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College Administration

Prepared for a tutorial Program


Presented by Abeya Degefe Dire Dawa University
16th

of December 2012

What does it really mean by college administration?


College administration or management is a collection of processes, including: decision-making related to curriculum, resources, & problem-solving action-planning the management of resources ( human, material, financial and time). Thus, since a holistic approach to college administration/management involves: Curriculum Planning, development and implementation policy making and Implementation, monitoring activities and evaluating results;

Cont.
it is the responsibility of the college management to maintain dynamic equilibrium between: work, people, Technology, and information. With this understanding, in this tutorial session we will briefly discuss about the: Philosophical Foundation of education; Planning, developing and implementing the college activities (daily administrative routines, budget, instructional technology and decision-making) and curriculum as core elements of college administration.

1. Philosophical Foundation of education


Philosophy of Christian Education Christian education assumes that the educational theory, methods, and practice must be built upon Christ as their cornerstone, in which the Power, Truth, and Love of God should be the foundations of the Christians Philosophy of Education. According to the Christian Philosophy of education, the contents of grammar and literature, of mathematics and science, of health and physical education, of geography and history, and of social studies and the arts should be integrated with the rules of the Bible as their foundational handbook In the views of Christian philosophy of education every good Philosophy of Education must address at least five major ingredients:
the purpose/ goal of Christian education the nature of the Christian learner the role of the Christian teacher the nature of the learning/teaching process, and the scope/sequence/selection of subject matter

The Purposes of Christian School Education


The major purposes of a Christian education are to: learn the knowledge of God respond to God and His truth live in harmony with God and His truth, and impact others with the knowledge of God and His truth The Nature of the Christian Learner Each student needs to understand the moral and ethical foundation for life. Each student needs absolutes that stand the test of time eternal absolutes mandated by eternal God Role of the Christian Teacher As a Christian teacher, the two main responsibilities are to be: an academic leader and a spiritual leader to students.

Cont.
As an academic leader to students, the teacher must maintain a safe environment to give students a sense of security in the classroom, maintain and create stability through disciplinary procedures, and highlight the remarkable potential and the eternal worth of every student. As a spiritual leader to students, a Christian teacher must whole-hearted believe that the Bible is Gods infallible, and authoritative Word. Nature of the Learning Process Learning involves accepting a truth, making a heart-level commitment to that truth, and then acting upon that truth. Selection/Scope/Sequencing of Subject Matter Bible truths should be applied within the planning and delivery of integrated curriculum. There must be the unification of Truth and Knowledge Each educational subject area in some way reveals attributes of the Creator

Secular Philosophical traditions of education What are the major branches of Philosophy? Metaphysics is the philosophical study of the real nature, meaning, structure, and principles of things. While idealist sees reality as nonmaterial, realist sees reality as material and objective, independent of humans Epistemology is the philosophical study of the nature, origin, and limits of human knowledge. While realists believe knowledge is gained through our sensations of real objects, Idealists believe knowledge is what is constructed by our mind Axiology - the philosophical study of goodness, or value, in the widest sense of these terms. The two subdivisions of axiology are: ethics - the discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad, right and wrong, and Aesthetics - the philosophical study of beauty and taste.

Cont.
Logic is mainly concerned with the rules of correct and valid thinking and considers the rules of inference that we use to frame propositions and arguments. Logic includes induction, deduction, syllogism and dialectics. Induction is a method of reasoning that proceeds from a part to a whole, from particulars to generals, or from the individual to the universal. Deduction is a method of reasoning that proceeds from the general to the specific. Syllogism is a valid deductive argument having two premises and a conclusion. Dialectics is a form of logical argumentation but now a philosophical concept of evolution applied to diverse fields including thought, nature, and history.

Major philosophical foundations of Education


Idealism Idealist stresses the central role of the ideal or the spiritual in the interpretation of experience. Idealist philosophers - Plato, Descartes, Kant Realism realism refers to the belief that the world of physical objects exists independently of human observation, and it is the task of scientists to investigate the nature of reality Focuses on the scientific method and personal experience The crux of realism is scienceempirical, objective, and experimentalwith precise measurements Realist philosophers Aristotle, Comenius, Pestalozzi, Montessori, Hobbes, Bacon, Locke Pragmatism
Pragmatism stresses the priority of action over doctrine, of experience over fixed principles, and it holds that ideas borrow their meanings from their consequences and their truths from their verification.

Pragmatist philosophers Charles Peirce, William James, John Dewey Progressivism Progressivism emphasizes that educational concern must be on the childs interest, desires and freedom as an individual rather than on the subject matter. Progressivism philosophers Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner Existentialism is always about particular and individual. It is the investigation of the meaning of being; it emphasizes the freedom to make choices where there are no absolute values outside the individual. Essentialism stresses human experiences that they believe are indispensable to people living today or at any time. It put effort above interest, subjects above activities, collective experience above that of the individual, logical organization above the psychological, and the teacher's initiative above that of the learner.

