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Academic Year :2012-2013 Department :English Language and Literature Filire :TEFL Master program Semester : 4, MODULE 12 Course

: CLASSROOM OBSERVATION Facult des Lettres

CLASSROOM OBSERVATION
AN INTRODUCTION

Pr. Afkinich

Classroom Observation: An Introduction:

On Classroom observation
Careful classroom observation can help illuminate even the most familiar of events. Observation and deduction thereof are one of the things / activities that are keeping us alive. Classrooms are places that are capable of unfolding both familiarity and novelty. Classroom observation is a valuable tool for improving the quality of teaching
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On Classroom observation
people have a right to know what is going on in classrooms, where so much important teaching and learning takes place, the methods of classroom observation should suit its purposes.

Pr. Afkinich

Classroom Observation: An Introduction:

On Classroom observation
In the fifth century BC Confucius stated in his Analects:
I shall not teach until the pupils desire to know something, and I do not help unless the pupils really need my help. If out of the four corners of a subject I have dealt thoroughly with one corner and the pupils cannot then find out the other three for themselves, then I do not explain any more.
(Quoted in Wrag g, E. C. (1999:8)

Pr. Afkinich

Classroom Observation: An Introduction:

Classroom Observation Focus for judging the quality of teaching


There is agreement that there are 5 areas to be observed for judging the quality of the teaching operation:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Quality of learning, Enjoyment of learning and attitudes, Assessment to support learning, Pupils progress The quality of provision

Pr. Afkinich

Classroom Observation: An Introduction:

Quality of learning,
At Least 10 questions to answer: 1. Do pupils know what they are learning and why? 2. Can pupils make the links between previous/new learning? 3. Do books show that pupils consistently produce work of a good standard? 4. Are pupils working independently? 5. Do pupils make the most of the choices they are given or do they find it difficult to make choices? 6. Do pupils take responsibility for their own learning? 7. How well do pupils collaborate with others? 8. Do they ask questions, of each other, of the teacher or other adults, about what they are learning? 9. Are pupils creative, do they show initiative? 10. Do pupils follow routines/expectations?
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Enjoyment of learning and attitudes


There are 6 questions to be answered here:
1. Are pupils engaged, working hard, making a good effort, applying themselves, concentrating and productive? 2. Are pupils developing habits of good learning? 3. Are pupils happy with their work? Are they proud of it? 4. Are pupils interested in their work and in what they are learning? 5. Are pupils easily distracted? 6. How smooth is the transition from teacher input to group work? 7. Do pupils settle to work easily and quickly?
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Assessment to support learning


7 questions are usually addressed under this heading:
1. Are staff using assessment for learning strategies to enable them to differentiate work effectively? 2. Do staff use questioning effectively to gauge pupils understanding? 3. How good is the dialogue and oral feedback? Are teachers alert to pupils lack of understanding during lessons? 4. Key questions displayed & used in lesson starts and plenary: What? Why? How? When? 5. Do pupils have targets and do they understand what they mean/what to do to achieve them? 6. Are pupils involved in assessing their own learning and progress? 7. Does marking/feedback identify strengths and diagnose next steps to improvement?
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Pupils progress Observers focus on 5 elements to assess pupils progress:


1. Are different groups making the same/different progress? 2. Are pupils gaining new skills and knowledge? 3. Are pupils developing ideas and increasing their understanding? 4. Are pupils making gains at a good rate in lessons and over time as shown in their work and the schools records? 5. Are weak/good literacy, numeracy and ICT skills affecting pupils progress?
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The quality of provision

As to this point, 7 items are taken into consideration:


1. Are activities pitched at the right level to challenge pupils of different abilities? 2. Are expectations of behaviour sufficiently high? 3. Are teachers alert to the social, emotional, and learning, needs of individuals? 4. Are any support staff having an impact on pupils learning? 5. Are resources sufficient? Are they well matched to needs to support learning? 6. Are the resources, displays and prompts used as a teaching tool? 7. Classroom displays, visual prompts and resources support key curricular targets
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Items for observing the teaching operation


Normally, 7 areas are taken into consideration when observing the teaching operation:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Variety and Pacing of Instruction Organization Presentation Skills Clarity Content Knowledge Instructor-Student Rapport General

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Variety and Pacing of Instruction


Here we focus on 13 areas to see whether the instructor:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. uses more than one form of instruction pauses after asking questions accepts students responses draws non-participating students into activities/discussions prevents specific students from dominating activities/discussions helps students extend their responses guides the direction of discussion mediates conflict or differences of opinion demonstrates active listening provides explicit directions for active learning tasks (e.g. rationale, duration, product) 11. allows sufficient time to complete tasks such as group work 12. specifies how learning tasks will be evaluated (if at all) 13. provides opportunities and time for students to practice
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Organization
At this level, 11 points are under observation to see whether the instructor:
1. 2. arrives on time relates this and previous class(es), or provides students with an opportunity to do so 3. provides class goals or objectives for the class session 4. provides an outline or organization for the class session 5. knows how to use the educational technology needed for the class 6. locates class materials as needed 7. makes transitional statements between class segments 8. follows the stated structure 9. conveys the purpose of each class activity or assignment 10. completes the scheduled topics 11. summarizes periodically and at the end of class (or prompts students to do so)
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Presentation Skills
The following 11 points are used to see if the instructor:
1. 2. is audible to all students articulates words so that they are understandable to students, and/or visually represents 3. words that might he difficult for students to hear 4. varies the tone and pitch of voice for emphasis and interest 5. speaks at a pace that permits students to understand and take notes 6. establishes and maintains eye contact 7. avoids over-reliance on reading content from notes, slides, or texts 8. avoids distracting mannerisms 9. uses visual aids effectively (e.g. when appropriate to reinforce a concept, legible 10. handwriting, readable slides) 11. effectively uses the classroom space

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Clarity

There are 5 items that are used to check whether The instructor:
1. 2. 3. 4. notes new terms or concepts elaborates or repeats complex information uses examples to explain content makes explicit statements drawing student attention to certain ideas 5. pauses during explanations to ask and answer questions

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Content Knowledge 5 items are used to observe if the instructor:


1. makes statements that are accurate according to the standards of the field 2. incorporates current research in the field 3. identifies sources, perspectives, and authorities in the field 4. identifies diverse sources, perspectives, and authorities in the field 5. communicates the reasoning process behind operations and/or concepts
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Instructor-Student Rapport 6 items are sued to see if the instructor:


1. attends respectfully to student comprehension or puzzlement 2. invites students participation and comments 3. treats students as individuals, e.g. uses students names 4. provides periodic feedback 5. incorporates student ideas into class 6. uses positive reinforcement (i.e. doesnt punish or deliberately embarrass students in class)
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General

Here we include questions of a general nature such:


1. What went well in this class? 2. What suggestions for improvement do you have? 3. Additional Comments:

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References
Wrag g, E. C. (1999) An Introduction to Classroom Observation (Second edition). London, UK: Routledge. Ofsted guidance to inspectors (January 2012) on judging the quality of teaching and the use of assessment to support learning. Classroom Observation Checklist Form, 2006 Winter Teaching & Learning Conference, Teaching and Learning Center Lesson Planning and Staging Downloaded from: http://www.globalenglish.com/custom/courses/pdf/sample%20d%20_%20lesson%20 planning%20and%20staging-4.pdf

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