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Food Hygiene

By the end of today you will be able to:
State why good hygienic practices are important State the likely consequences of poor hygiene practices & complete the exam paper!

What is food hygiene?

All measures necessary to ensure the safety and wholesomeness of food... ...during preparation, processing, manufacture, storage, transportation, distribution, handling and service to the customer.


Making sure food is free from harm

Group Exercise
Group 1 Consider the benefits of good food hygiene
Group 2 Consider the costs of poor food hygiene

5 mins

Food Hygiene is..

Protecting food from risk of contamination Preventing any bacteria present multiplying Destroying any harmful bacteria in the food by thorough cooking or processing Discarding unfit or contaminated food.

Food Poisoning is caused by:

Negligence Ignorance
Poor Management

Effective Supervision Training

Knowledgeable Managers.

What is a Hazard?
Something that may cause harm to the consumer Maybe microbiological chemical physical.

Hazards in Food Preparation

The contamination of food by pathogenic bacteria, poisonous chemicals or physical contamination such as string, hair, insects bacteria multiplying to levels which could cause food poisoning because of storage at the wrong temperature the survival of food poisoning bacteria because of inadequate cooking.


Objectives: by the end of this session you will be able to... To list the 4 conditions required for bacteria to grow Explain how bacteria multiply to harmful levels Describe a spore Describe a toxin State the High Risk food types.

What are bacteria?

Bacteria are microscopic organisms (germs) found everywhere. Some are essential (cheese & yogurt making)
Some cause food spoilage Some (pathogenic) bacteria cause illness Not all bacteria are harmful.

Food Poisoning Bacteria

Some pathogenic bacteria produce protective spores which can survive high cooking temperatures and reproduce bacteria when returned to ideal conditions
Spores can survive high cooking temperatures

Food Poisoning Bacteria

Toxins are poisons produced by some pathogenic bacteria. In the food or inside the human body
Bacteria multiply by division if the conditions are right.

Requirements for Bacterial growth

Food Moisture Warmth Time

Conditions required for Bacterial growth

Food: High protein foods (= HIGH RISK) cooked meat & cooked poultry cooked meat products (pates, gravy, stews, meat pies, stock) dairy products, custards, eggs & raw egg products (mayonnaise) shellfish, oysters, prawns, crabs cooked rice.

Conditions required for Bacterial growth

Dried foods prevent bacterial growth However once liquid is added any bacteria present will start multiplying.

Conditions required for Bacterial growth

Rapid growth between 20C and 50C Ideal temperature ~ 37C (body temperature) Danger Zone = above 5C and below 63C

Conditions required for Bacterial growth

Given the right conditions of food, moisture and warmth, some bacteria can divide into two every 10 - 20 minutes. 1 hr 40 mins = 1,000 bacteria!

9 hours


Q ~ What are the 4 conditions required for bacteria to grow? Q ~ How do bacteria multiply? Q ~ What is a spore? Q ~ What is a toxin? Q ~ Which foods are considered high risk?

Food Poisoning & Food Borne Diseases

Food Poisoning & Food Borne Diseases

Objectives: by the end of this session you will be able to... List the 6 causes of food poisoning State the difference between food poisoning and food borne disease List the symptoms of food poisoning Explain what is meant by incubation period.

What is food poisoning?

An acute illness, which occurs within 1 - 36 hours of eating contaminated or poisonous food. Symptoms last from 1 - 7 days Symptoms include: stomach pain diarrhea vomiting nausea fever.

What causes food poisoning?

Bacteria or their toxins (most common) Moulds Chemicals Metals Poisonous plants Poisonous fish or shellfish.

Major Food Poisoning Bacteria

Salmonella Clostridium perfringens Clostridium botullinum Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus Vibrio parahaemolyticus Listeria monocytogenes Campylobacter Yersinia enterocolitica Escherichia coli.

SOURCE raw chicken & poultry, raw eggs & raw milk
incubation time: 12 - 36 hours duration: 1 - 7 days

SYMPTOMS Stomach pain Diarrhoea Vomiting Fever.

Clostridium perfringens
SOURCE Animal and human excreta, soil (on vegetables), dust, insects, raw meat incubation time: 12 - 18 hours duration: 12 - 48 hours SYMPTOMS Stomach pain Diarrhoea (vomiting rare).