Cont.

Planning in Higher Education


To what extent are an institutions policy, decision making and resource allocation processes shaped by a systematic, evidence-based, and mission-guided planning process? So, what is planning? Planning has been defined as the conscious process by which an institution assesses its current state and the likely future condition of its environment, identifies possible future states for itself, and then develops organizational strategies, policies and procedures for selecting and getting to one or more of them. Why planning in HE? Planning became a necessary component of higher-education administration after World War II: due to the rapid expansion and growth of federal policies regarding access to, and financial support of, higher education colleges have become increasingly heterogeneous as more diverse populations have been admitted, resulting in the need for planning regarding financial aid, student services, remedial education, and vocational education.

The planning process


Long-Range Planning Following World War II and through the 1960s, the purpose of long-range planning was to justify resources. Use of long-range planning presupposes that the environment is fairly stable and predictable, and that resources are certain. The popularity of this method declined in the latter part of the 1970s, because it did not account for certain environmental aspects that became critical. Strategic Planning Frequently advocated in the late 1970s and 1980s, the primary purpose of strategic planning is to cultivate adaptation in a rapidly changing environment by designing a plan and corresponding strategies for the future. The institutional external situation is assessed for opportunities and threats via scanning the regional, national, and global external environments internal strengths and weaknesses are defined for needed strategies for survival and enhancements.

Cont.
Strategy implies that the approach is reactive to a current situation when the environment is unstable and relatively unpredictable. It is oriented towards the future, it aligns an organization with its environment, establishing a context for accomplishing goals. Contextual Planning Whereas long-range planning is typically responsive in nature, and strategic planning tends to be idea driven, reactive, and adaptive; contextual planning is proactive Existing as part of an increasingly complex organization with little stability, contextual planning (new and different planning) models are constantly implemented based on: political demands, business models, or internal leadership
This method of planning assumes uncertain financial resources, an ever more competitive environment, and a critical public.

Cooperation and Leadership in Planning

The higher-education song since the 1990s has called for improved access for students, increased quality, enhanced accountability of expenditures, and more and better use of technology. In order to progress toward these goals, it has become necessary for strategic planning to be linked to major programs, such as institutional research, institutional advancement (also known as development or fundraising), and data management (also known as data warehousing) Due to the constantly changing environment of higher education, research has shown that planning should be an ongoing, rather than occasional, process, done in collaboration with institutional research and assessment. Essentially, planning at the institutional level is connected to planning at the division level, which is integrated with individual plans and includes leadership and vision at every level.

Why Strategic Planning is essential in HE


Universities are driven to engage in a strategic planning process by a variety of forces. These include: increasing demand for higher education concurrent with a decline in government funding, changing student demographics, and A need to compete with the emerging models of higher education while keeping the essence of a traditional comprehensive university. Steps in the Strategic Planning Process: Identifying vision and mission of the organization Conducting a series of SWOT analyses Developing specific strategies including strategic goals, action plans, and tactics. Exploring emergent strategies, challenging the intended tactics, and altering the realized strategy. Evaluating strategies and reviewing strategic plan, considering emergent strategies and evolving changes.

Curriculum design, planning, development, and


implementation

Why it is essential for college administrators to know about curriculum and its features? As a college leaders, you need to know what curriculum means in order to: Relate education to the socio-economic, technological, political and environmental demands of your society. Relate content or the body of knowledge to your local setting. Apply the most effective and relevant teaching and learning methodologies. Evaluate the teaching and learning processes in your education system Definition A curriculum is a plan or program of all experiences which the learner encounters under the direction of a school. A curriculum is more than a syllabus. A syllabus describes the content of a programme and can be seen as one part of a curriculum.

Curriculum Foundation
At the foundation to every curriculum, including the planning/design, development and implementation stages is the educational philosophy of those directly involved in the process. Often this can influence to a great extent the direction a school or institution takes with its curriculum and instruction. Rationalist Rationalists say: True knowledge is achieved by the mind. Knowledge is a series of revelations/exposures Empiricist Empiricists think: True knowledge is derived from evidence. Authentic knowledge comes through the senses

Pragmatists believe that: Knowledge is hypothetical and changing constantly. Knowledge is experienced. Knowledge cannot be imposed on the learner. Knowledge is a personal activity. Knowledge is socially constructed. Existentialist. Existentialists or phenomenologists conclude that: Knowledge is personal and subjective. Knowledge is ones own unique perception of ones world. Education should be less formal. Curricula should be diverse, not common for all It is important to consider each perspective as it relates to the following:
the learner the teacher methodology curriculum

