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# Heat Exchangers

Chapter 11
Section 11.1 through 11.4
Lecture 16
1. Heat Exchanger Types
Classified according to flow types & constructions:
Parallel Flow Counterflow
Heat Exchanger Types
Finned-Both Fluids
Unmixed
Unfinned-One Fluid Mixed
the Other Unmixed
Heat Exchanger Types
One Shell Pass and One Tube Pass
Heat Exchanger Types
One Shell Pass,
Two Tube Passes
Two Shell Passes,
Four Tube Passes
Heat Exchanger Types
Industrial Heat Exchangers
Industrial Heat Exchangers
Industrial Heat Exchangers
2. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Definition of overall heat transfer coefficient U
q UAAT U = 1/(A*R
tot
)
h h c c
A U A U UA
1 1 1
= =
h h
h f
w
c
c f
c
hA A
R
R
A
R
hA UA ) (
1
) ( ) ( ) (
1 1
0 0
"
,
0
"
,
0
q q q q
+ + + + =
Finned:
o o
o f
i
i
i f
i i
A h A
R
kL
D D
A
R
A h UA
1
2
) / ln( 1 1
0
"
,
0
"
,
+ + + + =
t
Unfinned
Tubular:
3. Heat Exchanger Analysis
Objectives: To establish relationship between heat transfer rate
with process parameters and heat exchanger
configuration parameters.

q = f (T, U, A)

Tools: Energy balance

Methods: Log-Mean, -NTU

Energy Balance
Overall energy balance of hot fluid:
Overall energy balance of cold fluid:
) (
, , o h i h h
i i m q =
-
) (
, , i c o c c
i i m q =
-
Energy Balance
) (
, , o h i h h
i i m q =
-
) (
, , i c o c c
i i m q =
-

c h
T T T A
lm
T UA q A =
) (
, , , o h i h h p h
T T c m q =
-
) (
, , , i c o c c p c
T T c m q =
-
Parallel-Flow Heat Exchanger
Parallel-Flow Heat Exchanger
1. Many assumptions to simplify the solution;
2. Energy balance over control volume;
3. Define log-mean temperature difference;
4. Apply log-mean AT in heat exchanger calculation.
Parallel-Flow Heat Exchanger
h h h h p h
dT C dT c m dq =
-
,
where C
h
and C
c
are hot and cold Fluid Heat Capacity Rates.
c c c c p c
dT C dT c m dq =
-
,
TdA U dq A =
c h
T T T = A
c h
dT dT T d = A ) (
Parallel-Flow Heat Exchanger
)
1 1
( ) (
c h
c h
C C
dq dT dT T d + = = A
TdA U dq A =
} }
+ =
A
A
2
1
2
1
)
1 1
(
) (
dA
C C
U
T
T d
c h
)
1 1
( ) ln(
1
2
c h
C C
UA
T
T
+ =
A
A
Parallel-Flow Heat Exchanger
) (
, , o h i h
h
T T
q
C

=
)
1 1
( ) ln(
1
2
c h
C C
UA
T
T
+ =
A
A
) (
, , i c o c
c
T T
q
C

=
) ( ) ln(
, , , ,
1
2
q
T T
q
T T
UA
T
T
i c o c o h i h

+

=
A
A
)] ( ) [( ) ln(
, , , ,
1
2
o c o h i c i h
T T T T
q
UA
T
T
=
A
A
Parallel-Flow Heat Exchanger
)] ( ) [( ) ln(
, , , ,
1
2
o c o h i c i h
T T T T
q
UA
T
T
=
A
A
1
2
1 2
, ,
, ,
, , , ,
ln
) ln(
) ( ) (
T
T
T T
UA
T T
T T
T T T T
UA q
i c i h
o c o h
i c i h o c o h
A
A
A A
=

=
lm
T UA
T
T
T T
UA q A
A
A
A A
=
1
2
1 2
ln
Parallel-Flow Heat Exchanger
lm
T UA q A
2
1
2 1
1
2
1 2
ln ln
T
T
T T
T
T
T T
T
lm
A
A
A A
=
A
A
A A
A
o c o h
i c i h
T T T
T T T
, , 2
, , 1
= A
= A
) (
, , , o h i h h p h
T T c m q =
-
) (
, , , i c o c c p c
T T c m q =
-
Counterflow Heat Exchanger
Counterflow Heat Exchanger
Counterflow Heat Exchanger
lm
T UA q A
2
1
2 1
1
2
1 2
ln ln
T
T
T T
T
T
T T
T
lm
A
A
A A
=
A
A
A A
A
i c o h
o c i h
T T T
T T T
, , 2
, , 1
= A
= A
) (
, , , o h i h h p h
T T c m q =
-
) (
, , , i c o c c p c
T T c m q =
-
Special Operating Conditions
Case (a): C
h
>>C
c
or h is a condensing vapor (C
h
)
Negligible or no change in T
h

Case (b): C
c
>>C
h
or c is an evaporating liquid (C
c
)
Negligible or no change in T
c

Case (c): C
h
=C
c
;