Staphyloccocus aureus
SOURCE Human nose, mouth, skin, cuts and boils. Raw milk from cows
incubation time: 1 - 7 hours duration: 6 - 24 hours

SYMPTOMS Stomach pain Mainly vomiting Some Diarrhoea subnormal temperatures.

Clostridium botulinum
SOURCE Soil, fish, meat and vegetables
incubation time: 12 36 hours duration: several months & death common

SYMPTOMS Difficulties in swallowing and breathing, double vision, paralysis.

Bacillus cereus
SOURCE Cereals, especially rice, dust and soil
SYMPTOMS Stomach pain Diarrhoea Vomiting

TOXIN in food: incubation time: 1 - 5 hours duration: 12 - 24 hours

TOXIN in body incubation time: 8 - 16 hours duration: 1 - 2 days.

Did you get all of that?

Lets do a quick exercise to find out how much you remember.

The 6 causes food poisoning

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Bacteria Moulds Chemicals Metals Poisonous plants Poisonous fish or shellfish

Q ~ Which is the MOST common cause of food poisoning?

Often responsible for food spoilage Some moulds produce mycotoxins which cause illness and sometimes death.
Foods involved include nuts, figs & apple juice.

Chemical Food Poisoning

Acute food poisoning from chemicals is rare
Usually results accidentally from chemicals stored in unlabelled food containers.

Metallic Food Poisoning

Acute metallic food poisoning also quite rare
Results from acid foods being in contact with certain metals (copper, zinc,) Symptoms include vomiting and abdominal pain, usually develop within 1 hour.

Poisonous plants / fish

Rarely occur in commercial premises SOURCES Toadstools Deadly nightshade Rhubarb leaves Undercooked red kidney beans Japanese puffer fish.

Foodborne disease

An illness resulting from eating food (or water) contaminated by pathogenic bacteria (and/or toxins) which do not need to multiply within the food to cause illness.

Foodborne disease
Transmitted via food INCLUDE Typhoid Paratyphoid Tuberculosis Dysentery Hepatitus A (virus) Brucellosis.

Food Poisoning & Food Borne Diseases


Q ~ What are the 6 causes of food poisoning? Q ~ What are the symptoms of food poisoning? Q ~ What is the difference between food poisoning and food borne disease? Q ~ What is meant by incubation period?

Preventing Food Poisoning

Preventing Food Poisoning

Objectives: by the end of this session you will be able to Explain how to prevent contamination of high risk food Describe how bacteria in food can be reduced to safe levels Explain why temperature is used to prevent food poisoning.

Preventing Food Poisoning

Protect food contamination by: purchasing food from reputable suppliers effective supervision and training of food handling staff high standards of personal hygiene and good hygiene practices well-designed food premises pest control.

Preventing Food Poisoning...

separate raw and high-risk food at all stages effective storage and disposal of waste and unfit food proper use of suitable equipment / utensils effective cleaning and disinfection (particular care needed with wiping cloths).

Preventing bacteria multiplying

Store food out of the danger zone preparation at room temperature be kept at minimum time high risk food not to be left at room temperature cool food as rapidly as possible (within 90 mins) use suitable preservatives (salt, sugar, vinegar) keep food wrapped.

Destroy bacteria in food by...

Thorough cooking Time & temperature is required to destroy bacteria. Heat processing pasteurization sterilization canning.

Sources of food poisoning bacteria

Bacteria found in nose, mouth, intestines, cuts and on the skin Food may be contaminated by our hands, sneezing, coughing or indirectly by sewage contaminated water.


Typhoid Outbreak
Due to cans of Argentinean Corned Beef cooled in sewage polluted water.

Sources of food poisoning bacteria

Raw food:
Red meat, poultry, untreated raw milk, eggs and shellfish. Raw food must be kept separate from high risk food Liquid from de-frosting food must not be allowed to contaminate high risk food, wiping cloths, equipment Vegetables should be washed on delivery.

Sources of food poisoning bacteria

May transmit food poisoning bacteria to food Live / dead insects getting in the food.

Sources of food poisoning bacteria

Rats & mice excrete organisms such as salmonellae Food maybe contaminated by droppings, urine, hairs and gnawing Food suspected of being contaminated by rodents must be destroyed.