Pragmatist

Elements of Curriculum

The curriculum has four elements that are in constant interaction: purpose (goals and objectives) content or subject matter methods or learning experiences evaluation Purpose The purpose of a curriculum: is based on the social aspirations of society, outlines the goals and aims of the programme, and is expressed as goals and objectives. There are three categories of goals and objectives:

cognitive, referring to intellectual tasks, psychomotor, referring to muscular skills, and affective, referring to feeling and emotions

Methods

The methods outlined in a curriculum: deal with the teaching and learning experiences, Involve organizational strategies, and Involve methods of assessment Evaluation Evaluation is used to: select appropriate content based on the aims and objectives of the curriculum; select appropriate methods to address the content and purpose; check the effectiveness of methods and learning experiences used; check on the suitability and the appropriateness of the curriculum in answering social needs; give feedback to the planners, learners, teachers, industry and society; and Provide a rationale for making changes.

Types of Curricula
Formal Curriculum Formal curriculum refers to what is laid down as the syllabus or that which is well structured and time bounded. Informal Curriculum Informal curriculum is the curriculum in use from media, stories & observation Actual Curriculum Actual Curriculum refers to both written and unwritten syllabuses from which students encounter learning experiences Hidden Curriculum The nonacademic but educationally significant component of schooling

Curriculum planning/Design
Curriculum planning is the thinking and design phase. It is the preliminary phase of curriculum development that includes:

Identification and selection of the content within the syllabus, and Scheduling the use of time

Design refers to the general pattern or planning of printed pages with respect to its pictures, line, font, tables, drawings, type face and size, paragraphs and other components of the material.

The Bases for Curriculum Planning/design When planning for curriculum development, two categories of bases should be understood: those that are institutional in nature and Those that affect people directly The institutional bases for curriculum planning include: the context or characteristics of the school situation the impact of current trends and issues, and the use of strategic planning Those bases of curriculum planning that affect people directly include: student and teacher needs local curriculum problems to be addressed competencies of the planners, and pressures from inside and outside the school.

Factors That Influence Curriculum Design Political factors


National ideology and philosophy have a tremendous influence on the education system because politics determine and define the: goals, content, and learning experiences, curricular materials, funding, entry into educational institutions, the hiring of personnel and evaluation strategies in education.

Social factors
The community may include various groups with differing: religious backgrounds, ethnic bases, cultural settings, social goals, plans for the future, ideas and views . Where their views need to be considered when designing a curriculum

As a teacher, you require classroom supplies that are products of industry such as: Text and reference books, charts, equipment, real objects and models chemicals for science experiments It is therefore crucial that serious consideration be given to economic demands when designing the curriculum. ICT context The role of ICT in education cannot be over emphasized. The world is going the digital way, and education is at the forefront of this journey Environmental factors Over time, people have become insensitive to their surroundings and natural resources. This has affected the sky, the land and the sea. The end result is that humanity is being adversely affected by these inconsiderations. Child psychology Theories of learning and child development have to be considered when designing the content (activities and experiences) of the curriculum and how it is delivered.

Economic factors

Curriculum development Curriculum development is the primary stage and the more comprehensive term that includes planning, identification, organization, implementation, evaluation and revision of the text material Models of curriculum development The objectives model The objectives model takes as its major premise the idea that all learning should be defined in terms of what students should be able to do after studying the programme, in terms of learning outcomes or learning objectives. Using an objectives model enables the construction of assessments which can be designed against the learning objectives
Curriculum design according to this model follows four steps: Reach agreement on broad aims and specific objectives for the course Construct the course to achieve these objectives Define the curriculum in practice by testing capacity to achieve objectives Communicate the curriculum to teachers

The process model


Unlike the objectives model, this model does not consider objectives to be important. Approaches to course design under the process model examines the subject matter in terms of assumptions held in the discipline with regard to a particular body of information, knowledge and skills. Using this model presupposes that: Learning activities or content have their own value, can stand on their own and can be measured in terms of their own standard regardless of the achievement of objectives. Content involves procedures, concepts and criteria that can be used to appraise the curriculum.

Translating content into objectives may result in knowledge being distorted.

The situational analysis model It involves the review of the cultural, political, and social situations and makes analysis of the interacting elements. Strategies of curriculum development Two strategies of curriculum development are recognized: Centralized curriculum Centralization can be seen at both national and organizational levels. Centralized curricula tend to be more structured and orderly and it is easier to ensure uniformity and a standard approach to teaching and learning. A centralized curriculum may allow better access to a wide pool of expertise but be less sensitive to local needs. Decentralized curriculum
Decentralized curricula tend to be more appropriate to students local needs and often ensure better ownership of the course by teachers. Decentralization can allow for a variety of approaches to design and delivery and enable comparisons of the strengths and weaknesses of each

Stages of curriculum development


The curricular cycle involves: needs assessment or analysis design and development Implementation, and outcomes evaluation phases Approaches to curriculum organization Horizontal organization Vertical organization Criteria for curriculum organization Continuity Sequence Scope integration

Structure of course design/development It begins with developing Course outline that includes: Course title Course code Credit hour/point Course description/rationale Course objectives Course contents Modes of presentation Modes of assessment References Guidelines for Writing Instructional Objectives Guideline 1: Objectives should be stated in terms of student performance/behavior Guide line 2: Objectives should be stated in terms of the learning outcomes and not in terms of the learning process. Guide line 3: objectives should be sufficiently free from the influence of course content.

