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# Prof.

Hani Obeid
Faculty of Engineering Applied Sciences University Lec. # 2

CHAPTER II

## Perception of Sound Ear Anatomy

The human auditory system consists of:
1. Outer Ear 2. Middle Ear 3. Inner Ear

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If a ratio of two frequencies is 2:1, then these frequencies are octave apart. One octave is two to one change in frequency. 2 = 2 1 ln = ln 2 If the ratio of two frequencies is 10:1, then these frequencies are decade apart. = 10 ln = ln 10 Where: is the highest frequency. is the lowest frequency.

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LOUDNESS

The loudness of a sound is a subjective effect and is defined as a Function of amplitude and frequency.
The loudness level is given in phones and is defined as being Numerically equal to sound pressure level in dB at 1000 Hz. The phones tells us about the subjective equality of various sounds. Therefore, a ration scale of loudenss, the sone scale, is used. One sone is defined as the loudness of 1 kHz tone of 40 dB (40 phon). A sound that is judged to be twice as loud as the reference sound Has a loudness of 2 sones.
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## The values of sones may be added to obtain loudness level. = +

= 1 + 2 + + Where: is loudness of the loudest band. F = 0.15 for third octave. 2 = 1.25 F= 0.2 for half octave. F= 0.3 for octave
2 = 1.4 1 band. 2 = 2 1
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A general equation for the relationship between loudness and Loudness level of pure tones in the linear region of the curve As follows:

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ACOUSTICAL ENVIRONMENT
As previously stated the architectural acoustics is the technology of designing Spaces, structures and mechanical systems to meet hearing needs. The architect must: 1. Establish his acoustical objectives (how quiet? Where?) 2. Include acoustical considerations in his preliminary planning & estimating. 3. Avoid acoustical pitfalls (shapes which cause echoes, focusing, standing waves,etc 4. Solve acoustical problems not requiring a specialist. 5. Define his acoustical problems for his consultants & engineers and integrate 6. Their work with elements of design.

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Acoustical environment

Free Field

Enclosed Field

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## TYPES OF SOUND FIELDS

The direct field is the zone where sound reaches the listener directly
Without modification other than attenuation due to distance.

The reflected field is the zone where some of the sound reaches the
The listener with a slight delay compared with direct sound, after reflection At one of the walls.

## The diffused field or reverberant field is the zone where sound

Reaches the listener after multiple reflections. These interfere with the Sound Of the direct field because of different delays.

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Reflection of sound: sound can be reflected by hitting an object larger than one quarter wavelength of sound. > S is thickness of object.

Diffraction of sound: if the object is one quarter wavelength or slightly smaller, the sound is diffracted (bending around the object). Refraction of sound: refraction of sound occurs when sound passes from one medium to another. The laws of reflection: 1. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal to the surface at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane. 2. The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.

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## GROWTH AND DECAY OF SOUND IN A ROOM

When a sound source is placed in a room, the sound intensity at a particular point will increase in a series of small increments due to the reflections arriving From walls, floor and ceiling until an equilibrium is attained. If the sound source is stopped suddenly, the sound will reverberate in the room And decay will not suddenly go to zero. The following figures show that:

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ACOUSTICS OF A ROOM
When we put a sound source in an enclosed room, the sound will reach The listener directly from the source and via reflection from the room surfaces.

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The first sound is called direct sound and the second one is a reflected sound, which Reinforce the direct sound. If the sound is stopped from the source, the direct sound will fall to zero immediately, But the reflected sound will reverberate in the room for sometime. The reverberation process depends upon the room volume, surface area of the walls And the absorption characteristics of the room. If the time between direct & indirect sounds is less than 50 ms (this corresponds

To 17 m), the two sounds heard as one sound and the indirect sound reinforces
the direct. If the time is greater than 50 ms the indirect sound is heard as echo.
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Reverberation time is the period required for the sound pressure level To decrease 60 dB after the sound source has stopped.
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## Typical Reverberation Time

Function/space use
Conference room Amphitheatre Min (sec) 0.6 0.6 Max (sec) 1.3 1.6

Cinema Theatre
Concert hall (light music) Concert hall (orchestra) Place of worship Restaurant/cafeteria Gym/swimming pool/sport hall multi[purpose room Industrial premises Lecture theatre

0.5 1.0
1.4 1.6 1.8

1.2 1.8
2 3 3.2 1.8 2.7

1.4 0.7

2 3 1.0
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## Reverberation time for various volumes

Volume (cubic meters) 350 700 1400 2400 3900 6000 9500 14500 20000 27000 Reverberation time 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0

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## Optimum volume/person for various types of halls

Type of hall Concert hall Italian type opera houses Churches Min Cubic meters 6.5 4.0 5.7 7.1 4.2-5.1 7.1-9.9 9.9 5.7 11.9 Optimum max

3.1 2.8

4.2 4.9

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Shape of halls
There are three basic plans used for large halls: 1. Rectangular shape. 2. Fan shape. 3. Horse-shoe shape

In a hall which seats under 1000 people the shape is not so critical.
The traditional dimensions have the ratio Height: Width: Length 2 3 5
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Room Acoustics
Shape

Volume

Materials

Room Acoustics

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Reflect

Room Acoustics
Absorb

Sound re-enforcement

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## Noise Reduction Coefficient NRC

NCR is the arithmetic average, rounded off to the nearest multiple Of 0.05 of sound absorption coefficient at 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz for a specific material and mounting condition. Therefore, the NCR is intended as a single number rating of sound Absorbing efficiency at mid frequencies. It is not the difference in sound Levels between two conditions or rooms. 250 +500 +1000 +2000 = 4

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## Noise Reduction by Absorbing

2 = 10 1
Where: 2 - total absorption after treatment. 1 - total absorption before treatment.

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ABSORPTION
Previously, we studied the effect of volume on reverberation time. Now, we will study the effect of absorption on reverberation time. We can control the value of reverberation time by using different Absorption characteristics. Absorbent may be divided into 3 main types: 1. Porous materials. 2. Membrane absorbers. 3. Helmholtz resonators.

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ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT
Absorption coefficients are used to rate a materials Effectiveness in absorbing sound. The absorption coefficient is a measure of the efficiency Of a surface in absorbing sound. =
Where: A is absorption units, sabins or metric sabins. S is surface area, sq.ft or sq.m. is absorption coefficient.

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Mounting of Absorbents

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POROUS MATERIALS
Fiberboards, mineral wools, and insulation blankets. All have One important thing in common-their network of interlocking Pores. They act by converting sound energy into heat. Sound Absorption is far more efficient at high than low frequencies.

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People as absorbent

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## MEMBRANE OR PANEL ABSORBERS

The absorption of sound at lower frequencies can be effectively Achieved by resonant (or reactive) absorbers. A mass suspended from a spring will vibrate at its natural Frequency. Panels designed with an air in the cavity behind them act similarly. The frequency of resonance for a flat, un-perforated panel can be estimated from:

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HELMHOLTZ RESONATOR
A resonator is a special device which permits very high absorption at a given frequency known as the resonance frequency. A resonator consists of two main parts:

1. A cavity, defined by its volume (V), 2. A neck, characterized by its section (s) and length (l).
The resonance frequency is: = 2
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