Sources of food poisoning bacteria

Large numbers of bacteria are present in dust and in the air Food should be kept covered and put away when cleaning is carried out.

Sources of food poisoning bacteria

Garbage and waste food
Garbage and unfit food must be removed from food rooms Care must be taken to avoid contamination Food handlers must wash their hands after handling garbage Waste bins must have a lid.

Sources of food poisoning bacteria

Animals & birds:
Domestic and wild animals are known to carry harmful bacteria on their bodies and intestines Dirt can be transferred from their feet Hairs and feathers may contaminate food Pets must be kept out of food rooms.

Physical contamination of food

Raw ingredients: stones, glass, pests, dirt, flaking paint
Buildings / equipment: wood, rust, grease, oil, screws

Notice boards: paper, drawing pins

Packaging Materials: staples, string, plastic Food handlers: jewelry, buttons, fibres, hair.

Physical contamination of food

Cleaning activities: bristles, paper, chemicals
Pests: bodies, droppings, feathers, eggs

Pesticides: Spraying on equipment, bait

Industrial chemicals: veterinary drugs, fertilizers Sabotage: needles, razor blades, toothpicks, glass.

Preventing Food Poisoning

Q ~ How can contamination of high risk food be prevented? Q ~ How can bacteria in food be reduced to safe levels? Q ~ Why is temperature used to prevent food poisoning?

Purchase, Storage, Temperature control, Preparation, Cooking and Serving of Food

by the end of this session you will be able to... List 5 necessary checks of food deliveries State the correct temperature of a deep freeze State the correct temperature of a fridge List 6 rules for safe storage of frozen food Explain Stock Rotation State 2 controls necessary during each stage of preparation, cooking, serving and cooling of food.

Purchase & Food Deliveries

Choose a reputable supplier Deliveries should be checked Quantity & Quality Temperature Packaging Pests Delivery Vehicle ? Delivery Person ?????

Storage of food
Dry food stores must be clean and tidy Damaged canned food must not be used Excess packaging should be removed Stock must be rotated Fruits should be checked for spoilage regularly Chemicals should be stored away from food.

Operating temperature between 1C and 4C A thermometer must be positioned in the warmest part and the temperature must be checked and recorded regularly Unit must be serviced regularly Must be located in well ventilated area away from ovens Should not be overloaded.

Must be cleaned regularly Stock should be checked and rotated High risk food must be stored above raw food to avoid contamination Food must be covered and in suitable containers (never cans) Hot food items must never be put into a refrigerator. Allow to cool first.

Freezers & Frozen food

Should operate at -18C or below Food items must be wrapped Frozen food temperature must be checked on delivery and stored as quickly as possible Deliveries above -12C should be rejected Stock rotation Do not store above the freezer load line Do not keep longer than recommended by the manufacturer.

De-frosting Frozen Food

Most food from the freezer can be cooked immediately Chicken, Poultry and large joints of meat MUST be completely de-frosted before cooking Follow manufacturers instructions De-frost meats in a separate area from other foods Allow enough time for de-frosting Cold running water below 15C maybe used Refrigerate or cook de-frosted foods.

Stock Rotation
Stock rotation is important to:
to make sure that food is used in date order F.I.F.O. = First In First Out Use by dates = short shelf life Best Before dates = longer shelf life and are manufacturers recommendations.

Food Preparation
Hazards include: cross-contamination bacteria multiplying at room temperature
Good hygiene practices are essential in preventing food poisoning during food preparation work in a logical manner clean as you go good personal hygiene practices.

Cooking / Processing
Hazards include: low temperatures will not kill bacteria large joints will not cook evenly cool spots can harbor bacteria tasting food can cause contamination some bacteria spores will survive cooking.

Food must be cooked thoroughly (time and temperature recommended by the manufacturer) Food being reheated should reach at least 82C Any unused reheated food should be discarded Clean, disinfected spoons should be used for tasting Probe thermometers be used to check temperatures Lids should be used.

Hot food must be cooled quickly before refrigeration Cool in a well ventilated area (then put into a fridge) Maximum 90 minutes Cooling times may be reduced by cooking smaller joints of meat Stews and sauces can be decanted into shallow containers During cooling food should be kept away from raw food.