Cont. Guide line 4: Statements of objectives should be an amalgamation of subject matter and the desired behavior. Guide line 5: Avoid the use of more than one type of learning out comes in each objective. Guide line 6: Begin each specific objective with an action verb, which indicates what the students have to do, or demonstrate at the end of the program. Guideline 7: write a sufficient number of specific objectives for each general objective so as to adequately describe the student behaviors for achieving the general objective Definition of Curriculum Implementation Curriculum implementation entails putting into practice the officially prescribed courses of study, syllabuses and subjects. Implementation takes place as the learner acquires the planned or intended experiences, knowledge, skills, ideas and attitudes that are aimed at enabling the same learner to function effectively in a society

Implementing the curriculum The implementation of a new curriculum usually requires additional learning resources or at least a rethink of the existing learning resources. Pre testing and piloting the curriculum Before starting to fully implement the curriculum it is preferable to try to pre test or pilot some or the whole of the curriculum that has been developed.
The main objective of pre testing and piloting is to try out the draft curriculum in a small number of training situations and in the context in which the curriculum will be used. This helps to highlight to the curriculum developers whether the curriculum is understandable and relevant to the users and whether it works in practice.

Monitoring the curriculum


Monitoring can be defined as a continuous or periodic check by those responsible for the course at every level. It should focus attention on processes and performance with the objective of drawing attention to particular features that may require corrective action. It includes putting activities in place to ensure that input deliveries, work plans, expected output and other actions are proceeding as planned.

What should be monitored?


Student recruitment and selection processes
Do the candidates meet the selection criteria? Do the criteria provide students who are appropriate for the course?

Teaching staff
Are the teachers available, motivated and capable of teaching the new course? Have any training needs for teachers been identified and addressed?

The teaching and learning process


How is the written curriculum translated into practice? Are the teaching and learning methods appropriate? Is the balance between different types of learning mode appropriate in achieving the stated outcomes?

Assessment Are the assessments appropriate in terms of level, reliability and validity and do they discriminate between assessing skills, knowledge and attitudes? Are the regulations and procedures appropriate and are they being followed?

Learning resources
Are the recommended books and journals and other teaching materials available? Is access to the library and other resources adequate? Performance standards Are the minimum performance standards being reflected and achieved? Methods of monitoring curriculum implementation Observation this is particularly valuable in the early stages of implementing a course but should be carried out separately from observations of teacher performance. Feedback questionnaires questionnaires can be used to collect information from staff, students and external people or groups involved with the course. Focus groups discussion/interviews structured or semi-structured meetings (with individuals or groups) and focus groups can be another useful source of detailed information about a programme. Student assessment results Results from both formative and summative assessments should be analyzed regularly in order to evaluate whether individual assessments are performing reliably and validly and also whether minimum set standards are being achieved. Reports results which the institution has to provide for internal use or external agencies can be useful sources of information about the programme

Factors That Influence Curriculum Implementation The Teacher factors-qualification, experience, attitude, commitment, motivation The Learner factors-The learner factor influences teachers in their selection of learning experiences Resource Materials and Facilities From your experience, you are aware that no meaningful teaching and learning take place without adequate resource materials Interest Groups These include: parents parents and teachers associations Development Associations religious organizations Local authorities companies and private school proprietors

The School Environment One other factor that influences curriculum implementation concerns the particular circumstances of each school Culture and Ideology Some communities may resist a dominant culture or government ideology and hence affect the implementation of the centrally planned curriculum Instructional Supervision Curriculum implementation cannot be achieved unless it has been made possible through the supervisory function of the school head Assessment Assessment in the form of examinations influences curriculum implementation tremendously Definitions of Curriculum Evaluation Curriculum evaluation is a system of feedback, providing information to planners, teachers/trainers, students, parents and decision-makers.

Why we need to evaluate a curriculum?


To identify successes and failures of the curriculum with a view to correcting deficiencies To measure if stated objectives have been achieved To assess if the curriculum is meeting the needs of learners, and community To measure the cost effectiveness of the curriculum

Some questions to ask when evaluating a course or programme


are the learning objectives realistic and relevant? are the different parts of the course relate to each other meaningfully in terms of sequence and organization? are the subject matter content, teaching and learning methods, and instructional materials relevant, accurate and up to date? are the learners entry requirements well defined and at the right level? Is there enough time to ensure learning? Do teachers have the knowledge and skills required to deliver the curriculum?

