additional carriers and Scrambling codes
System capacity is maximized by sharing the power across the available
carriers,e.g, two carriers configured with 10W can offer significantly greater
capacity than a single carrier configured with 20W does.
In downlink-limited capacity scenario,the number of supported users
depends on the downlink channelisation code orthogonality. It is especially
true when higher data rate service is supported in micro-cell.
Mast Head Amplifiers
To reduce the composite noise figure of the bse station receiver subsystem.
But brings bad effects when in downlink-limited scenario.
Remote RF Head Amplifiers
To allow the physical separation of base stations RF and baseband modules.
Maintaining the same service coverage performance while increasing cell
capacity.
Difference between remote RF head amplifiers and repeaters.
Presentation Title 28 All rights reserved 2004
Coverage and Capacity issues---Enhancement
methods(contd)
> Coverage & Capacity enhancement methods(contd)
Repeaters
Used for extending the coverage area of an existing cell, low-cost and ease of
installation but introduces delay.
Slight capacity loss in uplink-limited scenario.
Applicable in scenarios where clear cell dominance can be achieved such as
in rural areas or in tunnels.
Remote RF head amplifier Repeater
Application
Locating the entire logical
cell at a locatio normally
requiring a long feeder run
Extending the coverage
of an existing logical cell
Hardware at
remote location
Tranmit power amplifiers
and receiver front ends
Complete Rx and Tx chain for
both uplink and downlink
directions
Connection to BS Optical link Usually a radio link
Function Normal RF functions of the BS Non-intelligent retransmission
Presentation Title 29 All rights reserved 2004
Coverage and Capacity issues---Enhancement
methods(contd)
> Coverage & Capacity enhancement methods(contd)
Higher-order Receiver Diversity
To overcome both the impact of fading across radio channel and increase the
resulting signal-to-interference ratio.
Improves uplink performance,especially beneficial for low-speed mobile
terminals.
Transmit Diversity
Downlink transmit diversity mandatory in 3GPP specifications,e.g. closed-
loop mode and open-loop mode.
Most effective when time- and multipath- diversity is inadequate,e.g. for
capacity gain in micro-cell scenario.
Beam-forming
An effective technique for improving the downlink performance,especially in
environment with a low transmit element.
High mobile terminal complexity requirement and non-standard functionality
configuration.
Presentation Title 30 All rights reserved 2004
Coverage and Capacity issues---Enhancement
methods(contd)
> Coverage & Capacity enhancement methods(contd)
Sectorization
A general technique to increase cell capacity where antenna selection is
critical.
May require correspondingly high quantity of hardware with highly
sectorisation.
Usage