Hot food must be held above 63C Cold food must be held below 5C Refrigerated display units are recommended Minimum amount of food should be displayed All equipment and utensils must be in good condition and clean All crockery / cutlery should be clean and dry Customers should not be able to handle open food Food handlers should always wear clean protective clothing.

Q ~ What are 5 necessary checks of food deliveries? Q ~ What is the correct temperature of a deep freeze? Q ~ What is the correct temperature of a refrigerator? Q~ What are 6 rules for safe storage of frozen food? Q ~ What is Stock Rotation? Q ~ Name 2 controls necessary during the stage of *food preparation
*cooking food *serving food *cooling food.

Food Spoilage and Preservation

Food Spoilage and Preservation

Objectives: by the end of this session you will be able to... List 6 signs of food spoilage State 6 methods used to preserve food.

Food Spoilage and Preservation

Spoilage begins as soon as food is harvested.
Spoilage includes: bacteria moulds yeasts.

Food Spoilage and Preservation

Signs of spoilage include: bad smells colour change slime mould sour taste dry or spongy.

Food Spoilage and Preservation

Preservation is treating food to prevent or delay spoilage Packaging is important to extend the life of preserved foods, e.g. cans, bottles, vacuum packing Once opened the food should be treated as fresh and refrigerated
Washing is NOT a method of preservation!.

Methods of Food Preservation

high temperatures: pasteurization, canning, bottling, low temperatures: refrigeration, freezing drying & dehydration: fruits, fish, vegetables, meats chemicals: sugar, salt, vinegar vacuum packing: meat, fish acid fermentation: yogurt, cheese, salami irradiation: spices smoking: fish, meat.

Food Spoilage and Preservation

Q ~ What are 6 signs of food spoilage? Q ~ Which methods are used to preserve food?


Personal Hygiene
Objectives: by the end of this session you will be able to Explain the importance of personal hygiene Explain why hand washing is important Identify and explain the protective clothing worn by food handlers Describe how food handlers can contaminate food List 3 illnesses that must be reported.

Personal Hygiene
All food handlers have a LEGAL and MORAL responsibility to observe and practice high standards of personal hygiene to ensure they do not contaminate food.

Personal Hygiene
Because body temperature is 37C it is ideal temperature for bacteria to multiply Clostridium perfringens in the intestines Staphyloccocus aureus on the skin Food handlers must wash their hands regularly to protect food from contamination!

Group Exercise
Group 1 Consider the bad personal hygiene habits of food handlers Group 2 Consider the good personal hygiene habits of food handlers

5 mins

Hands and Skin

Hands are in direct contact with food and are the main routes for transferring bacteria. Food handlers must wash their hands regularly throughout the working day to protect food from contamination.

Hands and Skin

Hands MUST be washed after the following:
After handling raw meat After going to the toilet After returning from a break

Hands and Skin

Cuts & Wounds
Cuts must be covered with a waterproof plaster to prevent food becoming contaminated with blood Bright coloured plasters must be used as they are easier to see if they fall into the food

Hands and Skin

Nails should be kept short and clean Nail varnish must not be worn False fingernails may contaminate food Licking fingers is a bad habit Do not bite nails.

Jewellery should not be worn by food handlers harbor dirt and bacteria may fall into food watches carry dirt and bacteria.

Perfume & After Shaves

Perfume / After Shaves should not be worn by food handlers may taint foods (especially high fat content food).
However, deodorants and antiperspirants are highly recommended for the sake of our guests and work colleagues!

Hair is constantly falling out and may fall into food Dandruff can also fall into food Food handlers must wear a hat (hairnets recommended) Combing or touching hair in food areas is forbidden.

It is illegal to smoke in food areas

Group Exercise
Draw your uniform and describe the purpose of each item worn

10 mins

Protective Clothing
Protective clothing is worn to protect the food from risk of contamination Our personal protection is secondary
Gloves should be worn when handling high risk foods e.g. preparing sandwiches Protective clothing and shoes should not be worn outside Lockers must be provided for outdoor clothes

General Health
Food handlers should be in good health, from oral hygiene (healthy teeth) to general fitness Any food handlers who suffer from food poisoning symptoms such as diahrroea, vomiting or a foodborne disease must report it to their supervisor

General Health
A person who is carrying food poisoning bacteria without symptoms If you live with others who may have food poisoning or a foodborne disease you may be a healthy carrier.

