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THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS

INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
Refers to the conditions that exist within the body of an organism

INTERSTITIAL FLUIDS
Fluids that fill the spaces between the cells and constantly bathes the cells

The necessity for maintaining an optimal internal environment


In order for cells of the body to function optimally, physical factors and chemical factors within the internal environment must be maintained at a relatively constant level regardless of the conditions outside the cells

Physical factors
Temperature Blood pressure Osmotic pressure

Chemical factors
Salt content Sugar content pH

HOMEOSTASIS
A mechanism which regulates the physical and chemical factors in the internal environment so that cells can function efficiently

Through homeostasis, the physical factors and chemical factors of the internal environment are kept in a steady state with minimal flunctuations

When the value of a PF or CF increases, the homeostatic mechanism will be triggered to reduce that value to the normal level.

When the value of PF or CF decreases, the homeostatic mechanism will be triggered to raise it back to normal

The PF and the CF of the internal environment are constantly changing because of the fluctuations and changes in the external environment and also in the bodys metabolism

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISM


The mechanism which governs homeostasis Example: the control of body temperature at 37 degree celcius

POSITIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISM


The stimulus triggers a response that intensifies the initial changes instead of reversing it to the original state

In plants, the need for a regulatory system is lesser because:


Most plant cells are dead at maturity no chemical rXn Plant cells do not lyse in hypotonic environment hv cell walls Water movement is aided by natural factors such as transpirational pull

IMPORTANCE
To control the internal environment to oppose the effects of changes in the external environment on them Enable organisms to live in a wider range of habitats Metabolic activities & physiological processes can still continue even though the external environment fluctuates substantially

Organisms can control the metabolic rate according to their needs because any fluctuations can be corrected through the homeostatic control system A regulated and controlled internal environment ensures a more efficient and optimal metabolism in the cell A stable IE allows enzymes to function at an optimal rate

Various systems in the body function & interact with one another to maintain a stable internal environment

PF / CF BODY TEMPERATURE

Systems involved Integumentary system Nervous system Circulatory system Muscular system Endocrine system

Types of regulations Regulate heat loss &heat gain to maintain a stable body temperature at 37

OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL

- Respiratory system - Circulatory system - Nervous system - Endocrine - Circulatory - digestive Nervous Endocrine Excretory circulatory

Regulates the concentrations of oxygen and CO2 Regulate blood glucose lvl at a set point of 90mg per 100 ml of blood Regulate the amount of water and dissolved substances (mineral 7.4 Regulate conc of ions H, OH, HCO

BLOOD OSMOTICE PRESSURE

pH

- Resp - Circ - excret