for typical
Micro- cell
deployment
Sectorisation level Application
1 sector Microcell or low-capcity macrocell
2 sector
Sectored microcell or macrocell
providing roadside coverage
3 sector
Standard macrocell configuration
providing medium capacity
4 or 5 sector
Not commonly used but may be
chosen to support a specific traffic scenario
6 sector High-capacity macrocell configuration
for typical
macro-cell
deployment
Presentation Title 31 All rights reserved 2004
CELL DEPLOYMENT
> Hierarchical Cell Structure(HCS) with two or more (FDD) carriers
Continuous macro-cells to provide full coverage as an umbrella layer.
Micro-cells to accommodate hot-spots with increased capacity and higher
bit rates in limited areas.
Typical air interface capacities are about 1Mbps/carrier/cell for a three-
sectored macro BS and 1.5Mbps/carrier/cell for a micro BS.
f 1 f 1
f 1
f 1 f 1
f 1
f 2
f 1 f 1
f 1
f 2
f 2 f 2 f 2 f 2 f 2 f 2
f 1, f 2 f 1, f 2 f 1, f 2 f 1, f 2 f 1, f 2 f 1, f 2
Cont i nuous macr o l ayer
wi t h f r equency f 1
Cont i nuous macr o l ayer
wi t h f r equency f 1
Sel ect ed ar eas wi t h mi cr o
cel l s wi t h f r equency f 2
Cont i nuous macr o l ayer
wi t h f r equency f 1
Cont i nuous mi cr o l ayer
wi t h f r equency f 2
Bot h f r equenci es
cont i nuousl y f 1, f 2
used i n mi cr o l ayer
No macr o l ayer
> Example of WCDMA network evolution
An umbrella macro cell
is best suited for high-
mobility users
Micro layer provides a
very high capacity in a
limited area
Capacity
enhancement
Presentation Title 32 All rights reserved 2004
CELL DEPLOYMENT
> Case study of frequency reuse in micro- and macro- networks
f 2
f 2
f 2
f 1 f 1, f 2 f 1, f 2 f 1
Continuous macro layer with frequency f2
Continuous micro layer with frequency f1 and f2
f 1, f 2
f 1 f 1 f 1 f 1
f 1 f 1 f 1 f 1
f 1, f 2 f 1, f 2 f 1, f 2 f 1, f 2
Reference scenario
Continuous macro layer with frequency f2
Continuous micro layer with frequency f1
Continuous macro layer with frequency f1 and f2
Continuous micro layer with frequency f1
Continuous macro layer with frequency f2
Continuous micro layer with frequency f1
selected microcells reusing macro frequency f2
Reuse of micro frequency in macro layer
Reuse of macro frequency in micro layer
Reuse of macro frequency in selected micro cells
Reusing a micro carrier
on all macro-cells does
not bring any
improvements in network
performance!
Reusing a macro carrier
on all micro-cells can
support 10% more users
than the reference
scenario,but extra Power
Amplifier needed!
Micro-cells do not
benefit from the other
carrier reused from
macro-cells if they
still have unused
capacity on their own
carrier!
macro carrier reuse is not worth
while when micro-cells locates
near macro-cells!
Presentation Title 33 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Radio Network Planning
> overview
> Dimensioning
> Detailed planning
> Optimization aspects
> Adjacent carrier interference
> WCDMA & GSM Co-Planning

Presentation Title 34 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Radio Network Planning---Network planning
process overview
Definition Planning and Implementation O&M
Net wor k
Conf i gur at i on
and
Di mensi oni ng
Requi r ement s
and st r at egy
f or cover age,
qual i t y and
capaci t y per
ser vi ce
Cover age
pl anni ng
and si t e
sel ect i on
Pr opagat i on
measur ement s
cover age
pr edi ct i on
Si t e
acqui si t i on
Cover age
opt i mi sat i on
Capaci t y
Requi r ement s
Tr af f i c
di st r i but i on
al l owed
bl ocki ng/
qeui ng Syst em
f eat ur es
Ext er nal
I nt er f er ence
Anal ysi s
I dent i f i cat i on
Adapt at i on
Par amet er
pl anni ng
Ar ea/ Cel l
speci f i c
set t i ng
Handover
St r at egi es
Maxi mum
l oadi ng
Ot her RRM
Net wor k
Opt i mi sat i on
Sur vey
Measur ement s
St at i st i cal
per f or mance
anal ysi s
Qual i t y
Ef f i ci ency
Avai l abl i t y
Presentation Title 35 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Radio Network Planning ---Dimensioning(1)
> What is Dimensioning?
--- to estimate the required site density and site configurations for
the area of interest
Radio Link Budget(RLB) and coverage analysis;
Capacity estimation
Estimation of the amount of base station hardware and sites,radio
network controllers,equipment at different interfaces and core
network elements
Knowledge of service distribution,traffic density, traffic growth
estimates and QoS requirements are essential
Presentation Title 36 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Radio Network Planning ---Dimensioning(2)
> Coverage analysis:
for the single-cell case*:
where
where is the received level at the cell edge, is the propagation
constant, is the average signal strength threshold and is the standard
deviation of the field strength and is the error function.
for a typical macro-cellular environment
using Okumura-Hata model, the following formular gives an example for an
urban macro-cell with base station antenna height of 25m, mobile station
antenna height of 1.5m and carrier frequency of 1950 MHz:

where is the maximum cell range and is the max path loss.
(

+ = ))
1
( 1 ( )
2 1
exp( ) ( 1
2
1
2
b
ab
erf
b
ab
a erf F
u
2
0

=
o
r
P x
a
2
log 10
10


=
o
e n
b
r
P
n
0
x
o
erf
) ( log 7 . 35 5 . 138
10
r L
p
+ =
r
p
L
* Microwave Mobile Communications, Jakes,W.C, John Wiley& Sons, 1974,126pp
Presentation Title 37 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Radio Network Planning ---Dimensioning(3)
> Capacity estimation
WCDMA capacity and coverage are connected in terms of interference
margin.
Knowledge and vision of subscriber distribution and growth is a must.
Site configurations such as channel elements,sectors and carriers and site
density can be determined.
Capacity refinement may be obtained in late network optimization.
> RNC dimensioning
RNC dimensioning limited factors:
Maximum number of cells(a cell is identified by a frequency and a
scrambling code)
Maximum number of Node B under one RNC
Maximum Iub throughput
Amount and type of interfaces(e.g. STM-1,E1)
Presentation Title 38 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Radio Network Planning ---Dimensioning(4)
> RNC dimensioning(contd)
The number of RNCs needed to connect a certain number of cells

The number of RNCs needed according to the number of BTSs to be
connected

the number of RNCs to support the Iub throughput


> Supported traffic (upper limit of RNC processing ability)
> Required traffic(lower limit of RNC processing ability)
> RNC transmission interface to Iub

2 fillrate btsRNC
numBTSs
numRNCs

=
1 fillrate cellsRNC
numCells
numRNCs

=
numSubs
fillrate tpRNC
PSdataTP CSdataTP voiceTP
numRNCs

+ +
=
3
Presentation Title 39 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Radio Network Planning ---Detailed
Planning(1)
> Using Radio Network Planning(RNP) tools
To find an optimum trade-off between
quality,capacity and coverage criteria for all
the services in an operators service
portfolio.
Integrated tools for dimensioning,network
planning and optimization.
> Using Static simulator *
Static simulator flow
* Static simulator for studying WCDMA radio network planning issues,Wacker.A, Laiho-steffens.J,Sipila.K
and Jasberg.M,VTC99Spring pp2436-2440
Gl obal i ni t i al i zat i on
I ni t i al i ze i t er at i ons
Upl i nk i t er at i on st ep
Downl i nk i t er at i on st ep
Post pr ocessi ng
Gr aphi cal out put s
Cover age anal ysi s
I ni t i al i sat i on phase
Combi ned UL/ DL i t er at i on
Post Pr ocessi ng phase
Presentation Title 40 All rights reserved 2004
Creating a plan/
load maps
Importing/creating
and editing sites and
cells
Link loss calculation
Propagation model
tuning
Importing
measurements
Importing/
generating and
refining traffic layers
Defining service
requirements
WCDMA
calculations
Analysis
Quality of Service
Neighbour cell
generation
reporting
WCDMA Radio Network Planning ---Detailed
Planning(2)
> Example of RNP tool workflow
A plan usually includes parameter settings for
the planned network elements such as:
Digital map& its properties
Target planning area propagation models
Antenna models
Selected radio access technology
BTS types and site/cell templates
Site location,site ground height number of
cells and antenna direction
Traffic planning:
Bearer service type and bit rate,
average packet call size and retransmission rate,
busy-hour traffic amount and traffic density for
each service,
mobile list and WCDMA calculation
Cite/BTS hardware template may include:
Maximum number of wideband signal
processors
Maximum number of channel units
Noise figure
Available Tx/Rx diversity types
A WCDMA cell template may include cell
layer type,channel model,Tx/Rx diversity
options,power settings, maximum acceptable
load, propagation model,antenna infomation
and cable losses
To verify that the planned coverage, capacity and QoS criteria
can be met with te current network deployment and parameter
settings:
Run UL/DL iterations to calculate tx powers for MS and BS
Snapshot analysis for interference and coverage estimation
Optimizing dominance
Propagation models:
Macro cell---Okumura-Hata model
Micro cell---Walfisch-Ikegami model
Presentation Title 41 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Radio Network Planning ---Detailed
Planning(3)---UL/DL iteration steps
Set ol dThr eshol ds t o t he
def aul t / new cover age t hr eshol ds
Cal cul at e new cover age
t hr eshol ds
Check UL l oadi ng and possi bl y move
MSs t onew/ ot her car r i er or out age
Eval uat e UL br eak cr i t er i on
Connect MSs t o best ser ver , cal cul at e
needed MS TxPower and SHOgai ns
Cal cul at e adj ust ed MS Tx
power s, check MSs f or out age
conver gence
Cal cul at e new I =I _ot h/ I _own
DL i t er at i on st ep
Post pr ocessi ng
END
i ni t i al i zat i on
I
f