Forms of Curriculum Evaluation Formative Evaluation Summative Evaluation Evaluation Methods and Tools

A variety of methods and tools can be used to conduct evaluations, including the following:
observations interviews tests Questionnaires

4. Developing competency based curriculum


In what ways Competency-Based Curriculum differs from others? What is Competency-Based Curriculum? A Competency-Based Curriculum is a framework or guide that links competencies, associated methodologies, training and assessment resources.

Considerations about CBC The CBC specifies the outcomes which are consistent with the requirements of the workplace as agreed through the industry and community consultations The process of developing competency-based curriculum takes into account the: Specifications of the competency standards that must be appropriate to the industry and occupational needs and, Background and requirements of the learners or trainees. The process of competency-based curriculum development will involve representatives from: industry

curriculum developers and Teachers or trainers experienced in the subject matter/industry sector.

Why competency-based training?

The traditional approach to education is for teachers to determine what content needs to be learned, teach it, and then test to see if the content was learned. Competency-based training aligns training with the outcomes and assessment of worker performance in relation to specific work conditions on professional expectations. Competency-based approach to training requires that educators and workers identify the necessary knowledge, skills, and behaviors as applied in real working conditions and settings.

Principles of competency based approach


competency based approach:

Is Systematic and based on learning outcomes/competencies Provides trainees with high quality: learning activities designed to help them master each task, periodic feedback designed to allow trainees to correct performance as they go along Requires trainees to perform tasks to high level of competency in work settings Assumes individual student differences in the mastery of a task are as much to do with the learning environment as the learners themselves Steps In planning a competency based Curriculum : Step 1 carry out a needs analysis of context and of activities which will be required Step 2 carry out a task analysis - put major activities into sub tasks or components, resulting in a list of specific knowledge, skills and attitudes that becomes the instructional content the trainee will learn.

Cont. Step 3: deriving the objectives from the competencies required, and setting criterion for performance Step 4: defining teaching and learning strategies Step 5: determining assessment strategies The components of a Competency- Based Curriculum are: Modules of Instruction/Training Course Design Modules of Training
It should not be assumed that one unit of competency will lead to one module of training. In some cases it may be appropriate to develop modules of training, which are applicable to several units of competency.

The structure of Course Design Course Title : Automotive Servicing NC II Nominal Duration : 360 Hours

Course Description

This course is designed to enhance the knowledge, desirable attitudes and skills of automotive service technician in accordance with industry standards. It covers specialized competencies such as:
test and service automotive batteries service ignition system install and repair wiring/lighting system repair wiper and washers dismantle and assemble engine sub assemblies maintain under chassis components and perform shop maintenance

It also includes competencies in workplace communication, team work, safety, use of hand tools, and house keeping.

Course Outcomes Upon completion of the course, the trainees/students must be able to: Perform diesel engine tune up. Perform gas engine tune up Service automotive battery Test and repair wiring/lighting system. Service ignition system Perform under chassis preventive maintenance. Service charging system Service starting system Service engine mechanical system Entry Requirements

Candidate /trainee must posses the following qualifications:


Able to communicate both oral and written 18 years old and above Good moral character

Structure of the Training Module Unit Title A unit of competency which when applied in a work situation can logically stand alone. It indicates a title and express in outcome terms Module Title Briefly describe the title of the module Module Descriptor Brief description of the module, its scope and delimitation Level: Level of Qualification based on PTQF (NC 1, NC 2, NC 3, NC 4) Nominal Duration Estimated /suggested number of hours per module Learning Outcomes Specify the performance outcomes the learner will be expected to
demonstrate at the conclusion of the learning outcome

Assessment Criteria:
Listings of criteria by which the achievement of the learning outcomes will be judged

Conditions

Outlines the situations and contexts under which learners will be assessed Specify the conditions under which the learning and assessment will take place These can include a list of tools and equipment, access to learning resources and equipment manuals, and types of facility Content
List down the specific knowledge, skills, attitudes & safety that are to be addressed within this learning outcome

Methodology
State the different approaches, methods and techniques through which learning process or courses will be delivered, such as: Modular Demonstration Lecture Discussion Dual training Distance learning

Assessment Method Specify the method used to gather evidence of sufficient quantity and quality on which to make sound judgment about a candidates competency Assessment methods include: Written examination Demonstration of practical skills Direct observation Interview Resources:
Equipment Vehicle Engine Ignition timing light testing instruments Multi-meter Test lamp Battery tester