Personal Hygiene
Qs Q ~ Why is personal hygiene important? Q ~ Why is hand washing so important? Q ~ Which protective clothing is worn by food handlers? Q ~ How can food handlers contaminate food? Q ~ Which 3 illnesses must be reported

Food Premises

Food Premises
Objectives: by the end of this session you will be able to Describe how the correct design of food premises can prevent cross-contamination List 2 facilities required for personnel Explain 5 procedures for safe disposal of garbage.

Design of Food Premises

The design and maintenance of food premises is important to avoid risks of contamination Food preparation and storage areas Must be large enough for all equipment Effective separation of raw and cooked foods to prevent cross contamination Must be easy to clean and kept in good repair

Food Premises
It is a legal requirement to have hand washing facilities
Suitable wash hand basins at appropriate sites Hot & cold water, soap, nailbrushes & drying facilities Locker facilities must be available for staff

Design of Food Premises

Workflow should be continuous eliminating cross contamination Washing up areas should be away from high risk food areas Adequate cooking, cooling, preparation and refrigerated areas Pests must be kept out Adequate drainage Sufficient ventilation & high standards of lighting.

Design of Food Premises

Ceilings Ceilings should be smooth, fire resistant, non-flaking, light coloured, coved and easy to clean
Walls Smooth, non-absorbent, non-flaking, durable, light colored and easy to clean.

Design of Food Premises

Floors Durable, non-absorbent, anti-slip, easy to clean. Suitable drains. Floor to wall must be coved.
Windows and doors Open windows should be fitted with fly-screens Doors should be self-closing (and screened if appropriate).

Food Preparation Surfaces

Hard wearing non-absorbent (solid and waterproof) Easy to clean

Storage and disposal of Waste

Suitable containers both inside and outside of the building Must have a lid (to keep flies away) Must be emptied frequently (as necessary) Sacks should be tied Waste bins must not be used for food use Must be cleaned regularly Refuse areas must be kept clean and tidy Hands must be washed after handling waste.

Equipment for food handling

All equipment must be in good repair Designed to minimize harborage of soil and bacteria Chipped, broken equipment must not be used Must be easy to clean Stainless steel is most suitable Color coded cutting boards are recommended. Wooden surfaces must not be used

Food Premises
Q ~ How can the correct design of food premises prevent cross-contamination? Q ~ What 2 facilities are required for personnel? Q ~ Name 5 procedures for safe disposal of refuse?

Pest Control

Pest Control
Objectives: by the end of this session you will be able to Identify 12 types of food pests Describe the signs of pests Explain why pest control is important in the food industry State the action to take on discovering pests Describe 2 methods of pest control.

Pest Control
What is a pest?
Rodents: rats, mice Insects: cockroaches, flies, wasps, moths, silverfish, ants, spiders Birds: pigeons, sparrows Domestic animals: cats, dogs Q ~ Which is the most common pest in a food area?

Pest Control
Reasons for Control to prevent the spread of diseases to prevent contamination of food (from bodies, droppings and urine) to prevent damage (fires causes by gnawing electrical wires) to prevent loss of custom and profit (reputation) to comply with the law.

Pest Control
Pests look for: security, shelter and food Deny access by: care in design of premises maintenance use of screens good housekeeping.

Pest Control
Good Housekeeping keep premises and refuge areas clean & tidy keep food covered clean as you go store food off the floor use pest proof containers for storage check deliveries for pests keep drains clean and in good condition regular inspections and staff awareness.

Pest Control
Signs of pests live or dead bodies, larvae, eggs droppings damaged food, chewed boxes & packaging scratching sounds fur and nesting materials footprints greasy marks (around pipes and walls) loss of small amounts of food.

Pest Control
Signs of rats damaged food, chewed boxes & packaging greasy marks (around pipes and walls)

Pest Control Any signs of pests tell your manager immediately!

Pest Control
Physical controls electric fly killers rodent traps glue traps Chemical controls Rat poisons must be used VERY carefully Fly sprays must not be used near food

Pest Control
Q ~ What are 12 types of food pests? Q ~ What are the signs of pests? Q ~ Why is pest control important in the food industry? Q ~ What action must you take if you discover pests? Q ~ What are 4 methods of pest control?.

