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AGENT TECHNOLOGYAPPLIED TO THE PROTECTION OF POWER SYSTEMS

VINAY .

Introduction to Technology
What is anAgent?

Definition of an agent
We define a software agent to be a computer program that has the basic properties as shown above.

Agent architecture
Our agent proposal uses geographically distributed agents located in a number of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) An IED is a hardware environment that has the necessary computational, communication, and other I/O capabilities needed to support a software agent. An IED can be loaded with agents that can perform control and/or protection functionality.

local area networks(LANs) and wide area networks are used for the interaction between the IEDs. For the purpose of this abstract, an IED must be capable of receiving and supporting user-based agent software. Decision-making is made based on knowledge received from other agents as well as on local measurements. Local measurements might include of the current, voltage, and breaker status.

Agents might even interface with legacy systems such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems.

These networks will be based on Internet standards even if the systems remained independent of the global network conglomeration.

EPOCHS
EPOCHS, the Electric Power and
Communication Synchronizing Simulator. There is a requirement for the platform that could simultaneously simulate both electric power and communication elements. An EPOCH is a new environment allowing users to create and test agent-based communications scenarios involving electric power transients.

An EPOCH makes use of three major simulators PSCAD/EMTDC, for electromagnetic transient simulation PSLF, for electromechanical transient simulation. NS2, to simulate network communication. An EPOCH also adds two components of its own.
i.Agent HQ ii.Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI)

PSCAD/EMTDC, PSLF, and NS2 allow user defined extensions. A PSCAD/EMTDC scenario can include user-defined libraries that add equipment definitions using the C programming language that were not present in the original software. NS2 uses C++ language.

Agent HQ presents a unified worldview


to all simulated agents and acts as a proxy for all inter-simulation information exchange. A Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) is responsible for maintaining consistent simulation timing between all components

Agent--based IEDs structure


Environment

Sensor input

Actuator output

Agent
Communication Control and Protection Schemes. Ethernet LAN

Fault in Environment

Sensor input

Actuator output

Agent
Communication Ethernet lan

Control and Protection Schemes.

Fault in Environment

Sensor input

Actuator output

Agent
Communication Ethernet lan

Control and Protection Schemes.

Fault in Environment

Sensor input

Actuator output

Agent
Communication Ethernet lan

Control and Protection Schemes.

Fault in Environment

Sensor input

Actuator output

Agent
Communication Ethernet lan

Control and Protection Schemes.

Fault in Environment

Sensor input

Actuator output

Agent
Communication Ethernet lan

Control and Protection Schemes.

Fault in Environment

Sensor input

Actuator output

Agent
Communication Ethernet lan

Control and Protection Schemes.

Fault in Environment

Sensor input

Actuator output

Agent
Communication Ethernet lan

Control and Protection Schemes.

Fault in Environment

Sensor input

Actuator output

Agent
Communication Ethernet lan

Control and Protection Schemes.

Fault in Environment

Sensor input

Actuator output

Agent
Communication Ethernet lan

Control and Protection Schemes.

Fault in Environment

Sensor input

Actuator output

Agent
Communication Ethernet lan

Control and Protection Schemes.

Fault in Environment

Sensor input

Actuator output

Agent
Communication Ethernet lan

Control and Protection Schemes.

Fault in Environment

Sensor input

Actuator output

Agent
Communication Ethernet lan

Control and Protection Schemes.

Rectification to Environment

Sensor input

Actuator output

Agent
Communication Ethernet lan

Control and Protection Schemes.

Conclusions
We have described the use of agents for power systems protection. One of the most fundamental features of an agent is its ability to communicate. Agent-based systems necessarily rely on communication networks to add functionality beyond what can be achieved by traditional methods.

It is still far too early to predict the future of agent-based protection and control systems. There are many issues that must be dealt with in agent-based protection and control. Communication security, proper communication protocol selection, and the appropriate range of applications for agent-based methods are just a few of many issues that must be dealt with before agents will be ready for use in real systems.

References;
[1] Coury DV, Thorp JS, Hopkinson KM, Birman KP (2000) Agent Technology Applied to Adaptative Relay Setting for Multi-Terminal Lines. Presented at IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting,Seatle, Washington.

[2] Coury DV, Thorp JS, Hopkinson KM, Birman KP (2000) Improving the Protection of EHV Teed Feeders Using Local Agents. Presented at IEEE Summer Meeting
[3] General Electric (2003) PSLF Manual. [4] McLean C, Riddick F (2001) The IMS Mission Architecture for Distributed Manufacturing Simulation. Presented at Summer Computer Simulation Conference

[5] Redfern MA, Chiwaya AAW (1994) A New Approach to Digital Current Differential Protection for Low and Medium Voltage Feeder Circuit using a Digital Voice-Frequency Grade Communication Channel.IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery vol. 9:1352-1358
[6] Samad T, Harp S, Wollenberg B, Morton B,Pires L, Brignonne S (1999) Siimulation of Complex Systems for the Power Industry with Adaptive Agents. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA TR112816