n
o

c
o
n
v
e
r
g
e
n
c
e
I ni t i al i ze del t a_C/ I _ol d
Al l ocat e t he CPI CH power s
Cal cul at e t he r ecei ved Per ch l evel s and
det er mi ne t he best ser ver i n DL
Cal cul at e t he MS sensi t i vi t i es
Det er mi ne t he SHOconnect i ons
Cal cul at e t ar get C/ I s
f ul f i l l ed
UL i t er at i on st ep
Check CPI CH Ec/ I o cal cul at e t he
C/ I f or each connect i on
cal cul at e C/ I f or each MS
Post pr ocessi ng
END
Gl obal i ni t i al i zat i on
Cal cul at e i ni t i al TX power s f or al l l i nks
Check UL and DL br eak
cr i t er i a
Adj ust TX power s of
each r emai ni ng l i nk
accor di ng t o del t a_C/ I
Updat e del t a_C/ I _ol d
I f not f ul f i l l ed
UL iteration steps
DL iteration steps
Presentation Title 42 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Radio Network Planning ---Adjacent Channel
Interference
> Adjacent Channel Interference(ACI) situation
Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio(ACLR)
the ratio of the transmitted power to the power measured in an adjacent channel
Adjacent Channel Selectivity(ACS)
the ratio of the receive filter attenuation on the assigned channel frequency to the
receive filter attenuation on the adjacent channels
Adjacent Channel Protection(ACP)
The ratio of adjacent channel power received by the base station as adjacent
channel interference power
UL adjacent channel
interference situation
Presentation Title 43 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Radio Network Planning ---Adjacent Channel
Interference
> Worst ACI cases---when a macro MS is coming too close to a micro
BS
Minimum Coupling Loss(MCL)
the smallest path loss between the transmitters and receivers
For a micro BS and MS, MCL is about 53dB
For a macro BS and MS, MCL is about 70dB
DL adjacent channel
interference situation
Presentation Title 44 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Radio Network Planning ---Example of Worst
ACI case
> Worst ACI case when sites of different operators not co-located
Assuming ACS and ACLR of values 33dB and 45dB
respectively, the coupling C between the carriers can
be calculated as:
dB C 7 . 32 ) 10 10 ( log 10
10 / 45 10 / 33
10
= + =

For uplink scenario, with a maximum MS power of 21dBm,
53dB for MCL to the micro BS and coupoing between the
carriers of C=32.7dB,the received level at the micro BS and be
estimated as
if the background noise level is dBm, the micro BS would
suffer a 38.4 dB noise rise form one macro user, which is
located in the radio sense at the MCL distance form the micro
BS, i.e. such a macro user would completely block the micro
BS.
dBm dB dB dBm 7 . 64 7 . 32 53 21 =
For downlink scenario, supposing the micro BS is transmitting with a
minimum power of 0.5W(27dBm); then the received interference at the
MS in the adjacent channel is

