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GSM MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS

Presented By: Sri Subhrajit Roy

Brief History

PART - I :

A Brief History

MOBILE COMMUNICATION

REVOLUTION IN TELECOM.

. MOBILE COMMUNICATION IS A VERY RAPIDLY


GROWING AND A POPULAR SERVICE.

APPROXIMATELY 50 FOLD INCREASE IN LAST 10 YEARS

IT ALLOWS TO COMMUNICATE TO PEOPLE WITH ANYBODY WHILE ON MOVE (PHONES FOR THE PEOPLE , NOT FOR THE PLACES) PROVIDES VOICE , FAX, DATA

History
First mobile service started in 1946 in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Improved form:
analog, cellular mobile

1980s

Limitations:
Severely confined spectrum allocation difficult multi-path fading environment limited network capacity & higher costs incompatibility among various systems

MOBILE COMMUNICATION
WIRELESS GENERATIONS

1 G (AMPS, TACS) -analog (cellular revolution) - only mobile voice services 2 G (GSM, CDMA) - breaking digital barrier - mostly for voice services& data delivery possible 3 G - Voice & data ( breaking data barrier) - Mainly for data services where voice services will also be possible

Cellular Concepts

MOBILE COMMUNICATION
OBJECTIVES
Any time Anywhere Mobility & Roaming High capacity & subs. density Efficient use of radio spectrum Seamless Network Architecture Low cost Innovative Services Standard Interfaces

Fundamental problems
. Radio range, or coverage . no. of channels, or voice circuits.

. Full, seamless service coverage Large no. of subscribers in the range of millions

CELLULAR

CONCEPTS

WHAT IS A CELL ?
Area covered by a base station transmitter having a number of RF channels is called a cell Each cell covers a a limited number of mobile subscribers within the cell boundaries ( Coverage area of the cell) Typical Cell Radius : Approximately: 25 Km (Start up) 1 Km (Mature)

Representation of Cells

Ideal cells

Fictitious cells

CELLULAR

Cellular Coverage

CONCEPTS

Coverage zone is divided into cells served by transmitters using towers. Each transmitter is assigned a portion of the available channels. After a sufficient distance, the same channels are re-used to increase spectrum efficiency

Network Architecture
OSS
HLR

(
PSTN ISDN

B T S B T S

BSC BSC

MSC VLR

Data Networks

B T S

Air interface

MSC VLR
12

Tri-Sector antenna for a cell

FUNCTION OF BTS
BTS mainly consists of a set of transceivers (TRX). Can accommodate 1 to 7 TRX per Sector Random access detection Uplink radio channel measurements

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FUNCTIONS OF BSC
Intermediate connectivity between BTS and MSC Radio resource management Inter-cell handover Reallocation of frequencies Power control

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MSC ( MOBILE SWITCHING CENTRE)


Call setup functions, basic switching are done Manages communication between GSM & other network MSC takes into account the RR allocation in addition to normal exchange functions MSC does gateway function while its customers roams to other network by using HLR /VLR
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Overview of 3G

Why 3G? Higher bandwidth enables a range of new applications!! For the consumer Video streaming, TV broadcast Video calls, video clips news, music, sports Enhanced gaming, chat, location services For business High speed teleworking / VPN access Sales force automation Video conferencing Real-time financial information

Evolution of Mobile Systems to 3G


- drivers are capacity, data speeds, lower cost of delivery for revenue growth
Expected market share

TDMA

EDGE

EDGE Evolution

GSM
PDC

GPRS

3GPP Core Network

90%
HSDPA

WCDMA

cdmaOne

CDMA2000 1x
First Step into 3G

CDMA2000 1x EV/DV CDMA2000 1x EV/DO


3G phase 1 Evolved 3G

10%

2G

Services roadmap
Improved performance, decreasing cost of delivery
3G-specific services take advantage of higher bandwidth and/or real-time QoS Broadband in wide area

Video sharing Video telephony Real-time IP A number of mobile Multitasking multimedia and games services are bearer WEB browsing Multicasting independent in nature Corporate data access Streaming audio/video MMS picture / video xHTML browsing Application downloading E-mail Presence/location Voice & SMS Push-to-talk
Typical average bit rates (peak rates higher)

GSM 9.6 kbps

GPRS 171 kbps


CDMA 2000 1x

EGPRS 473 kbps

WCDMA 2 Mbps
CDMA 2000EVDO CDMA 2000EVDV

HSDPA 1-10 Mbps

UMTS Network Architecture


Base Station Subsystem

Mobile Station

Network Subsystem

Other Networks

SIM

ME

BTS

BSC

MSC/ VLR

GMSC PSTN

EIR

HLR

AUC

PLMN

RNS
Node B RNC SGSN GGSN Internet

USIM

ME

SD

UTRAN

Note: Interfaces have been omitted for clarity purposes.

FAQs:
Why Call congestion problem (Network Busy) occurs?
Congestion is the unavailability of network to the subscriber at the time of making a call. Common Reasons: Traffic channels (TCH) represent a voice channel and each call uses TCH.

One Radio unit (TRX) can have 8 channels. So One Radio unit (TRX) should handle 8 simultaneous calls. Total 12 TRXs are there in each BTSs. So, total (12X 8) = 96 simultaneous calls can go on. But 87 out of 96 calls are possible as rests of the channels are used for signaling purpose. For half rate channels total no of calls will be double i.e 87X2 = 174

Why Call drop in GSM network occurs?


Common reasons:
Equipment: GSM radios/Combiners can be a cause of this, solution to this is replacement of the unit. A Mobile Station (phone) can also be a cause. VSWR (voltage wave standing ratio): VSWR caused by poor connections on feeders, water penetration, fault on antenna etc. Transmission problem: If transmission is not perfect, high B.E.R (Bit
error ratio) or other factors causing inaccuracy of transmission. Interference: when there's frequency interfere.

Why Call drop in GSM network occurs? (Contd.)


Handover
Handover operation (sometimes also known as handoff) is the fact that a mobile user goes from one cell to another without interruption of the ongoing
session.

Why Call Mute occurs in GSM network?


Common reason: Interference. PCM channel problems. Why Cross Talk occurs? Same frequency in more than one TRX in a single site. TRX fault.

2G and 3G latching problems


If handover is not properly defined.

Jalpaiguri BSNLs Success: High Speed Data Services


In 2G we have already provided EDGE circuit in each BTSs in the Jalpaiguri town and also in sub urban areas. Due to the implementation of this EDGE circuit the data speed in 2G is quite high. In 3G most of the NODE- Bs of Jalpaiguri city has been equipped with 3 PCM circuit. Due to the implementation of 3rd PCM circuit the data speed in BSNL 3G is very High.

Thank You