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Building Utilities 1

Plumbing and Sanitary Systems

Types of Plumbing Piping Materials


Cast iron pipe Galvanized iron/steel pipe Plastic pipe Brass pipe Copper tube Lead pipe Asbestos cement pipe Glass pipe magnesium pipe Aluminum pipe

Types of Flexible Plastic Pipes


Polyethylene Polybutylene

Types of Rigid Plastic Pipes


Polyvinylchloride Chlorinated polyvinyl Polypropylene Acrilonitryle butadiene styrene

Types of Galvanized Steel Pipes


Welded pipe Seamless pipe

Varieties of Cast Iron Pipe


Standard pipe Single hub pipe Double hub pipe Hubless pipe

Locations of Cleanout
Change in direction Highest horizontal distance Inside the building near the connection between the building drain and building sewer Outside the building at the lower end of the building drain and extended to grade Horizontal drain serving sinks and urinals Each run of piping more than 15m./50 ft.

Locations of Floor Drain


Shower Bathroom floor Garage Near water closet Laundry area Near urinal

Causes of Trap Seal Loss


siphonage back pressure evaporation capillary attraction wind effects

Types of Valves
Gate valve Check valve Globe valve Angle valve Butterfly valve Foot Valve Safety valve

Types of Traps
P-trap S-trap 3/4 s-trap Grease trap Bag trap Crown trap Bell trap

Types of Ventilation Systems


Unit vent Circuit vent Yoke vent Loop vent Relief vent Back vent Blind vent Branch vent

Polyvinyl chloride
A strong, rigid and economical plastic pipe. It resists a wide range of acids and bases but may be damaged by some solvents and chlorinated carbons.

Glass pipe
A type of pipe manufactured from low expansion borosilicate having low alkali content; primarily used for the drainage of various corrosive liquids. It is very brittle and should be used when some measure of protection is provided against damage.

Check valve
A valve that permits the flow of liquid in a pipe in one direction only and closes automatically to prevent backflow.

Floor drain
A fixture providing an opening in the floor to drain water into the plumbing system.

cleanout
A pipe fitting with a removable plug which provides for inspection or cleaning of the pipe run; also called an access eye or cleaning eye.

Circuit vent
A branch vent which serves two or more traps and extends from infront of the last fixture connection of a horizontal branch to the stack.

Vent pipe
A pipe attached to drainage pipes near one or more traps which leads to outside air.

Wye fitting
A fitting used to connect a branch pipe into a straight run of piping at 45 degrees.

trap
A fitting or device so constructed as to prevent the passage of foul air, gases and some vermin without affecting the flow of sewage inside the pipe.

Seal Measurement
The vertical distance between the top dip and crown weir of a pipe.

Seepage pit / cesspool


A lined and covered excavation in the ground which receives the discharge of domestic sewage or other organic wastes from a drainage system.

Septic tank
A watertight receptacle which receives the discharge of a plumbing system or part thereof and is designed and constructed so as to separate solids from liquid, digest the organic matter through a period of detention and allow the effluent to discharge into a drainage system.

Back vent
Also called an individual vent

Blind vent
A vent which terminates on the upper side of the fixture and does not connect to the main vent system. This is sometimes done with the intent of cheating.

Globe Valve
A valve in which the flow of fluid is controlled by a rotating drilled ball that fits tightly against a resilient seat in the body.

Loop Vent
A type of ventilation system used on fixtures in a room away from partitions.

Air Gap
The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the outlet of a waste pipe and the flood level rim of the fixture or receptacle into which it is draining.

Trap
A device or fitting which provides when properly vented, a liquid seal to prevent the emission of sewer gases without materially affecting the flow of sewage or waste water through it.

Horizontal Pipe
Any pipe or fitting which makes an angle of less than 45degrees with the horizontal.

Half Bath
A bathroom containing a water closet and a lavatory.

Roughing-in
The installation of all parts of the plumbing system which can be completed prior to the installation of fixtures.

Floor Mounted Fixture


Refers to a plumbing fixture that rests on the floor.

Flushometer
A device which discharges a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes.

Full Bath
A bathroom containing a water closet, a lavatory and a bathtub.

Hose bibb
A faucet to which a hose may be attached.

Area Drain
A receptacle for wastes which are ultimately discharged into the sanitary drainage system.

Riser
A water supply pipe that extends one full storey or more to convey water to fixture branches or to a group of fixtures.

Soil Stack
A vertical line of piping that extends one or more floors and receives the discharge of water closets, urinals and similar fixtures.

Vent Pipe
The pipe installed to ventilate a building drainage system and to prevent trap siphonage.
(siphonage also syphonage - 2 accepted spellings)

Stack Vent
A vent which also serves as a drain. The extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain connection to the stack.

Building Supply Pipe


The pipe from the water main or other source of water supply to the water distributing system of the building.

Vent Stack
A vertical pipe installed in order to provide circulation of air to and from the drainage system.

Drain Pipe
A pipe that only conveys liquid waste, free from fecal matter.

Siphonage/Syphonage
A suction created by the flow of liquid in pipes.

Stack
A general term for any vertical line of soil, waste and vent pipe extending through one or more storeys.

Backflow
The flow of water in pipes in a reverse direction from the which is normally intended.

Battery of fixtures
Any group of two or more similar adjacent fixtures which discharge into a common horizontal waste or soil branch.

Branch
Any part of the piping system other than the main riser or stack.

Clean-out
A fitting with a removable plate or plug that is placed in plumbing drainage pipe lines in to afford access to the pipes for the purpose of cleaning their interior.

Developed Length
The length of pipe measured along the center line of the pipe and fittings.

Crown Weir
The highest part of the inside portion of the bottom surface at the crown of a trap.

Fixture Drain
The drain from the trap of a fixture to the junction of that drain with any other drain pipe.

Durhams System
A term sometimes used to describe a soil or waste pipe system which is constructed of threaded pipe, tubing or other rigid construction, using recessed drainage fittings.

Invert
The lowest portion of the inside surface of any horizontal pipe.

Indirect Waste Pipe


A waste pipe that does not connect directly with the drainage system but conveys liquid waste by discharging into a plumbing fixture or receptacle.

Sewer
An artificial conduit, usually underground, for carrying off waste water and refuse.

Alkalinity
Cased by bicarbonates, carbonates or hydroxide components

E.Coli
Bacteria in water

Foamability
Caused by detergent

Flocculation
Coagulation, alum is added

Ferrous Bicarbonate
Iron in water

Hardness
Caused by calcium and magnesium deposits

Zeolite
Water softening

Black Water
Water plus human waste from toilets and urinals

Grey Water
Waste water from laundry area, lavatory, sink, shower and bathtub.

Color/ Discoloration
Caused by iron and manganese

Filtration
Mode of turbidity correction

Hydro-pneumatic System
Indirect water distribution system

50-75 gpd
Water supply requirement for single family

4
WSFU value for bathtub, public use

3/8
Minimum fixture supply size for lavatory

Synonymous terms
Toilet - water closet Individual vent - back vent Building sewer Building drain Clean-out P-trap Floor set - floor mounted Gate Valve - full way valve Hub - bell Lavatory - wash basin Vent stack - main vent Common vent - unit vent Soil or waste vent Slop sink - service sink? Flocculation - coagulation