5. Budget administration in Higher Education


What are the real focuses of higher education finance accountability? A first step in the implementation of any accountability system based on higher education funding is to adequately measure the finance side of institutions. Such measures provide the necessary baseline and follow up information to judge the behavior of colleges. However, the real focus of higher education finance accountability must be on the expenditure side of higher education finance how much and in what ways the institution uses its resources. College and university spending generally fall into one of five major expenditure categories:
Education and related services Research and related activities Public service and related activities Financial aid (scholarships and fellowships) and Auxiliary enterprises and hospitals

Higher Education Finance: Trends and Issues

Higher education officials and faculty are concerned about providing a quality education with scarce resources and sustaining their livelihood. Students and their families worry about how they are going to pay for their education beyond high school. In order to understand the system and trend of higher education finance, the following macroeconomic concepts can be of help: measuring the overall level of support for higher education from public and private sources; estimating rates of return to education and higher education; and examining the relationship between levels of participation and investment in higher education

Overall Level of Support

The overall amount of resources devoted to higher education is a key determinant of both:
the size (quantity) and the quality of education

Rates of Return The resources devoted to higher education should inevitably be linked to a societys assessment of the worth of that education. Societal decisions regarding how much to invest in education are tied to an assessment of how much benefit education generates in that country. Levels of Investment and Participation A countrys participation rate in higher education, like its level of financial commitment, can be measured in a number of ways:

Cont.

the proportion of high school graduates who continue their education beyond the secondary level.
dividing the number of students enrolled in higher education by the total population of the country.

Sources of support to higher education institutions Higher education systems around the world depend on a combination of: public and Private resources to fund their operations

Cont.

In the majority of countries, institutions are primarily financed through public resources in the form of:
government support; and tuition fees

Governance issues related to funding system:


How the overall level of funding is set---by government agencies of one form or another that are political in their nature How public funds are allocated to institutions---based on funding policies: Historical/political allocations---This funding approach tends to be more input-driven, and is based primarily on staff costs and institutional infrastructure needs.

Cont. Funding formulas. This approach usually is based on enrollments and costs per student. Policy-driven funding. This approach occurs when funding formulas pay more for economically disadvantaged students than other students. Performance-based funding. This approach occurs when funding is based fully or partially on the number of graduates rather than simply the number of students who enroll. Categorical and competitive funds. This approach occurs where only certain types or categories of institutions qualify for assistance based on proposals from institutions or individual faculty Tax-based policies. This approach includes providing tax breaks for charitable contributions to institutions and
tax-based incentives for companies and others to conduct research on campus

Cont. The level of institutional autonomy in the expenditure of funds. A third critical governance issue in funding is the degree to which institutional officials have autonomy in how those funds are spent. Accountability models Consider the following four kinds of accountability: Audit and monitoring. This is the most basic kind of accountability, ensuring that public funds are spent for the purpose intended. Regulatory performance measures. This focuses on governmental efforts to measure the performance of institutions in various ways, including graduation rates, student loan default rates, and pass rates for teachers Performance funding. Basing funding on performance measures. Market-based strategies. Developing policies that replicate market type conditions.

What features of HE make accounting of costs difficult? The first is the problem of joint products. As is clear from the major groupings of college expenditures, institutions have multiple missions (e.g., education, research, public service), and these missions overlap and may even be reinforcing. The goals are not easily separable from each other, and therefore, parsing out which costs go with each mission can be impossible Further, higher education does not fit the traditional economic model in which a firm uses a combination inputs in a production process to make its outputs. Students are not only the outputs of the process (i.e., an educated college graduate) but also important inputs.

Private Sources of Funds to Institutions

Colleges and universities around the world depend on a variety of private sources of funds to help support their recurrent operations and fund their capital improvements. These private sources of revenues include:
tuition fees; gifts and other forms of charity; payments from a variety of services; and The commercialization of research conducted on campus and for the support of other private entrepreneurial enterprises.

Improving Coordination among Funding, Fee, and Financial Aid Policies A fundamental weakness in the higher education financing approach employed in most countries is the inadequate degree of coordination among the three key elements of financing: the funding of institutions the setting of tuition fees and The provision of student financial aid Among the many challenges in this coordination, three are most prominent: Lack of uniformity in government funding of institutions and tuition fees across institutions or differentiated Absence of clear data about what happens to government support in response to changes in tuition fees. Absence of clear data indicative of the relationship between fees and financial aid when fees are increased.

