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Presented By Vishnu.B Roll No. 30 Reg. No.

89031222 S6 Electrical GPTC, Attingal

The air to air missile grew out of the unguided air to air rockets used during 1st World War. The US Navy and US Air Force began equipping guided missiles in 1956. Development of these missiles are classified into 5 generations. The latest heat seeking designs can lock on to target from various angles not just from behind where the heat signature from the engine is strongest.

Guided missiles are self propelled airborne projectiles carrying a explosive charge and guided flight towards a target. Missiles are broadly classified based on the launch environment and type of guidance used. Discover how a missile launched from an airborne aircraft attacks with precision to wipe out an enemy aircraft.

An air to air missile has various parts as shown below

The missile is fixed to a launcher which is mounted on the aircraft wings. When the target is locked , the pilot gives the fire command and the rocket motor is activated. The rocket motor burns up a solid propellant which gives the thrust to the missile to glide in the air. The fins, wings and the guidance control system controls the missile course.

There are 3 types of guidance system


Semi-active radar homing Active radar homing Infrared homing

Semi-Active Radar Homing

Active Radar Homing

Infrared Homing

The guidance system helps the missile to achieve its target. The guidance system works with the help of target seeker which gives 3 parameters
Position information Speed information Distance information

The target seeker consist of infrared sensors placed n the nose of the missile in circular matrix arrangement which gives the above 3 parameters.

Position Information
The infrared image falls exactly on the center of the

nose of the missile. The position of the target is acquired by calculating the amount of IR radiation falling on the IR sensor matrix.

Speed Information
The speed of the target is estimated by measuring the

time interval between the IR radiation pulses that falls on the sensors.

Distance Information
The distance is measured based on the characteristics

that the strength of the IR signals diminishes as the distance increases.

Used in Defense and Warfare

Semi Active Radar Homing Missiles

Aim-7 Sparrow

Active Radar Homing Missiles


Indias DRDO-Astra BVRAAM

USAs Boeing Harpoon

Infrared Homing Missiles

German Luftwaffe IRIS-T

Britains AIM-132 ASRAAM

Greater range and ability to identify smaller low flying targets like Unmanned aerial vehicle More accuracy More reliable

It can easily evaded by flares

Missiles that are able to distinguish aircraft from Infrared countermeasures such as flares Missiles with more detailed target image allows targeting of more vulnerable parts of the aircraft instead of just homing in on the brightest infrared source

IR missiles are highly decisive Man portable air defense system also use these IR missiles These missiles are also used by the terrorist groups and pose a serious threat to the commercial airlines

wikipedia.org aerospaceweb.org www.brahmos.com www.defence.pk