Assuming speech service (processing gain of Gp=25dB) with an Eb/No
requirement at the Ms of 5dB and an allowed noise rise in the macro
cell of 6 dB, the maximum allowed propagation loss Lp to keep the
uplink connection working is

if we further consider a DL Tx Eb/No requirement of 8dB, the transmit
power would need to be
dBm ACS dB MCL dB dBm 7 . 58 ) ( 7 . 32 ) ( 53 27 =
dB dB dBm dB dB dBm L
p
138 ) 6 103 ( 25 5 21 = + + =
dBm dB dB dB dBm p
tx
3 . 62 138 25 8 7 . 58 = + + =
This simple example shows that clearly in these
cases the DL is the weaker link, i.e. before coming
too close to a micro BS, the connection of a macro
BS will be dropped due to insufficient DL power and
it cannot block the micro BS.
Presentation Title 45 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Radio Network Planning ---Optimization
aspects(1)
> Guidelines for Radio Network Planning to avoid ACI in multi-
operator environment
Base station and antenna locations
Co-locate BSs
Deploy the antennas in a position as high as possible
Base station configuration
Optimum antenna beam-width
desensitisation---increasing the noise figure
Inter-frequency handovers
Inter-system handovers
Guard bands
Presentation Title 46 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA Radio Network Planning ---Optimization
aspects(2)
> Site locations and configurations
Antenna installations(cable losses)
Optimum antenna tilting angle and correct antenna selection
Optimum sectorisation regarding to number of users and SHO overhead.*
> Usage of mast head amplifier(MHA)**
Used in uplink direction to compensate for the cable losses
Improved uplink coverage probability
May have negative effect on downlink performance in case of downlink-
limited scenario
* The impact of the base station sectorisation on WCDMA Radio Network Performance,A.Wacker,J.Laiho-Steffens,K.Sipila,K.Heiska,VTC99Amsterdam.
** The impact of the Radio Network Planning and Site Configuration on the WCDMA Network Capacity and Quality of Service,J.Laiho-Steffens,A.Wacker,
P.Aikio,VTC2000
Presentation Title 47 All rights reserved 2004
> Examples of maximum path losses with existing GSM and WCDMA system
WCDMA-GSM Co-Planning Issues
GSM900/
speech
GSM1800/
speech
WCDMA/
speech
WCDMA/
144kbps
WCDMA/
384kbps
Mobile transmission power[dBm] 33 30 21 21 21
Receiver sensitivity[dBm]
1
-110 -110 -124 -117 -113
Interference margin[dB]
2
1 0 2 2 2
Fast fading margin[dB]
3
2 2 2 2 2
Base station antenna gain[dBi]
4
16 18 18 18 18
Body loss[dB]
5
3 3 3
Mobile antenna gain[dBi]
6
0 0 0 2 2
Relative gain from lower
frequency compared to UMTS
frequency[dB]
7
11 1
Maximum path loss[dB] 164 154 156 154 150
1
WCDMA sensitivity assuems 4.0dB base station noise figure and Eb/No of 5dB for 12.2kbps speech,1.5dB for 144kbps and 1.0dB for 384kbps
data.GSM sensitivity is assumed to be -110dBm with receive antenna diversity.
2
WCDMA interference margin corresponds to 37% loading of the pole capacity.An interference margin of 1.0dB is reserved for GSM900 because the
small amount of spectrum in 900MHz does not allow large reuse factors.
3
The fast fading margin for WCDMA includes the macro diversity gain against fast fading.
4
The atenna gain assumes three-sector configuration in both GSM and WCDMA.
5
The body loss accounts for the loss when the terminal is close to the user's head.
6
A 2.0dBi antenna gain is assumed for the data terminal.
7
The attenuation in 900MHz is assumed to be 11.0dB lower than in UMTS band and in GSM1800 band 1.0dB lower than in UMTS band.
Presentation Title 48 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA-GSM Co-Planning Issues---interference
issues
> Interference between the two system is the main issue
Radio frequency issue
Second harmonics of GSM900 could probably fall into WCDMA uplink
band
Third-order inter-modulation products of PCS 1800 could be problematic