Recent Trends and Key Issues


The fundamental financing issue facing higher education systems around the world in the early part of the 21st century is the real or perceived crisis of enrollments growing faster than resources. Key trends and issues in developed and developing countries that have led to this prevailing disconnect between resource and enrollment growth includes the following: Growing Demand Based on Increasing Rates of Return Differential Growth in Resources and Enrollments Calls for Greater Accountability Growing Reliance on Market Mechanisms and Privatization The Search for Innovative Approaches

6. E-learning in Higher Education


What is e-learning? How it is being practiced in HE? Definition o e-learning can be defined as a learning environment supported by continuously evolving, collaborative processes focused on increasing individual and organizational performance. o e-Learning is the use of technology to enable people to learn anytime and anywhere o e-Learning can include training, the delivery of just-in-time information and guidance from experts o It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in the form of text, image, animation, streaming video and audio From where does it evolve? o The e-learning models of higher education today find their roots in conventional distance education

When it is that e-learning is not important? When you have resources (time, material, finance) to inexpensively bring together all of the people in your organization who need to learn to teach them, you would not need e-learning. When it is that e-learning is important? When people have jobs to do and budgets are limited, your learning program will need e-learning (the power of technology) to overcome the limitations of time, distance and resources What are e-learning delivery methods? Print: e-text textbooks e-zines Video streaming video video tape satellite transmission cable

Audio

Cont.
streaming audio audio tape Review and Exams electronic interactive paper

Communication
Asynchronous
email threaded discussion, weblogs forums

Synchronous
chat videoconferencing teleconferencing electronic white boards

In the real world people learn in many different ways and at different times. So, to support these different learning needs, you will need different e-learning delivery methods. No single e-learning method is best for every learning need. Why there is a need to combine e-learning and traditional learning methods? A blended learning program combines e-learning and traditional learning methods. Blended learning can provide the convenience, speed and cost effectiveness of e-learning with the personal touch of traditional learning

Why it is important to use different e-learning delivery methods?

Approaches to e-learning services Computer-based learning


Computer-based learning (CBL) refers to the use of computers as a key component of the educational environment. While this can refer to the use of computers in a classroom, the term more broadly refers to a structured environment in which computers are used for teaching purposes.

Computer-based training
Computer-Based Trainings (CBTs) are self-paced learning activities accessible via a computer or handheld device. CBTs typically present content in a linear fashion, much like reading an online book or manual. CBTs are typically delivered via CD-ROM

Web-based training
WBTs are Online Learning or Online Education. WBTs are delivered via the Internet using a web browser.

Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL)


CSCL is one of the most promising innovations to improve teaching and learning with the help of modern information and communication technology. CSCL as instructional methods are designed to encourage or require students to work together on learning tasks

Technology-enhanced learning (TEL)


Technology enhanced learning (TEL) has the goal to provide sociotechnical innovations (also improving efficiency and cost effectiveness) for e-learning practices, regarding individuals and organizations, independent of time, place and pace.

Why e-learning in HE?


It provides the student with information that can be accessed in a setting free from time and place constraints. It gives students personalised web environments in which they can join discussion forums with their class or group It has been used very effectively in university teaching for enhancing the traditional forms of teaching and administration It gives students much greater flexibility of study The student can go through the lessons at his or her own pace This interactive technology supports many different types of capability in students It can be used to assess the progress and achievement of the student online

what impacts does e-learning have on the experience of learning?

intellectual interactive technology offers a new mode of engagement with ideas via both material and social interactivity online social - the reduction in social difference afforded by online networking fits with the idea that students should take greater responsibility for their own learning practical e-learning offers the ability to manage quality at scale, and share resources across networks; financial- Networks and access to online materials offer an alternative to place-based education which reduces the requirement for expensive buildings, and the costs of delivery of distance learning materials

The link between e-learning and active learning

E-learning serves the very paradigm shift that educators have been arguing for throughout the last century, that is, active learning. Thus, the need for colleges and universities to shift toward the use of e-learning is simply a matter of aligning elearning with active learning that educators (such as Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner, Dewey) have long been arguing for.

What are the key sectors of e-learning industry?


consulting content technologies services and support

What factors contribute to the expansion of e-learning? The development of: internet and Multimedia technologies Communication technologies used in E-learning Communication technologies are generally categorized as: asynchronous and Synchronous Asynchronous activities use technologies such as Electronic mail (Email), and discussion boards The idea here is that asynchronous learning : allows participants to engage in the exchange of ideas without the involvement of other participants at the same time. gives students the ability to work at their own pace. Is beneficial for students who have health problems. Allow students complete their work in a low stress environment.

Cont.

Synchronous activities involve the exchange of ideas and information with one or more participants during the same period of time.
A face to face discussion is an example of synchronous communications. Synchronous activities occur with all participants joining in at once, as with an online chat session or a virtual classroom or meeting.

E-Learning Stakeholders Students


Students are the consumers of e-learning.

Instructors
In e-learning, as in traditional classroom learning, instructors guide the educational experiences of students. Depending on the mode of e-learning delivery, instructors may or may not have face-to-face interaction with their students.

Cont.

Educational Institutions
the rise in popularity of e-learning has lead to the creation of new, online only educational institutions.

Content Providers
The growth in e-learning has created a market for commercialized educational content creators

Technology Providers
Technology providers develop the technology that enables e-learning delivery.

