
c
= =
At high frequency, inversion
electrons are not able to respond
to ac voltage. So, to balance the
charge on the metal, the depletion
layer width will vary with the ac.
C
ox
= c
ox
A/x
ox
C
s
= c
Si
A/W
T
C
G
(e ) = C
ox
C
s
/ (C
ox
+ C
S
)
So, C
G
will be constant for V
G
> V
T
7
MOScapacitor under inversion
At low frequency, the inversion electrons will be able to respond to
the ac voltage (Why?). So, the gate capacitance will be equal to the
oxide capacitance (similar to a parallel plate capacitance).
C
G
(e 0) = C
ox
= c
ox
A / x
ox
V
G
C
G
ptype Si
Low frequency
High frequency
C
ox
V
T
C
ox
C
s
/ (C
ox
+C
s
)
For V
G
> V
T
, the high
frequency capacitance
remains constant. Why?
Study exercise 16.4 in text
8
Example 1
Consider ntype silicon doped with N
A
=10
16
cm
3
. The oxide thickness
is 100 nm. Plot the C
G
vs. V
G
characteristics when V
G
is varied slowly
from 5 V to +5 V. Assume MOS has area of 1 cm
2
.
Find C
ox
.
Find C
s
(min) when W = W
T
(Note that C
s
decreases as the depletion
layer width increases. It is minimum when the depletion layer width
is maximum, i.e. when W = W
T
).
F 10 47 3 cm 1
cm 10 1000
(As/Vcm) 10 9 8 9 3
8 2
8
14
ox
= .
. .
C
m 298 0 V 357 0 2
cm 10 C 10 6 1
As/(Vm) 10 85 8 9 11 2
2 1
3 16 19
12
T
. .
.
. .
W
/
=
(
(
=
F 10 35 3 cm 1
cm 10 298 0
As/(Vcm) 10
(min)
8 2
4
12
s
= .
.
C
C
G
(min) = (3.47 10
8
3.35) / (3.47+3.35) F = 1.7 10
8
F
9
Example 1 (continued)
F s
2 1
s
Si
A
ox
Si
ox s T G
2 when
2
 = 


.

\


c c
c
+  = =
/
qN
x V V
= 2.15 V
Plot the CV characteristics
34.7 nF
V
G
C
G
ptype
2.17 V
17nF
34.7nF
lowf
highf
Explain why C
G
does not
vary for V
G
> V
T
Question: How will you calculate
C
G
when V
G
= 1V?
Answer: Calculate 
s
when V
G
=
1V using the eqn. above. From 
s
find W, then calculate C
s
. Then,
calculate C
G
= (C
ox
C
s
) / (C
ox
+ C
s
)
10
MOScapacitor characteristics: Deep depletion
The previous discussions pertain to the condition when the gate
voltage is ramped slowly, from accumulation condition to depletion
and then to inversion condition. When the ramp rate is high, the
inversion layer does not form and does not have time to equilibrate.
This is called deep depletion condition. In this case, W will
continue to increase beyond W
T
and C
G
will continue to decrease
as shown when the dc bias is varied from accumulation bias to
deep depletion bias.
To calculate W under deep depletion condition, invert the V
G
versus

s
relationship. Solve for 
s
1/2
and hence 
s
. Then, calculate W
using W versus 
s
relationship.
11
Some observations
V
T
= gate voltage required for start of inversion
= (+) for ptype Si
= () for ntype Si
(
(


.

\


c c
c
+  =
2 1
F
Si
A
ox
Si
ox F T
2
2
2
/
qN
x V
(+)
()
(+)  for ptype Si
()  for ntype Si
Higher the doping, higher the V
T
 value
C
max
= C
ox
and C
min
= C
ox
C
s
/ (C
ox
+ C
s
)
Lower the doping, lower C
s
and hence lower C
min
12
Doping dependence of MOScapacitor high frequency C
V characteristics, with x
ox
= 0.1 m
13
MOScapacitor under deep depletion
2 1
s
Si
A
ox
Si
ox s G
2
/
qN
x V


.

\


c c
c
+  =
2 1
s
A
Si
2
/
qN
W
(

c
=
C
s
= c
Si
A / W
C
ox
= c
ox
A / x
ox
C
G
= C
ox
C
s
/ (C
ox
+ C
s
)
ntype Si
14
Example 2
Consider example 1. Plot CV characteristics if V
G
is varied
from 5 V to + 5 V rapidly.
C
G
(5 V) = C
ox
=34.7 nF, as before.
C
G
(V
G
= V
T
) = 17 nF, as before.
s
/
s s
y y . y
.
 = + =


.

\


+  =
2 2
2 1
12
16 19
8
where 69 1
10
10 10 6 1 2
3 10 1000 5
Solving for 
s
, we get 
s
= 2.38 V
C
G
(V
G
> V
T
) will continue to reduce (unlike the quasisteady
state condition of example 1). When V
G
= 5 V,
W = 0.545 m; C
s
= 18.3 nF; C
G
= 12 nF
5V
2.15 V
C
G
V
G
34.7 nF
12 nF
Not under
steady state