GSM900
935~960MHz
UTRA
TDD
UTRA FDD
1920~1980
1900~1920MHz
f GSM=950~960MHz
f
Second-order harmonic
distortion from GSM900
falling into WCDMA band

Presentation Title 49 All rights reserved 2004
WCDMA-GSM Co-Planning Issues ---interference
issues
Interference mechanisms from GSM system to WCDMA system
Adjacent Channel Interference(ACI):depends on Tx/Rx filter and spatial and
spectral distance between the own and adjacent carrier,the cell type and the
power levels used.
Wideband Noise(WB):from all out-of-band emission components.
Cross-modulation(XMD): depends on non-linearity of the MS receiver,the
duplex isolation and the transmitting mobile power.
Inter-Modulation Distortion(IMD):caused by non-linearities of RF
components of transmitter or receiver.
XMD is
proportional to
the square of
transmitting
power and very
sensitive to the Tx
power of the MS!
Typically in
micro-cells
and could be
reduced by
guard band.
Third-order I MD with
mixture of products of
the GSM carrier
frequencies f1 and f2:
2f1-f2 or 2f2-f1
Presentation Title 50 All rights reserved 2004
GSM GSM GSM
WCDMA WCDMA WCDMA
GSM GSM
Ur ban ar ea r ur al ar ea
WCDMA-GSM Co-Planning Issues
Eval uat e t he qual i t y of
t he exi st i ng 2Gnet wor k
Space avai l abl e f or one-
t o- one r euse
Assur e t he cover age f or
al l WCDMA ser vi ces
Def i ne t r af f i c
di st r i but i on r ul es
bet ween syst ems
Def i ne handover r ul es
bet ween syst ems
Run combi ned 2Gand
WCDMA anal ysi s
Handover
GSMWCDMA for
capacity extension or
service optimization
Handover WCDMA-GSM
for coverage extension
Antenna sharing and co-located
sites could be preferable.
Presentation Title 51 All rights reserved 2004
Co-existing TDD & FDD modes ---UTRA TDD mode
> Some key parameters for the UTRA FDD and TDD modes
Rather low
spreading factors
makes it inadequate
to reuse all the
timeslots in all the
cells.That is,network
must control which
slots and directions
are used in which
cells.
UTRA FDD UTRA TDD
Frame structure 15 slots/frame 15 slots/frame
Frame length 10 ms 10 ms
Chip rate 3.84 Mcps 3.84 Mcps
Uplink spreading factors 4~512 1~16
Number of parallel UL
codes per user 1 or 2
Downlink spreading factors 4~512 1~ 16
Number of parallel DL
codes per user 1~6 1~16
Modulation QPSK QPSK
Power control update rate 1500Hz
theretically up to 800Hz;in
practice, only 100Hz in DL
and 100Hz or possibly 200Hz
in UL
Handover soft and hard hard only
Dynamic channel allocation N/A slow and fast
Intra-cell interference
cancellation
support for advanced
receivers at base station support for joint detection
Not as fast as to
follow fast fading
pattern!
Presentation Title 52 All rights reserved 2004
Co-existing TDD & FDD modes---Example of TDD RLB
uplink/downlink
Example TDD link budget for
uplink(RxD=receive diversity)
Voice
12.2kbps
RxD
Voice
12.2kbps
No RxD
NRT data
128kbps
RxD
NRT data
128kbps
No RxD
Transmitter(mobile)
Max.Tx Power(dBm) 21 21 24 24
MS antenna gain(dBi) 2 2 2 2
Body loss(dB) 3 3 0 0
EIRP(dBm) 20 20 26 26
Receiver(base station)
Number of used slots in TDD 1 1 1 1
Thermal noise density(dBm/Hz) -174 -174 -174 -174
Base station receiver noise
figure(dB) 5 5 5 5
Desensitisation 0 0 0 0
Receiver noise density
(dBm/Hz) -169 -169 -169 -169
Receiver noise power(dBm) -103.2 -103.2 -103.2 -103.2
Interference margin(dB) 8 8 8 8
Receiver interference
power(dBm) -95.9 -95.9 -95.9 -95.9
Total effective noise
+interference(dBm) -95.2 -95.2 -95.2 -95.2
Processing gain(dB) 12 12 2.4 2.4
Required Eb/No(dB) 1.7 8.6 0.3 6.4
Receiver sensitivity(dBm) -105.5 -98.6 -97.3 -91.2
BS antenna gain(dBi) 4 4 4 4
Cable loss in the base
station(dB) 0 0 0 0
Fast fading margin
(TPC headroom) (dB) 6.3 6.3 3.4 3.4
Max.path loss(dB) 123.2 116.3 123.9 117.8
slot in chips
period guard midamble slot in chips k
R
W
G
P
_ _
_ _ _
15

