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# Binary Number System

Inherent Value
The inherent value of a numerical symbol is the value of that symbol standing alone. Any number is still related somehow to its basic value regardless of how it appears in a number system. Ex. 216, 161, or 617the symbol six is related to the quantity of six.

Positional Value
The positional value of a numeric symbol is directly related to the base of a number system.
2359 = 2 X 103 + 3 X 102 + 5 X 101 + 9 X 100

The key to understanding the BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM is knowing the positional values of the number.

## Base 2 number system. Use of 0 and 1 only.

Under the binary number system, instead of multiplying by base 10, you multiply by base 2, since that is the base of the binary system.

Each position has a value 2 times greater than the position to the right.

Bits A single binary digit (like "0" or "1") is called a "bit". For example 11010 is five bits long. The word bit is made up from the words "binary digit"

ASCII code is the term for text characters represented by the computer. Since computers ONLY think in binary, ASCII characters are represented by certain binary numbers. Again, the only way the computer differentiates between the ASCII character and the number itself is by context.

## Binary Positions and their Positional Values

Binary Position Position Values (Decimal) Binary Position Position Values (Decimal)

210 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22

## 21 20 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6

2 1 0.5
0.25 0.125 0.0625 0.03125
0.015625

## Decimal to Binary Conversion

1. Divide the decimal number by 2 and record the remainder. 2. Continue to divide by 2 as long as the resulting quotient is not equal to zero. 3. When the obtained number is equal to zero, the binary equivalent of the numbers consist of the REMAINDERS listed from BOTTOM to TOP in the order they were recorded.

Examples

1. Convert 120 (base 10) to its binary equivalent. 2. Convert 212(base 10) to its binary equivalent.

## Binary to Decimal Conversion

1. Convert 101 (base 2) to its decimal equivalent.

## Decimal to Binary Conversion of Fractions

1. Convert 0.375 (base 10) to its binary equivalent.

## Decimal to Binary Conversion of Real Values

1. Convert 24.625 (base 10) to its binary equivalent.

## Binary to Decimal Conversion of Real Value

1. Convert 0.101 (base 2) to its decimal equivalent.

## Binary Arithmetic Operations

0 0 1 1 + + + + 0 1 0 1 = = = = 0 1 1 0 plus a carry over of 1

Examples
1. 11 (base 2) + 100 (base 2) = 2. 1010 (base 2) + 1100 (base 2) = 3. 10110 (base 2) + 10111 (base 2) = 4. 001 (base 2) + 100 (base 2) = 5. 11111 (base 2) + 11111 (base 2) =

Binary Subtraction
0 1 1 0 -0=0 0=1 1=0 1 = 0 with a borrow of 1

Examples
1. 1010 (base 2) - 100 (base 2) = 2. 10000 (base 2) - 1111 (base 2) = 3. 100011 (base 2) - 1111 (base 2) = 4. 1000.11 (base 2) - 11.01 (base 2) = 5. 101 (base 2) - 111 (base 2) =

Binary Multiplication
0 1 0 1 X X X X 0 0 1 1 = = = = 0 0 0 1

Binary Division
0 divided by 1 = 0 1 divided by 1 = 1 1 divided by 0 = undefined