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Collective Security

Collective security is a collective measure for security. If any one nation is attacked, all nations with their combined strength will face the aggression. The basic principle of collective security is that an attack on one state will be regarded as an attack on all states. According to Morgenthau one for all and all for one is one of the watchword of collective security. The problem of national security is not the individual problem of any nation, but is a problem of international security.

Palmer and Perkins defined collective security as It clearly implies collective measures for dealing with threats to peace . George Schwarzenegger has defined collective security as machinery for joint action in order to prevent or counter any attack against an established international order. According to F.H.Hartmann, collective security is basically a natural insurance plan "against aggression anywhere and everywhere. Palmer and Perkins have drawn a distinction between Collective Action and Collective Security. Every collective action is not a collective security. Collective Security is a device of the management of power' not that of the elimination of power.

Collective Security under the League of Nations : A system of collective security is possible only through an international organization. Article 10 provided for guarantee against aggression. Article 11 provided for action in case of war or threat of war. Article 12 provided that the members of the League agree that if there should arise between them any dispute likely to lead to a rupture, they will submit matter either to arbitration or judicial settlement or to enquiry by the council.

Article 13 provided for the submission of disputes relating to the interpretation if treaty of any question of international law or any international obligation to arbitration or judicial settlement Article 15 provided that if there arose between the members of the League a dispute, which was not submitted to arbitration or judicial settlement under Article 33, the matter was to be submitted to the League Council for investigation and consideration.
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Article 16 provided that Pacific Settlement : 1.Should any member of the League resort to war in disregard of its Covenant under Article 12,13 or 15, it shall ipso facto be deemed to have committed on act of war against all other members of league, which hereby undertake immediately to subject it to the severance of all trade or financial relations, the prohibition of all intercourse between their nationals and the nationals of the covenant breaking states. 2.It shall be the duty of the council in such case to recommend to the several Governments concerned what effective military , naval or air force the members of league shall severally contribute to the armed forces to the used to protect the covenant of the league.

3.The members of the league agree, further that they will mutually support one another in the financial and economic measures which are taken under this article. 4.Any member of the league which has violated any covenant of the league may be declared to be no longer a member of the league. The covenant of the league was a pioneer move in the direction of evolving the principle of collective security.

Collective Security Under the United Nations : The Charter of United Nations contains provisions regarding collective security. Article 39.provided that the security council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of peace, or decide what measures. Article 40. provided that the security council recommending the enforcement measures may call upon the parties concerned to comply with such measures as it deems necessary or desirable. Article 41.authorizes the security council to decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be used to give effects to its decision under article 39.

In case of enforcement measures taken under the Article 41 are found inadequate, Article 42 empowers the security council to take military measures involving the use of air, sea, or land forces. Under Article 43 all the members of the UN undertake to make available to the security council on its call and in accordance with a special agreement or agreements their armed forces, assistance and facilities. Article 44 and 45 stipulates that members shall hold immediately available national air force contingents for combined international enforcement action. Article 46 and 47 provides for a Military Staff Committee, composed of the Chiefs of staff of all five permanent members or their representatives. Article 49 states that, the members of the U N shall join in affording mutual assistance in carrying out the measures decided by the security council. Article 50 and 51 recognizes the inherent right of individual or collective selfdefiance if an armed attack occurs against a member of the UN but only till the matter is not taken up by the security council.