=
Greater Eb/No difference
between with or without RxD!
Smaller Max path loss than that
of FDD scenario TDD cells
have smaller radius!
Example TDD link budget for
downlink(No TxD)
Voice
12.2kbps
NRT data
128kbps
Transmitter(mobile)
Max.Tx Power(dBm) 24 24
BS antenna gain(dBi) 4 4
Cable loss in BS(dB) 0 0
EIRP(dBm) 28 28
Receiver(mobile)
Number of used slots in TDD 1 1
Thermal noise density(dBm/Hz) -174 -174
Mobile station receiver noise
figure(dB) 9 9
Receiver noise density(dBm/Hz) -165 -165
Receiver noise power(dBm) -99.1 -99.1
Interference margin(dB) 8 8
Receiver interference
power(dBm) -91.9 -91.9
Total effective noise
+interference(dBm) -91.1 -91.1
Processing gain(dB) 12 2.4
Required Eb/No(dB) 9.4 6.7
Receiver sensitivity(dBm) -93.7 -86.8
Mobile antenna gain(dBi) 2 2
Body loss(dB) 3 0
Fast fading margin
(TPC headroom) (dB) 5.5 3.1
Max.path loss(dB) 115.2 113.7
Presentation Title 53 All rights reserved 2004
Co-existing TDD & FDD modes--- TDD/TDD
interference
> Interference scenarios
> TDD-TDD Interference scenarios/solutions
MS to MS interference---when MS1 is transmitting while MS2 is
receiving, especially at cell borders.
Cannot be avoided by network planning,but may benefit from
DCA and radio resource management
Power control

BS to BS interference---when BS1 is transmitting while BS2 is receiving
depends heavily on BS locations.
Could be avoided by providing sufficient coupling loss between base
stations
BSs better be synchronized and of same asymmetry.


Presentation Title 54 All rights reserved 2004
Co-existing TDD & FDD modes --- TDD/FDD
interference
> TDD-FDD Interference scenarios/solutions




TDD MS to FDD BS
To make FDD/BS less sensitive,especially for small pico cells
To place BS antenna as high as possible from TDD MSs
FDD MS to TDD BS
Inter-frequency or inter-system may be helpful
FDD MS to TDD MS
Use downlink power control of TDD BS to compensate for the interference
from FDD MS
Inter-system/inter-frequency handover

UTRA TDD
Tx/ Rx
UTRA FDD/ UL
Sat e-
l l i t e
UTRA
TDD
Tx/ Rx
1900 1920 1980 2010 2025 ( MHz)
I nterference mainly between
TDD and FDD/UL frequency
bands!
Presentation Title 55 All rights reserved 2004
Co-existing TDD & FDD modes
> UTRA TDD
Advantage in the unpaired spectrum operation
Better utilized for asymmetric service at high data rate
Can build stand-alone wide-area TDD network(?) or serve as a separate
capacity-enhancing layer in the network
Lower Max. Path loss compared with FDD scenario
Lower cell breathing and thus more stable service coverage
Requires strict synchronization especially in uplink
Low-rate services often goes to code-limited cases while high-rate
services goes to interference-limited cases
From the service point of view, UTRA TDD is most suited for small cells
and high data rate services!
Thanks!