Cleaning Procedures

Cleaning Procedures
Objectives: by the end of this session you will be able to Explain why cleaning in food premises is important State 8 points of a cleaning schedule State the difference between cleaning and disinfection List the 6 stages of cleaning.

Cleaning and Disinfection

What is cleaning? The removal of soil, food residues, dirt, grease and other objectionable matter

DISINFECTION is the process used to reduce bacteria to safe levels

Cleaning and Disinfection

Pathogenic bacteria are present on food contact surfaces (especially raw food) Energy in Cleaning
physical: e.g. scrubbing heat: e.g. hot water chemical: e.g. detergent

Cleaning and Disinfection

Reasons for Cleaning to make food areas safe & hygienic to remove matter on which bacteria would grow reduce risk of contamination and spoilage to allow disinfection to discourage pests ensure a pleasant and safe working environment promote a favorable image to customers to comply with the law.

Cleaning and Disinfection

Disinfectants used to reduce bacteria to safe levels Hot water (82C for 30 seconds), steam and bleach are the most common contact time is necessary food contact surfaces & equipment will need to be disinfected several times throughout the day Dont forget the fridge handles! WASH - DISINFECT - DRY

Effective Cleaning
Cleaning must be planned, organised and implemented in all food areas. Schedules should include: what is to be cleaned the chemical (amount), equipment to use who is to clean it when and how often it is to be cleaned the method of cleaning it (how) time allowed safety measures and protective clothing necessary who is responsible to check it is cleaned effectively

Safety and Cleaning

Chemicals must be used following manufacturers directions Chemicals must never be stored in food containers Staff should be trained to clean as they go. Never use the same cleaning equipment in raw food and high risk food areas Suitable protective clothing must be worn Open food must not be exposed during cleaning Clean the cleaning equipment.

6 stages of cleaning
1 Pre-clean: remove loose debris e.g. sweep, scrape
2 Main-clean: hot water, detergent and energy 3 Rinse: use hot water to remove loose dirt and detergent 4 Disinfection: destroy bacteria using heat or a chemical disinfectant, allow contact time 5 Final rinse: remove disinfectant using clean hot water 6 Drying: air dry preferred

Effective Cleaning WASH ~ DISINFECT ~ DRY

Chemicals must be used following manufacturers directions

What is a sanitiser?
A chemical agent used for cleansing and disinfecting food contact surfaces and equipment

Cleaning Procedures
Q ~ Why is cleaning of food premises important? Q ~ What are the 8 points of a cleaning schedule Q ~ What is the difference between cleaning and disinfection? Q ~ What are the 6 stages of cleaning?.

The Law
Relating to Food and Food Safety

The Law
Objectives: by the end of this session you will be able to State 4 relevant acts and regulations of food safety Identify an EHO Explain the term Due Diligence.

Food Safety Act 1990

The most important Act relating to the sale of food for human consumption
Ministers are empowered to make and review hygiene regulations.

Acts and Regulations

Production for sale of injurious, unsafe, unfit or substandard food Contamination of food Hygiene of food premises, equipment and personnel Hazard Analysis and hygiene practices (H.A.C.C.P.) Control of food poisoning and food borne diseases Composition, volume, weight and labeling of food

The Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995

Acts and Regulations

The Food Safety (Butchers Shops) Regulations 2000

Food Safety (Temperature Control) Regulations 1995

The Food Premises (Registration) Regulations 1991

Environmental Health Officers (EHOs)

Municipality Inspectors Carry out inspections of food premises Are empowered to serve improvement notices and fines Are empowered to close unfit food premises.

Due Diligence
Food handlers found guilty of causing food poisoning may be fined and / or imprisoned If all reasonable precautions are taken at all stages of food delivery, storage, preparation, cooking, cooling and serving of food, then the individual may plead due diligence and may not be punished for the offence.

Due Dilligence
Be safe Be careful Be hygienic Be honest Be warned!

The Law
Q ~ Which are the 4 relevant acts and regulations of food safety? Q ~ What is an EHO? Q ~ What is the role of the Municipality Inspector? Q ~ What is Due Diligence?



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May you leave here today and forever remember how important your understanding and daily practices of Food Hygiene contribute towards... The Hotel The Guest and to me

Thank you