A.T
1
=A.T
2
Multipass and Cross-flow Heat Exchanger
CF lm lm
T F T
,
*A = A
i c o h
o c i h
T T T
T T T
, , 2
, , 1
= A
= A
F for different flow arrangements can be found in figures 11S.1-11S.4
Multipass Heat Exchanger
Cross-flow Heat Exchanger
Example 11.1
A counterflow, concentric tube heat exchanger is used to cool
the lubricating oil for a large industrial gas turbine engine. The
flow of cooling water through the inner tube (D
i
=25 mm) is 0.2
kg/s, while the flow rate of oil through the outer annulus (D
o
=45
mm) is 0.1 kg/s. The oil and water enter a temperatures of 100
and 30 C, respectively. How long must the tube be made if the
outlet temperature of the oil is to be 60 C?
Example 11.1
Known: Fluid flow rates and inlet T for counterflow, concentric
tube heat exchanger of prescribed inner and outer diameter
Find: Tube length to achieve a desired hot fluid outlet T
Schematic:
Example 11.1
Assumptions:
Negligible heat loss to environment
Negligible kinetic and potential energy changes
Constant properties
Negligible tube wall thermal resistance and fouling factors
Fully developed conditions for both fluids
Properties: For oil, find c
p
, and k values from Table A.6
For Water, outlet T is unknown, assume find c
p
, , k and Pr
values from Table A.6
C T
h
80 =
C T
c
35 =
Example 11.1
Analysis:
1. Calculate q and solve T
c,o
from energy balance
) ( ) (
, , , , , , o c i c c p c o h i h h p h
T T c m T T c m q = =
- -
) (
, ,
,
,
, , o h i h
c p c
h p h
i c o c
T T
c m
c m
T T + =
-
-
Example 11.1
2. Establish relationship between q and U, A
lm i lm
T L D U T UA q A = A = t
lm i
T D U
q
L
A
=
t
lm
T A
q, D
i
and are known, U can be calculated from

h
i
and h
o
U = 1/(1/h
i
+ 1/h
o
)
Example 11.1
3. Calculation of h
i
for forced convection in a tube
Calculate Re
D
= 4 /(tD
i
)=14050 (turbulent flow)
From Eqn. 8.60, Nu
D
=0.023Re
D
4/5
Pr
n
(n=0.4 for heating)
Nu
D
=90, h
i
= Nu
D
*(k/D
i
) = 2250 W/m
2
K
c
m
-
Example 11.1
4. Calculation of h
o
for forced convection in an annulus
D
h
= D
o
-D
i
Calculate Re
D
= u
m
D
h
/=56.0 (laminar flow)
From Table 8.2, Di/Do = 0.56, Nu
i
=h
o
D
h
/k = 5.56

h
o
= Nu
i
*(k/D
h
) = 38.4 W/m
2
K

Example 11.1
5. Calculation U and L
U=1/(1/h
i
+ 1/h
o
)= 37.8 W/m
2
K

m
T D U
q
L
lm i
5 . 66 =
A
=
t
Example 11.2
A shell-and-tube heat exchanger must be designed to heat 2.5 kg/s of water
from 15C to 85 C. The heating is to be accomplished by passing hot engine
oil, which is available at 160 C, through the shell side of the exchanger. The
oil is known to provide an average convection coefficient h
o
=400 W/m
2
K on
the outside of the tubes. Ten tubes pass the water through the shell. Each tube
is thin walled, of diameter of D=25mm, and makes eight passes through the
shell. If the oil leaves the exchanger at 100 C, what is its flow rate? How long
must the tubes be to accomplish the desired heating?
Example 11.2
Known: Fluid inlet and outlet Ts for a shell-and-tube heat
exchanger with 10 tubes making eight passes
Find: Oil flow rate required to achieve specified outlet T
Tube length required to achieve the specified water heating
Schematic:
Example 11.2
Assumptions:
Negligible heat loss to environment
Negligible kinetic and potential energy changes
Constant properties
Negligible tube wall thermal resistance and fouling factors
Fully developed conditions for both fluids
Properties: For oil, find c
p
, value from Table A.6
For Water, find c
p
, , k and Pr values from Table A.6
C T
h
130 =
C T
c
50 =
Example 11.2
Analysis:
1. Calculate q and solve from energy balance
W x T T c m T T c m q
o c i c c p c o h i h h p h
5
, , , , , ,
10 317 . 7 ) ( ) ( = = =
- -
s kg
T T
T T
c
c m
m
o h i h
o c i c
h p
c p c
h
/ 19 . 5
) (
) (
, ,
, ,
,
,
=

=
-
-
-
h
m
Example 11.2
2. Establish relationship between q and U, A
lm lm
T DLF UN T UAF q A = A = t
lm
T DF UN
q
L
A
=
t
lm
T A
q, D
i
and are known, U can be calculated from

h
i
and h
o
U = 1/(1/h
i
+ 1/h
o
)
Example 11.2
3. Calculation of h
i
for forced convection in a tube
Calculate Re
D
= 4 m
c
/(tD)=23234 (turbulent flow)
From Eqn. 8.60, Nu
D
=0.023Re
D
4/5
Pr
n
(n=0.4 for heating)
Nu
D
=119, h
i
= Nu
D
*(k/D) = 30610 W/m
2
K
Example 11.2
4. Calculation U
U=1/(1/h
i
+ 1/h
o
)= 354 W/m
2
K
5. Find out F from Chart 11.10
P = (t
o
-t
i
)/(T
i
-t
i
) = (85-15)/(160-15)=0.48
R =(T
i
-T
o
)/(t
o
-t
i
)=(160-100)/(85-15)=0.86
F 0.87
Example 11.2
Example 11.2
6. Calculation L

m
T DF UN
q
L
lm
9 . 37 =
A
=
t