Accreditation Bodies
institutions having e-learning accesses will be accredited

Cont.

Employers
Often, there is a tendency for employers to view online education from reputable traditional institutions in a more positive light The Implications of eLearning for students and instructors Incorporation of new Teaching Styles Adapting to a change in Learning styles

7. Data-driven decision-making in HE
What are Data-Driven Decision-Making (DDDM) and Data Literacy? How are decisions being made in respective organizations? Is it based on intuition or on actual data? Definition
DDDM is the tendency to use assessment data and relevant background information to inform decision-making. Data literacy means that a person possesses a basic understanding of how data can be used to inform instruction.

What are the major steps in data-driven decision making?


Conducting assessments Obtaining relevant data Analyzing the data Determining the conclusions Planning the instruction Implementing the instruction

Why is DDDM important in HE?

Research shows that if instructional plans are based on assessment information relevant to the desired learning outcomes for students, there will be a probability to attain these desired learning outcomes. It is also assumed that data literacy is an integral part in the: planning implementation assessment and revision of instruction

What types of Electronic Resources are available to enhance DDDM?

Data Warehouses:
Data warehouses are large integrated databases that connect relevant information from other sources into a single accessible format. They allow users to look at data from multiple operational systems across multiple dimensions, including time

Data Analysis & Reporting Systems


These systems provide the ability to examine aggregate student performance measured across a wide array of variables

Curriculum Management Systems


These systems integrate teachers' curriculum planning, lesson plans, assessments and grade reporting into a standards-based system linked with data from the college's student information system.

Instruction & Practice Systems These systems are designed to help teachers align their curriculum and instructional resources to state and local standards. Assessment and Diagnostic systems These systems provide assessment tools to determine student strengths and weaknesses in various academic areas aligned with state curricular standards. Guidelines to improve decision making Improving practical thinking Practical thinking that includes creative and critical thinking elements captures the strengths of how we think for everyday problems, calling on experience more than formal models. self-reflection making one's thinking habits more deliberate will prompt self-reflection

Moving thinking upstream


thinking ahead and predicting the future potential will make one better prepared to handle the unknown Finding hidden assumptions coming up with reasons against a preferred conclusion or option will improve thoroughness of reasoning. Keeping track of unexpected events a natural tendency is to discount information when it does not fit into our expectations. Thinking from varied perspectives looking at problems from different perspectives can improve one's understanding of a situation Applying practical reasoning One way to improve one's reasoning ability is to have a standard set of questions to ask oneself when faced with uncertainty Adapting to the situation by increasing the awareness of one's own thinking, mental capabilities can be allocated to the problems at hand

A Theoretical Framework for Data-Driven Decision Making We make the assumption here that individuals have questions, issues, or problems for which data must be collected, analyzed, and examined in order to make informed decisions. Data, information, and knowledge form a continuum in which data are transformed to information, and ultimately to knowledge that can be applied to make decisions. It is argued that: Data exist in a raw form. They do not have meaning in and of itself, and therefore, can exist in any form, usable or not. Whether or not data become information depends on the understanding of the person looking at the data. Information is data that is given meaning when connected to a context. Alone, however, it does not carry any implications for future action.

Knowledge Knowledge is the collection of information deemed useful, and eventually used to guide action.

Thus, the data - information - knowledge continuum provides the foundation for the conceptual framework. Guiding principles for developing decision making capabilities Provide an enterprise-class data infrastructure
Institutions need to understand and prioritize the demands made by all of their constituents.

Design a comprehensive and scalable solution


This depends on the budget and resources available

Utilize familiar tools


institutions should design a data warehouse solution that is easy to maintain.

Create true closed-loop analysis capabilities


Closed-loop analysis is a process intended to set improvement goals, monitor progress, assess impact and realign objectives as required.

Design a maintainable and sustainable solution


Decision making information requirements will evolve over time as users become accustomed to making use of information to improve administrative performance.

Program lifecycle management


Assess current capabilities and define operational needs: during this stage the information requirements of each constituent are determined and prioritized Design data and system architecture: the data system (hardware, software and networking) and security components are architected and the total solution is designed Develop solution: during this stage the individual components are developed, configured and tested Implement solution : during this stage the system is taken live. Evolve: ongoing maintenance and support begins, feedbacks from constituents are captured and retained, and lessons learned are incorporated

Major challenges for improving decision making capabilities The structure of decision making lack of clarity of existing laws (due to unfinished legislation, unclear legal frameworks, and the failure to implement any legal framework) on roles and functions within and among organizations resource availability Lack of proper information communication among various stakeholders Lack of building trust among various stakeholders Lack of access to and clarity of data/information The culture of decision-making
formal and informal rules

The political situation Data fragmentation and disorganization Problem of in-depth and critical analysis of the existing data

The End! Thank you!