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AAL1

It transfer service data units with a constant bit rate and their delivery with the same bit-rate. The transfer of timing information between source and destination. The transfer of structure information between source and destination. The indication of lost or Errored information.it provides service for error detection and correction

Segmentation and Reassembly Layer


The SAR sub layer accepts 47 byte block from CS and prepends one byte for header. The first four bits represent sequence number. it contains three bits sequence number from 1-7 and 1 bit for CSI. The last four bits of header contains SNP which is used to protect SN field.

Functions of SAR
Mapping function: it provides mapping between CS and ATM layer. the SAR sub-layer prepends one byte header and 47 bytes packet. Sequence numbering: the SAR sub-layer provides eight sequence numbering using 3 bit SN field. Synchronization: Error Protection: it also provides error protection for 4 bit SN field using SNP field. while sending SAR-PDU the sender calculates Checksum and place it in CRC field

The receiver operates in two modes: Correction mode and Detection mode. No error correction is done in the detection mode, only error checking is performed. the receiver starts in correction mode. In correction mode, the receiver examines the SAR-PDU header by checking the CRC bits and parity bit. If an error is detected the receiver changes to detection mode. If the error in the header is single bit error, the error is corrected. otherwise declared as invalid SN.

Convergence sub-layer
It passes header and payload. Handling cell delay variations: we maintain this by using dummy cells. Cell sequencing: lost or mis-inserted cells are detected. Timing information transfer and Clock recovery: synchronization is maintained Partially filled cells: until 47 bytes are filled, a cell is not transmitted. but it also support partially filled cells to be transferred.

Source clock frequency recovery


Uses concept of circuit emulation. the data sent at the rate should be received by the receiver at the same rate. Synchronous Residual time Stamp Adaptive clock method

Analysis of AAL1
Characteristics: it is designed to carry voice and to emulate the characteristics of a typical TDM connection. Sub-Layering: In this we cannot divide the frame segments and reassemble cells from frames. thus two sub-layer are combined to form a single layer. Header/trailer format: In AAL1 the only header added is the one byte SAR-PDU header. this has four bits SN and 4 bits SNP.

Overhead: the overhead of AAL1 is to append the one byte header into each AAL1 frame. Drawbacks: one of the major drawback is it is ill-suited to support low-rate applications because of delay involved in filling a complete frame. While partially filled cells methods supports low-rate, delay sensitive applications this comes at the cost of wasted bandwidth due to excessive padding.

AAL2
AAL2 Provides:
Bandwidth-efficient transmission of low-rate Short and variable length packets in delay sensitive application.

Characteristic feature of AAL2


Bandwidth-efficient transmission of low-rate and Short and variable length packets in delay sensitive application. It Provides for the transfer of time-sensitive/variable bit traffic. It provide a means for compression and silence suppression techniques. It Enables more than one AAL2 channel on a single virtual circuit.

AAL2 Layer divided in to two parts


1. Common Part sub layer (CPS)
Its function include packaging the variable payload into cells and providing error correction

2. Service specific Convergence Sub layer (SSCS)


This layer is used to enhance the service provided by CPS.

AAL Type 2 Packets


AAL2 provides bandwidth-efficient transmission of lowrate, short, and variable-size packets for delay sensitive applications AAL2 uses one ATM connection between two points to carry packets from multiple native connections The ATM payloads from successive cells of the ATM connection are used as a byte stream on which packets from different native channels, called logical link channels (LLCs), are packed without regard to the cell boundaries A channel identification (CID) field is used in the packet header to identify the LLC to which a packet belongs A length indicator (LI) field is used to identify the boundaries of variable-length LLC packets
CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 12

AAL 2 Structure
AAL-SAP

Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS)

SSCS-PDU Header (if present)

SSCS-PDU Payload SSCS-PDU

SSCS-PDU Trailer (if present)

Packet Header (PH)

Packet Payload (PP) Packet

Common Part Sublayer (CPS)

Start Field (STF)

CPS-PDU Payload CPS-PDU

ATM-SAP

ATM Layer

Cell Header

Cell Payload

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ATM Adaptation Layer

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Format of AAL2 Packet


CID 8 bits
LI 6 bits UUI 5 bits HEC 5 bits

Information 1 to 45/64 octets


Packet Payload (PP)

Packet Header (PH)

Packet

Channel Identification (CID): Uniquely identifies the individual user channel (LLC) within the AAL2, and allows up to 248 (8 - 255) individual users within each AAL2 structure. Length Indicator (LI): Identifies the length of the LLC packet associated with each individual user, and assures conveyance of variable payload. User-to User Indication (UUI): Provides a link between CPS and an appropriate SSCS that satisfies the higher layer application. Different SSCS protocols may be defined to support specific AAL2 user services, or groups of services. The SSCS may also be null.

CS575

ATM Adaptation Layer

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Format of AAL2 CPS-PDU


Cell Header 5 octets OSF 6 bits SN 1 bit P 1 bit

CPS Information
CPS-PDU Payload

PAD 0 to 47 octets

Start Field

CPS -PDU

Packets are combined into CPS-PDU payload The Offset Field (OSF) identifies the location of the start of the remaining length of the packet that possibly started in the preceding cell and is continuing in the current cell Data integrity is protected by the Sequence Number (SN) The Start Field is protected from error by a Parity bit (P) When it is necessary to transmit a partially filled cell to limit packet emission delay, the remainder of the cell is padded with all zero octets

CS575

ATM Adaptation Layer

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AAL 2 Service Specific Convergence Sublayer


SSCS is the link between the AAL2 CPS and the higher layer applications of the individual AAL2 users Standards for SSCS are being developed in ITU-T and ATM Forum A null SSCS satisfies most mobile voice applications

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ATM Adaptation Layer

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Analysis of AAL2
Characteristics: it is used to design to carry delay sensitive applications like voice. it is much suitable to carry low data rates applications and variable bit rates. it does not provide circuit emulation support. Sub-Layering:AAL2 is divided into two sub-layersSSCS and CPS.SSCS provides enhanced functionality and is implementation-dependent. The CPS encapsulates the user payload in a CPS packet and encapsulates CPS packet in one or more CPS-PDU.

Header/Trailer Format-In AAL2 there are two headers the CPS packet header and the CPSPDU header. Overhead:-Overhead is more than AAL1 because in addition to one byte CPS-PDU header, there is a 3 byte per CPS packet overhead.AAL2 is much better.